Unknown Role (unknown + role)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Autophagic pathways and metabolic stress

S. Kaushik
Autophagy is an essential intracellular process that mediates degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Autophagy was initially identified for its role as alternative source of energy when nutrients are scarce but, in recent years, a previously unknown role for this degradative pathway in the cellular response to stress has gained considerable attention. In this review, we focus on the novel findings linking autophagic function with metabolic stress resulting either from proteins or lipids. Proper autophagic activity is required in the cellular defense against proteotoxicity arising in the cytosol and also in the endoplasmic reticulum, where a vast amount of proteins are synthesized and folded. In addition, autophagy contributes to mobilization of intracellular lipid stores and may be central to lipid metabolism in certain cellular conditions. In this review, we focus on the interrelation between autophagy and different types of metabolic stress, specifically the stress resulting from the presence of misbehaving proteins within the cytosol or in the endoplasmic reticulum and the stress following a lipogenic challenge. We also comment on the consequences that chronic exposure to these metabolic stressors could have on autophagic function and on how this effect may underlie the basis of some common metabolic disorders. [source]

The pivotal role of the alternative NF-,B pathway in maintenance of basal bone homeostasis and osteoclastogenesis,

Niroshani S Soysa
Abstract The alternative NF-,B pathway consists predominantly of NF-,B-inducing kinase (NIK), I,B kinase , (IKK,), p100/p52, and RelB. The hallmark of the alternative NF-,B signaling is the processing of p100 into p52 through NIK, thus allowing the binding of p52 and RelB. The physiologic relevance of alternative NF-,B activation in bone biology, however, is not well understood. To elucidate the role of the alternative pathway in bone homeostasis, we first analyzed alymphoplasic (aly/aly) mice, which have a defective NIK and are unable to process p100, resulting in the absence of p52. We observed increased bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume, indicating an osteopetrotic phenotype. These mice also have a significant defect in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. NF-,B DNA-binding assays revealed reduced activity of RelA, RelB, and p50 and no binding activity of p52 in aly/aly osteoclast nuclear extracts after RANKL stimulation. To determine the role of p100 itself without the influence of a concomitant lack of p52, we used p100,/, mice, which specifically lack the p100 inhibitor but still express p52. p100,/, mice have an osteopenic phenotype owing to the increased osteoclast and decreased osteoblast numbers that was rescued by the deletion of one allele of the relB gene. Deletion of both allele of relB resulted in a significantly increased bone mass owing to decreased osteoclast activity and increased osteoblast numbers compared with wild-type (WT) controls, revealing a hitherto unknown role for RelB in bone formation. Our data suggest a pivotal role of the alternative NF-,B pathway, especially of the inhibitory role of p100, in both basal and stimulated osteoclastogenesis and the importance of RelB in both bone formation and resorption. 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

ATR and ATM play both distinct and additive roles in response to ionizing radiation

Kevin M. Culligan
Summary The ATR and ATM protein kinases are known to be involved in a wide variety of responses to DNA damage. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome includes both ATR and ATM orthologs, and plants with null alleles of these genes are viable. Arabidopsis atr and atm mutants display hypersensitivity to , -irradiation. To further characterize the roles of ATM and ATR in response to ionizing radiation, we performed a short-term global transcription analysis in wild-type and mutant lines. We found that hundreds of genes are upregulated in response to , -irradiation, and that the induction of virtually all of these genes is dependent on ATM, but not ATR. The transcript of CYCB1;1 is unique among the cyclin transcripts in being rapidly and powerfully upregulated in response to ionizing radiation, while other G2 -associated transcripts are suppressed. We found that both ATM and ATR contribute to the induction of a CYCB1;1:GUS fusion by IR, but only ATR is required for the persistence of this response. We propose that this upregulation of CYCB1;1 does not reflect the accumulation of cells in G2, but instead reflects a still unknown role for this cyclin in DNA damage response. [source]

Metagenomic studies reveal the critical and wide-ranging ecological importance of uncultivated archaea: the role of ammonia oxidizers

BIOESSAYS, Issue 1 2007
Ricardo Cavicchioli
Microbial genome sequencing has entered a new phase, where DNA sequence information is gathered from entire microbial communities (metagenomics or environmental genomics) rather than from individual microorganisms. By providing access to the genetic material of vast numbers of organisms, most of which are organisms that have never been isolated or cultivated, a new level of insight is being gained into the diversity and extent of the microbial processes that are presently occuring in environmental communities. By extending metagenomic-based approaches to the study of very complex and methodologically recalcitrant soil environments, a recent study has found that ammonia-oxidizing archaea are more abundant in many soils than bacteria.1 These findings not only highlight the undoubtedly critical yet unknown roles that archaea play in global nutrient cycles but illustrate the importance of genomic studies for informing us about the functional capacity of life on Earth. BioEssays 29: 11,14, 2007. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]