Unstable Systems (unstable + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Draw ratio enhancement in nonisothermal melt spinning

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Balram Suman
Abstract Nonisothermal melt spinning of materials having a step-like viscosity variation with temperature is studied in this work. A set of nonlinear equations is used to describe the fiber behavior and to obtain the draw ratio, the square of the ratio of the fiber diameter at the entrance to that at the exit of the fiber-spinning device. The fluid-flow equation is based on a slender-jet approximation, and external heating and cooling have been accounted for with a one-dimensional model in order to obtain the fiber temperature and viscosity along the fiber length. The model is similar to that used by Wylie et al. (J Fluid Mech. 2007;570:1,16) but accounts for inertia, shear stress at the fiber surface, surface tension, gravity, cooling, and larger heating rates. Steady-state analysis reveals that the draw ratio increases with an increase in the pulling force, passes through a maximum, and then starts increasing again, resulting in three possible pulling forces for the same draw ratio. However, linear stability analysis reveals that depending on the strength of heating and/or cooling, at most two of the steady states are stable. The stability analysis also predicts complicated oscillatory and nonoscillatory dynamical behavior as the pulling force varies. Nonlinear simulations reveal that an unstable system always tends to limit-cycle behavior. Systems predicted as stable by the linear stability analysis are also stable for large-amplitude perturbations. External heating is found to dramatically enhance the draw ratio of the melt-spinning process. The addition of a cooling section suppresses the draw ratio, but this can be compensated for with a higher heating strength. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Multi-loop control synthesis for unstable systems and its application: An approach based on interaction measure

Adarsha Swarnakar
Abstract This paper presents a new practical framework for multi-loop controller design in which controllers are designed independently, i.e. a controller in one loop is designed without exploiting information of other controllers. The method is based on the (block) diagonal approximation of a system that is different from its (block) diagonal elements. The focus of this work is on unstable systems and the approximated systems are obtained by minimizing an upper bound of a scaled ,, norm for the error systems. This extends the applicability of conventional -interaction measure to a more general scenario. The proposed approach is applied to a numerical example and to a simulated industrial boiler system. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Critical Evaluation of How the Rosgen Classification and Associated "Natural Channel Design" Methods Fail to Integrate and Quantify Fluvial Processes and Channel Response,

A. Simon
Abstract:, Over the past 10 years the Rosgen classification system and its associated methods of "natural channel design" have become synonymous to some with the term "stream restoration" and the science of fluvial geomorphology. Since the mid 1990s, this classification approach has become widely adopted by governmental agencies, particularly those funding restoration projects. The purposes of this article are to present a critical review, highlight inconsistencies and identify technical problems of Rosgen's "natural channel design" approach to stream restoration. This paper's primary thesis is that alluvial streams are open systems that adjust to altered inputs of energy and materials, and that a form-based system largely ignores this critical component. Problems with the use of the classification are encountered with identifying bankfull dimensions, particularly in incising channels and with the mixing of bed and bank sediment into a single population. Its use for engineering design and restoration may be flawed by ignoring some processes governed by force and resistance, and the imbalance between sediment supply and transporting power in unstable systems. An example of how C5 channels composed of different bank sediments adjust differently and to different equilibrium morphologies in response to an identical disturbance is shown. This contradicts the fundamental underpinning of "natural channel design" and the "reference-reach approach." The Rosgen classification is probably best applied as a communication tool to describe channel form but, in combination with "natural channel design" techniques, are not diagnostic of how to mitigate channel instability or predict equilibrium morphologies. For this, physically based, mechanistic approaches that rely on quantifying the driving and resisting forces that control active processes and ultimate channel morphology are better suited as the physics of erosion, transport, and deposition are the same regardless of the hydro-physiographic province or stream type because of the uniformity of physical laws. [source]

Amphiphilic polyelectrolyte for stabilization of multiple emulsions,

Fanny Michaut
Abstract Multiple emulsions are complex thermodynamically unstable systems where both types of emulsion coexist. We investigated the stability behaviour of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions formulated with a hydrophobically modified poly(sodium acrylate) emulsifier at the outer interface and a monomeric surfactant (span 80) at the inner interface. Their stability was tested through release kinetics of a marker (NaCl) initially encapsulated in the aqueous droplets, and by rheology. Slow release rates and remarkably long shelf-life were obtained compared to typical multiple emulsions stabilized by two commonly used surfactants (span 80 and tween 20). In addition, we prepared stable highly concentrated multiple emulsions. Their rheological behaviour indicated that the internal interface was essentially covered with span 80. Thus, transportation of the polymer across the oil phase is limited, which in turn explains, at least partially, the stability improvement in the presence of the polymeric emulsifier. Finally, the long lifetime of the emulsions allowed study by diffusing wave spectroscopy of the interactions between the droplets and the globule surface which are important for understanding the destruction mechanisms of multiple emulsions. 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

A novel approach for root distribution analysis of linear time-invariant systems using Routh and Fuller tables

S. N. Sivanandam
Abstract The root distribution of a given characteristic equation of a linear time-invariant system can be analyzed with the help of a Routh table using the elements of the first column in the table. In the case of unstable systems, sometimes, a zero element may appear in the third row of the first column of the Routh array. This prematurity can be suitably handled as indicated by various authors. In this paper, the given characteristic polynomial having roots in the right hand plane is multiplied by a suitable polynomial, and Routh and Fuller tables are applied for the resultant polynomial to infer the complete root distribution. Further, the column polynomials from each table are adopted to know more about root distribution, which forms the core of the proposed work. The Routh table helps in counting and locating roots in the s -plane, and the Fuller table helps in depicting whether the roots are distinct or complex in nature. In this regard, it is shown in this paper that the simultaneous integration of Routh and Fuller tables yields a good amount of information regarding the root distribution in the s -plane. The newly presented procedure is illustrated with examples. Copyright 2009 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society [source]

Stochastic Model Reduction by Maximizing Independence

Hui Zhang
By analysing information descriptions in state space models of linear stochastic systems, this paper proposes two model reduction methods via principles of maximizing independence and conditional independence among the reduced state vector, respectively. These methods are based on state aggregation. The independence and conditional independence are measured by the Kullback-Leibler information distance. It is demonstrated that the maximum conditional independence method is not only applicable to stable systems, but also applicable to unstable systems. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the present methods. [source]