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## Unsaturated Flow (unsaturated + flow)
## Selected Abstracts## Numerical Modeling of Unsaturated Flow in Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems GROUND WATER MONITORING & REMEDIATION, Issue 2 2003Deborah N. Huntzinger BeachIt is common practice in the United States to use wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS) to treat domestic wastewater. WSAS are expected to provide efficient, long-term removal of wastewater contaminants prior to ground water recharge. Soil clogging at the infiltrative surface of WSAS occurs due to the accumulation of suspended solids, organic matter, and chemical precipitates during continued wastewater infiltration. This clogging zone (CZ) creates an impedance to flow, restricting the hydraulic conductivity and rate of infiltration. A certain degree of clogging may improve the treatment of wastewater by enhancing purification processes, in part because unsaturated flow is induced and residence times are significantly increased. However, if clogging becomes excessive, the wastewater pond height at the infiltrative surface can rise to a level where system failure occurs. The numerical model HYDRUS-2D is used to simulate unsaturated flow within WSAS to better understand the effect of CZs on unsaturated flow behavior and hydraulic retention times in sandy and silty soil. The simulations indicate that sand-based WSAS with mature CZs are characterized by a more widely distributed flow regime and longer hydraulic retention times. The impact of clogging on water flow within the silt is not as substantial. For sand, increasing the hydraulic resistance of the CZ by a factor of three to four requires an increase in the pond height by as much as a factor of five to achieve the same wastewater loading. Because the degree of CZ resistance directly influences the pond height within a system, understanding the influence of the CZ on flow regimes in WSAS is critical in optimizing system design to achieve the desired pollutant-treatment efficiency and to prolong system life. [source] ## Seepage Face Height, Water Table Position, and Well Efficiency at Steady State GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2007Djaouida ChenafWhen a fully penetrating well pumps an ideal unconfined aquifer at steady state, the water table usually does not join the water level in the well. There is a seepage face inside the well, which is a key element in evaluating the well performance. This problem is analyzed using the finite-element method, solving the complete equations for saturated and unsaturated flow. The seepage face position is found to be almost independent of the unsaturated zone properties. The numerical results are used to test the validity of several analytic approximations. Equations are proposed to predict the seepage face position at the pumping well for any well drawdown, and the water table position at any distance from the pumping well for any in-well drawdown. Practical hints are provided for installing monitoring wells and evaluating well efficiency. [source] ## Travel Time to a Well Pumping an Unconfined Aquifer without Recharge GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2006Robert P. ChapuisA solution is given for the travel time to a well pumping an ideal, horizontal unconfined aquifer, under steady-state conditions, when recharge from infiltration is negligible. Three forms of the solution are provided: a closed-form solution, an integral to be calculated in a worksheet, and a simple equation. The three forms of the solution give travel times nearly identical to those obtained using a finite-element code for saturated and unsaturated flow and particle tracking. [source] ## Numerical Modeling of Unsaturated Flow in Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems GROUND WATER MONITORING & REMEDIATION, Issue 2 2003Deborah N. Huntzinger BeachIt is common practice in the United States to use wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS) to treat domestic wastewater. WSAS are expected to provide efficient, long-term removal of wastewater contaminants prior to ground water recharge. Soil clogging at the infiltrative surface of WSAS occurs due to the accumulation of suspended solids, organic matter, and chemical precipitates during continued wastewater infiltration. This clogging zone (CZ) creates an impedance to flow, restricting the hydraulic conductivity and rate of infiltration. A certain degree of clogging may improve the treatment of wastewater by enhancing purification processes, in part because unsaturated flow is induced and residence times are significantly increased. However, if clogging becomes excessive, the wastewater pond height at the infiltrative surface can rise to a level where system failure occurs. The numerical model HYDRUS-2D is used to simulate unsaturated flow within WSAS to better understand the effect of CZs on unsaturated flow behavior and hydraulic retention times in sandy and silty soil. The simulations indicate that sand-based WSAS with mature CZs are characterized by a more widely distributed flow regime and longer hydraulic retention times. The impact of clogging on water flow within the silt is not as substantial. For sand, increasing the hydraulic resistance of the CZ by a factor of three to four requires an increase in the pond height by as much as a factor of five to achieve the same wastewater loading. Because the degree of CZ resistance directly influences the pond height within a system, understanding the influence of the CZ on flow regimes in WSAS is critical in optimizing system design to achieve the desired pollutant-treatment efficiency and to prolong system life. [source] ## A new saturated/unsaturated model for stormwater infiltration systems HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 25 2008Dale BrowneAbstract Infiltration systems are widely used as an effective urban stormwater control measure. Most design methods and models roughly approximate the complex physical flow processes in these systems using empirical equations and fixed infiltration rates to calculate emptying times from full. Sophisticated variably saturated flow models are available, but rarely applied owing to their complexity. This paper describes the development and testing of an integrated one-dimensional model of flow through the porous storage of a typical infiltration system and surrounding soils. The model accounts for the depth in the storage, surrounding soil moisture conditions and the interaction between the storage and surrounding soil. It is a front-tracking model that innovatively combines a soil-moisture-based solution of Richard's equation for unsaturated flow with piston flow through a saturated zone as well as a reservoir equation for flow through a porous storage. This allows the use of a simple non-iterative numerical solution that can handle ponded infiltration into dry soils. The model is more rigorous than approximate stormwater infiltration system models and could therefore be valuable in everyday practice. A range of test cases commonly used to test soil water flow models for infiltration in unsaturated conditions, drainage from saturation and infiltration under ponded conditions were used to test the model along with an experiment with variable depth in a porous storage over saturated conditions. Results show that the model produces a good fit to the observed data, analytical solutions and Hydrus. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Steady infiltration from buried point source into heterogeneous cross-anisotropic unsaturated soil INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 10 2004G. J. ChenAbstract The paper presents the analytical solution for the steady-state infiltration from a buried point source into two types of heterogeneous cross-anisotropic unsaturated half-spaces. In the first case, the heterogeneity of the soil is modelled by an exponential relationship between the hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth. In the second case, the heterogeneous soil is represented by a multilayered half-space where each layer is homogeneous. The hydraulic conductivity varies exponentially with moisture potential and this leads to the linearization of the Richards equation governing unsaturated flow. The analytical solution is obtained by using the Hankel integral transform. For the multilayered case, the combination of a special forward and backward transfer matrix techniques makes the numerical evaluation of the solution very accurate and efficient. The correctness of both formulations is validated by comparison with alternative solutions for two different cases. The results from typical cases are presented to illustrate the influence on the flow field of the cross-anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, the soil heterogeneity and the depth of the source. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Solution of the unsaturated soil moisture equation using repeated transforms INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 15 2001S. G. FityusAbstract An alternative method of solution for the linearized ,theta-based' form of the Richards equation of unsaturated flow is developed in two spatial dimensions. The Laplace and Fourier transformations are employed to reduce the Richards equation to an ordinary differential equation in terms of a transformed moisture content and the transform variables, s and ,. Separate analytic solutions to the transformed equation are developed for initial states which are either in equilibrium or dis-equilibrium. The solutions are assembled into a finite layer formulation satisfying continuity of soil suction, thereby facilitating the analysis of horizontally stratified soil profiles. Solution techniques are outlined for various boundary conditions including prescribed constant moisture content, prescribed constant flux and flux as a function of moisture change. Example solutions are compared with linearized finite element solutions. The agreement is found to be good. An adaptation of the method for treating the quasilinearized Richards equation with variable diffusivity is also described. Comparisons of quasilinear solutions with some earlier semi-analytical, finite element and finite difference results are also favourable. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Numerical simulation of one-dimensional flows through porous media with shock waves INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2001Maria Laura Martins-CostaAbstract This work studies an unsaturated flow of a Newtonian fluid through a rigid porous matrix, using a mixture theory approach in its modelling. The mixture consists of three overlapping continuous constituents: a solid (porous medium), a liquid (Newtonian fluid) and an inert gas (to account for the mixture compressibility). A set of two nonlinear partial differential equations describes the problem, which is approximated by means of a Glimm's scheme, combined with an operator splitting technique. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Fast liquid composite molding simulation of unsaturated flow in dual-scale fiber mats using the imbibition characteristics of a fabric-based unit cell POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 10 2010Hua TanThe use of the dual-scale fiber mats in liquid composite molding (LCM) process for making composites parts gives rise to the unsaturated flow during the mold-filling process. The usual approaches for modeling such flows involve using a sink term in the mass balance equation along with the Darcy's law. Sink functions involving complex microflows inside tows with realistic tow geometries have not been attempted in the past because of the problem of high computational costs arising from the coupling of the macroscopic gap flows with the microscopic tow flows. In this study, a new "lumped" sink function is proposed for the isothermal flow simulation, which is a function of the gap pressure, capillary pressure, and tow saturation, and which is estimated without solving for the microscopic tow simulations at each node of the FE mesh in the finite element/control volume algorithm. The sink function is calibrated with the help of the tow microflow simulation in a stand-alone unit cell of the dual-scale fiber mat. This new approach, which does not use any fitting parameters, achieved a good validation against a previous published result on the 1D unsaturated flow in a biaxial stitched mat,satisfactory comparisons of the inlet-pressure history as well as the saturation distributions were achieved. Finally, the unsaturated flow is studied in a car hood-type LCM mold geometry using the code PORE-FLOW© based on the proposed algorithm. POLYM. COMPOS., 31:1790,1807, 2010. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source] ## Investigation of unsaturated flow in woven, braided and stitched fiber mats during mold-filling in resin transfer molding POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 4 2001J. SladeIn Resin Transfer Molding (RPM), which is a process to manufacture polymer composites, the impregnation of fibrous reinforcement In the form of mats by a thermosetting resin is modeled as the flow of a Newtonian liquid through a single length-scale porous medium. While this approach is sufficiently accurate for random fiber-mats, it can lead to appreciable errors when applied to woven, braided, or stitched fiber-mats that contain two length scales. This work investigates the primary factors governing the isothermal unsaturated flow through such dual-scale porous media. Two studies were conducted to better understand this phenomenon: the first experimenatally investigated the flow, while the second theoretically modeled the flow and identified important parameters affecting such a flow with the help of dimensionless analysis. In the first study, one-dimensional constant injection rate experiments were performed using various fiber mats. The unsaturated flow behavior of various mats was characterized using a constant "sink" term in the continuity equation. Results indicated that for a given fiber-mat, the magnitude of the sink effect was a function of the capillary number. In the second study, a numerical model was developed to describe flow through dual-scale preforms in which the two flow domains, the inter- and intra-tow regions, were coupled. We identified a dimensionless number called the sink effect index , that characterizes the magnitude of liquid absorption by the tows and is a function of the relative resistance to flow in the tow and inter-tow regions, and the packing density of the tows. The parametric study of this index with the help of numerical simulations reveals its influence on the flow and identifies the distinct transient and steady-state flow regimes. [source] |