Unsaturated Fats (unsaturated + fat)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition and thermal behaviour of fats from seeds of Brazilian Amazonian Theobroma species

M Victoria Gilabert-Escrivá
Abstract Raw materials for cocoa butter substitutes, replacements or equivalents depend mostly on the unsteady supply from wild stands of plants, while there is no current supply of Neotropical origin. Seed fats from Theobroma species (T cacao, T bicolor, T grandiflorum, T obovatum, T subincanum, T speciosum, T sylvestre and T microcarpum, plus the closely related species Herrania mariae) were analysed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition by gas and liquid chromatography respectively, for iodine value, for melting point by open capillary tube and for solid fat content (SFC) by nuclear magnetic resonance. All Theobroma species had significantly lower palmitate levels than T cacao, except for T sylvestre and T speciosum, T microcarpum presented highly unsaturated fat (C18:2), while H mariae had high levels of arachidate. Fats from T sylvestre and T speciosum had a similar iodine value to T cacao and a higher melting point. No fat from the other species presented a similar melting profile to cocoa butter. T sylvestre and T bicolor were the most similar to T cacao but had a higher SFC at human body temperature. T sylvestre and T speciosum seed fats had more POP than cocoa butter. Fats from seeds of T speciosum, T sylvestre and T bicolor could be recommended as cocoa butter substitutes, while fats from species of the section Glossopetalum could be employed in products requiring fats with a lower melting point. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Commercial Runner peanut cultivars in the USA: Fatty acid composition

Eui-Cheol Shin
Abstract Though peanuts are classified as a high-fat food, they possess good proportions of fatty acids deemed as heart healthy. The fatty acid compositions of Runner peanuts were determined for commercially grown cultivars over two recent crop years. GC-FID analyses revealed that the fatty acid levels for Runner peanuts were significantly (p,<0.05) different among the normal, mid-, and high-oleic peanuts investigated. Oleic acid-to-linoleic acid (O/L) ratios were found to be 1.93,±,0.30, 5.25,±,1.12, and 16.9,±,5.20 for normal, mid-, and high-oleic peanut lipids, respectively. Tamrun OL01 possessed a fatty acid profile characteristic of a mid-oleic cultivar. From the sample set (n,=,151), mean %,weights for oleic acid and linoleic acid were 52.09,±,2.84 and 27.38,±,2.60 in normal, 69.33,±,3.18 and 13.66,±,2.35 in mid-oleic, and 78.45,±,2.05 and 5.11,±,1.67 in high-oleic peanuts, respectively. Cluster analysis segregated cultivars based on fatty acids into normal, mid-, and high-oleic groups. Factorial analysis revealed that cultivar effects were significant (p,<0.01) for all fatty acids, except for lignoceric acid. Cultivar effects were also highly significant (p,<0.001) for O/L, IV, unsaturated/saturated fatty acid (U/S) ratio, and %,saturation. Significant crop year effects were shown for palmitic, oleic, arachidic, gondoic, and lignoceric acids, as well as U/S ratio and %,saturation. Healthy unsaturated fats accounted for ,80% in all crop years and cultivars. [source]

Flaxseed in Breadmaking: Effects on Sensory Quality, Aging, and Composition of Bakery Products

Terhi A. Pohjanheimo
ABSTRACT:, This paper describes the effect of flaxseed on two bread formulations. The quality of bread rolls,containing flaxseed,and the quality of cinnamon rolls,containing flaxseed and flaxseed oil,is determined by sensory evaluation (texture, odor, and flavor), instrumental texture measurement and chemical analysis (fatty acids, fiber, secoisolarisiresinol diglycoside, and cadmium). Bread aging is monitored by measuring sensory attributes during storage. The results indicate that the flaxseed rolls retain moisture and softness more efficiently than the control rolls that do not contain flaxseed. No off-odors were detected during the storage period from 0 to 6 d at room temperature (+22 °C), although flaxseed rolls and cinnamon rolls were discovered to be high in unsaturated fats. The major fatty acid in both bakery samples that contained flaxseed was ,-linolenic acid. The flaxseed rolls were also high in fiber. Therefore, from a nutritional viewpoint flaxseed shows beneficial properties in breadmaking. It has a positive impact on the texture parameters during storage as well as on the nutritional composition, for example, the content of fiber and unsaturated fats. [source]

Dietetic guidelines on food and nutrition in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease , evidence from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (second update, January 2006)

A. Mead
Abstract Aim, To update dietetic guidelines based on systematic review evidence on dietary advice to prevent further events in people with existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) (secondary prevention). Methods, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE were comprehensively searched to January 2005 for systematic reviews on aspects of diet and heart health. Reviews were included if they searched systematically for randomized controlled trials relating to diet and secondary prevention of CVD. Each review was critically appraised by at least two members of the UK Heart Health and Thoracic Dietitians Group. The quality and results of each review were discussed and summarized at a group meeting. Results, Evidence-based strategies that reduce cardiovascular events in those with CVD include reduction in saturated fat and substitution with unsaturated fats. Individuals who have suffered a myocardial infarction may also benefit from adopting a Mediterranean type diet and increasing intake of omega 3 fats, but it is not clear whether they are beneficial for all patients with CVD. There is no systematic review evidence to support the use of antioxidant vitamins supplements, low glycaemic index diets, or homocysteine lowering therapies in this group. Conclusion, There remains good evidence that reducing saturated fat reduces morbidity in patients with CVD. This advice is consistent for most manifestations of CVD, with the addition of Mediterranean dietary advice and increased omega 3 fats for those who have had a myocardial infarction. [source]