Unknown Proteins (unknown + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to cell-surface F1 -ATP synthase

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2010
Luigi Notari
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent blocker of angiogenesis in vivo, and of endothelial cell migration and tubule formation, binds with high affinity to an as yet unknown protein on the surfaces of endothelial cells. Given that protein fingerprinting suggested a match of a , 60 kDa PEDF-binding protein in bovine retina with Bos taurus F1 -ATP synthase ,-subunit, and that F1Fo -ATP synthase components have been identified recently as cell-surface receptors, we examined the direct binding of PEDF to F1. Size-exclusion ultrafiltration assays showed that recombinant human PEDF formed a complex with recombinant yeast F1. Real-time binding as determined by surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that yeast F1 interacted specifically and reversibly with human PEDF. Kinetic evaluations revealed high binding affinity for PEDF, in agreement with PEDF affinities for endothelial cell surfaces. PEDF blocked interactions between F1 and angiostatin, another antiangiogenic factor, suggesting overlapping PEDF-binding and angiostatin-binding sites on F1. Surfaces of endothelial cells exhibited affinity for PEDF-binding proteins of , 60 kDa. Antibodies to F1,-subunit specifically captured PEDF-binding components in endothelial plasma membranes. The extracellular ATP synthesis activity of endothelial cells was examined in the presence of PEDF. PEDF significantly reduced the amount of extracellular ATP produced by endothelial cells, in agreement with direct interactions between cell-surface ATP synthase and PEDF. In addition to demonstrating that PEDF binds to cell-surface F1, these results show that PEDF is a ligand for endothelial cell-surface F1Fo -ATP synthase. They suggest that PEDF-mediated inhibition of ATP synthase may form part of the biochemical mechanisms by which PEDF exerts its antiangiogenic activity. Structured digital abstract ,,MINT-7711286: angiostatin (uniprotkb:P00747) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165) and F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306) by competition binding (MI:0405) ,,MINT-7711113: angiostatin (uniprotkb:P00747) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit(uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) ,,MINT-7711060: F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830), F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) and PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955) physically interact (MI:0915) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) ,,MINT-7711313: F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955), F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase gamma subunit(uniprotkb:P38077) physically interact (MI:0915) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) ,,MINT-7711083: PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) [source]

Galectin 3-binding protein is a potential contaminant of recombinantly produced factor IX

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2007
Summary., Haemophilia B, or factor IX (FIX) deficiency, represents 15% of the hereditary haemophilias. The serious morbidity from the transmission of infectious agents in plasma-derived material has mandated a need for the production of recombinant product. The rate-limiting step for the production of recombinant FIX is ,-carboxylation, a post-translational modification carried out only in mammalian cells. To test the carboxylation efficiency of recombinantly produced FIX in vitro and to improve the isolation of the pure active product, we produced FIX in a transfected human cell line (293 human embryonic kidney cells) and isolated material by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Unexpectedly, during hydroxyapatite chromatography, we discovered that purified FIX was contaminated by a heretofore unknown protein. Further analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) sequencing revealed this protein to be galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP). The above results raise an important note of caution regarding the production of recombinant FIX and, indeed, other proteins produced recombinantly in mammalian cells. [source]

Soy-Derived Immunoglobulin Production Stimulating Factor Enhances IgM Production of Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes

N. Maeda
ABSTRACT:, We have reported previously that some proteins such as lactoferrin and lysozyme control the immune system via immunoglobulin (Ig) production. In the course of the study about the function of dietary proteins and peptides, Ig production-stimulating activity of an unknown protein contained in soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) preparation was found. Thus, we examined the activity of the unknown activator and the mechanism of the activity. The factor significantly elevated IgM production by mouse spleen lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the unknown activator up-regulated the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 mRNA. And IgM production enhancing activity of STI was significantly suppressed by neutralization of IL-6. Then, to clarify whether STI itself is the active compound or not, STI was fractionized by gel filtration chromatography. We found that the activity the content of STI did not correlate with and the active fractions contained some proteins whose molecular weight is more than 20 kDa. These suggest that an unknown activator exists in STI preparation. [source]

Immobilized trypsin systems coupled on-line to separation methods: Recent developments and analytical applications

Gabriella Massolini
Abstract The ability to rapidly and efficiently digest and identify an unknown protein is of great utility for proteome studies. Identification of proteins via peptide mapping is generally accomplished through proteolytic digestion with enzymes such as trypsin. Limitations of this approach consist in manual sample manipulation steps and extended reaction times for proteolytic digestion. The use of immobilized trypsin for cleavage of proteins is advantageous in comparison with application of its soluble form. Enzymes can be immobilized on different supports and used in flow systems such as immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs). This review reports applications of immobilized trypsin reactors in which the IMER has been integrated into separation systems such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis, prior to MS analysis. Immobilization procedures including supports, mode of integration into separation systems, and methods are described. [source]

Integron-associated gene cassettes in Halifax Harbour: assessment of a mobile gene pool in marine sediments

J. E. Koenig
Summary The integron/gene cassette systems identified in bacteria comprise a class of genetic elements that allow adaptation by acquisition of gene cassettes. Integron gene cassettes have been shown to facilitate the spread of drug resistance in human pathogens but their role outside a clinical setting has not been explored extensively. We sequenced 2145 integron gene cassettes from four marine sediment samples taken from the vicinity of Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada, increasing the number of gene cassettes obtained from environmental microbial communities by 10-fold. Sequence analyses reveals that the majority of these cassettes encode novel proteins and that this study is consistent with previous claims of high cassette diversity as we estimate a Chao1 diversity index of ,3000 cassettes from these samples. The functional distribution of environmental cassettes recovered in this study, when compared with that of cassettes from the only other source with significant sampling (Vibrio genomes) suggests that alternate selection regimes might be acting on these two gene pools. The majority of cassettes recovered in this study encode novel, unknown proteins. In instances where we obtained multiple alleles of a novel protein we demonstrate that non-synonymous versus synonymous substitution rates ratios suggest relaxed selection. Cassette-encoded proteins with known homologues represent a variety of functions and prevalent among these are isochorismatases; proteins involved in iron scavenging. Phylogenetic analysis of these isochorismatases as well as of cassette-encoded acetyltransferases reveals a patchy distribution, suggesting multiple sources for the origin of these cassettes. Finally, the two most environmentally similar sample sites considered in this study display the greatest overlap of cassette types, consistent with the hypothesis that cassette genes encode adaptive proteins. [source]

The optimization of protein secondary structure determination with infrared and circular dichroism spectra

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2004
Keith A. Oberg
We have used the circular dichroism and infrared spectra of a specially designed 50 protein database [Oberg, K.A., Ruysschaert, J.M. & Goormaghtigh, E. (2003) Protein Sci. 12, 2015,2031] in order to optimize the accuracy of spectroscopic protein secondary structure determination using multivariate statistical analysis methods. The results demonstrate that when the proteins are carefully selected for the diversity in their structure, no smaller subset of the database contains the necessary information to describe the entire set. One conclusion of the paper is therefore that large protein databases, observing stringent selection criteria, are necessary for the prediction of unknown proteins. A second important conclusion is that only the comparison of analyses run on circular dichroism and infrared spectra independently is able to identify failed solutions in the absence of known structure. Interestingly, it was also found in the course of this study that the amide II band has high information content and could be used alone for secondary structure prediction in place of amide I. [source]

Stage-specific gene expression in early differentiating oligodendrocytes

GLIA, Issue 2 2002
Francesca Blasi
Abstract The screening of a differential library from precursor and differentiated oligodendrocytes, obtained through the representational difference analysis (RDA) technique, has generated a number of cDNA recombinants corresponding to mRNA coding for known and unknown proteins: (1) mRNA coding for proteins involved in protein synthesis, (2) mRNA coding for proteins involved in the organization of the cytoskeleton, and (3) mRNA coding for proteins of unknown function. The expression profile of the mRNA was studied by Northern blot hybridization to the poly-A+ mRNA from primary rat progenitor and differentiated oligodendrocytes. In most cases, hybridization to the precursor was higher than hybridization to the differentiated mRNA, supporting the validity of the differential screening. Hybridization of the cDNA to rat cerebral hemisphere and brain stem poly-A+ mRNA, isolated from 1- to 90-day-old rats, confirms the results obtained with the mRNA from differentiating oligodendrocytes. The intensity of the hybridization bands decreases as differentiation proceeds. The pattern of expression observed in oligodendrocytes is different from that found in the brain only in the case of the nexin-1 mRNA, the level of which remains essentially constant throughout differentiation both in the brain stem and in the cerebral hemispheres, in agreement with the published data. In contrast, the intensity of hybridization to the oligodendrocyte mRNA is dramatically lower in the differentiated cells compared with the progenitor oligodendrocyte cells. Some of the recombinant cDNA represent mRNA sequences present at high frequency distribution in the cells, while others belong to the rare sequences group. Six recombinants code for proteins of the ribosomal family, suggesting that of approximately 70 known ribosomal proteins, only a few are upregulated during oligodendrocyte differentiation. The third category of open reading frame (ORF) is represented by rare messengers coding for proteins of unknown functions and includes six clones: RDA 279, 11, 95, 96, 254, and 288. GLIA 39:114,123, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification of an operon and inducing peptide involved in the production of lactacin B by Lactobacillus acidophilus

A.E. Dobson
Abstract Aim: To determine if a 9·5-kb region on the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM genome, encoded the genetic determinants for regulation and production of lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. Methods: Transcriptional analysis was used to identify a 9·5-kb polycistronic region suspected of encoding the lab operon. The 12 putative open reading frames (LBA1803,LBA1791) were organized into three clusters: a production and regulation cluster encoding a putative two-component signal transduction system; an export cluster encoding a putative ABC transporter and a final cluster composed of three unknown proteins. Seven genes were typical of bacteriocins, encoding small, cationic peptides, each with an N-terminal double-glycine leader motif. Inactivation of a predicted ABC transporter completely abolished bacteriocin activity. When cloned and expressed together, LBA1803,LBA1800 resulted in markedly higher levels of lactacin B activity. The four peptides were chemically synthesized but exhibited no bacteriocin activity, alone or in combination. Only LBA1800 induced lactacin B production in broth cultures. Conclusions: Lactacin B production is encoded within the 9·5-kb lab operon of 12 genes that are transcribed in a single transcript. LBA1800 is an inducing peptide of bacteriocin production. Significance and Impact of the Study: A three-component regulatory system common to class II bacteriocins regulates the production of this bacteriocin by Lact. acidophilus. [source]

Proteomics analysis of liver samples from puffer fish Takifugu rubripes exposed to excessive fluoride: An insight into molecular response to fluorosis

Jian Lu
Abstract Comparative proteomics was performed to identify proteins in the liver of Takifugu rubripes in response to excessive fluoride exposure. Sixteen fish were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. The control group was raised in soft water alone (F, = 0.4 mg/L), and the experimental group was raised in the same water with sodium fluoride at a high concentration of 35 mg/L. After 3 days, proteins were extracted from the fish livers and then subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to identify the proteins that were differentially expressed from the two groups of fish. Among an average of 816 and 918 proteins detected in the control and treated groups, respectively, 16 proteins were upregulated and 35 were downregulated (P < 0.01) in the fluoride-treated group as compared with those in the control group. Twenty-four highly differentially expressed proteins were further analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, and eight were identified by Mascot. These eight proteins include disulfide isomerase ER-60, 4SNc-Tudor domain protein, SMC3 protein, Cyclin D1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 10, as well as three unknown proteins. Consistent with their previously known functions, these identified proteins seem to be involved in apoptosis and other functions associated with fluorosis. These results will greatly contribute to our understanding of the effects of fluoride exposure on the physiological and biochemical functions of Takifugu and the toxicological mechanism of fluoride causing fluorosis in both fish and human. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:21,28, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20308 [source]

Protein identification via ion-trap collision-induced dissociation and examination of low-mass product ions

Jeremiah J. Bowers
Abstract A whole-protein tandem mass spectrometry approach for protein identification based on precursor ion charge state concentration via ion/ion reactions, ion-trap collisional activation, ion/ion proton-transfer reactions involving the product ions, and mass analysis over a narrow m/z range (up to m/z 2000) is described and evaluated. The experiments were carried out with a commercially available electrospray ion-trap instrument that has been modified to allow for ion/ion reactions. Reaction conditions and the approach to searching protein databases were developed with the assumption that the resolving power of the mass analyzer is insufficient to distinguish charge states on the basis of the isotope spacings. Ions derived from several charge states of cytochrome c, myoglobin, ribonuclease A, and ubiquitin were used to evaluate the approach for protein identification and to develop a two-step procedure to database searching to optimize specificity. The approach developed with the model proteins was then applied to whole cell lysate fractions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results are illustrated with examples of assignments made for three a priori unknown proteins, each selected randomly from a lysate fraction. Two of the three proteins were assigned to species present in the database, whereas one did not match well any database entry. The combination of the mass measurement and the product ion masses suggested the possibility for the oxidation of two methionine residues of a protein in the database. The examples show that this limited whole-protein characterization approach can provide insights that might otherwise be lacking with approaches based on complete enzymatic digestion. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Protein purification using chromatography: selection of type, modelling and optimization of operating conditions

J. A. Asenjo
Abstract To achieve a high level of purity in the purification of recombinant proteins for therapeutic or analytical application, it is necessary to use several chromatographic steps. There is a range of techniques available including anion and cation exchange, which can be carried out at different pHs, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. In the case of a complex mixture of partially unknown proteins or a clarified cell extract, there are many different routes one can take in order to choose the minimum and most efficient number of purification steps to achieve a desired level of purity (e.g. 98%, 99.5% or 99.9%). This review shows how an initial 'proteomic' characterization of the complex mixture of target protein and protein contaminants can be used to select the most efficient chromatographic separation steps in order to achieve a specific level of purity with a minimum number of steps. The chosen methodology was implemented in a computer- based Expert System. Two algorithms were developed, the first algorithm was used to select the most efficient purification method to separate a protein from its contaminants based on the physicochemical properties of the protein product and the protein contaminants and the second algorithm was used to predict the number and concentration of contaminants after each separation as well as protein product purity. The application of the Expert System approach was experimentally tested and validated with a mixture of four proteins and the experimental validation was also carried out with a supernatant of Bacillus subtilis producing a recombinant , -1,3-glucanase. Once the type of chromatography is chosen, optimization of the operating conditions is essential. Chromatographic elution curves for a three-protein mixture (, -lactoalbumin, ovalbumin and , -lactoglobulin), carried out under different flow rates and ionic strength conditions, were simulated using two different mathematical models. These models were the Plate Model and the more fundamentally based Rate Model. Simulated elution curves were compared with experimental data not used for parameter identification. Deviation between experimental data and the simulated curves using the Plate Model was less than 0.0189 (absorbance units); a slightly higher deviation [0.0252 (absorbance units)] was obtained when the Rate Model was used. In order to optimize operating conditions, a cost function was built that included the effect of the different production stages, namely fermentation, purification and concentration. This cost function was also successfully used for the determination of the fraction of product to be collected (peak cutting) in chromatography. It can be used for protein products with different characteristics and qualities, such as purity and yield, by choosing the appropriate parameters. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Proteomics in Alzheimer's disease: insights into potential mechanisms of neurodegeneration

D. Allan Butterfield
Abstract Proteomics involves the identification of unknown proteins following their separation, often using two-dimensional electrophoresis, digestion of particular proteins of interest by trypsin, determination of the molecular weight of the resulting peptides, and database searching to make the identification of the proteins. Application of proteomics to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the major dementing disorder of the elderly, has just begun. Differences in protein expression and post-translational modification (mostly oxidative modification) of proteins from AD brain and peripheral tissue, as well as in brain from rodent models of AD, have yielded insights into potential molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in this dementing disorder. This review surveys the proteomics studies relevant to AD, from which new understandings of the pathology, biochemistry, and physiology of AD are beginning to emerge. [source]

Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid

Carolina Parada
Abstract During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. [source]

Functional proteomics of neurokinin B in the placenta indicates a novel role in regulating cytotrophoblast antioxidant defences

Grzegorz Sawicki
Abstract Neurokinin B (NKB) has recently been demonstrated to be secreted from the placenta in abnormally high amounts in preeclampsia (PE) and to cause hypertension in rats, suggesting it may be a mediator of some pathophysiological features of PE. It is also known that NKB receptors exist in the placenta. To determine the effect of high levels of NKB on the placenta, we have performed proteomics on five separate preparations of cultured purified human term cytotrophoblast cells. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in 20 proteins, of which five were unknown proteins. Proteins important in antioxidant defenses that decreased were thioredoxin, cyclophilin A, cytokeratin 1, and peroxiredoxin 5. Two proteins that inhibit intravascular anticoagulation, cytokeratin 1 and annexin 11 were also decreased. Pathways involving pro-inflammatory cytokine activation of NF-,B are opposed by Raf kinase inhibitor protein, which was also decreased. Cofilin 1, a protein involved in defense against bacteria, was also decreased. Among other proteins that were suppressed by NKB were proteasome proteins, desmoplakin, and calgizzarin. Western blots confirmed the decrease in cytokeratin 1 and cyclophilin A protein after NKB exposure. In PE, there is reduced antioxidant activity and increased intravascular coagulation. The findings that high levels of NKB, similar to those observed in PE, can impair these two classes of activity support the hypothesis that high NKB levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of PE. [source]

Identification of markers for the selection of patients undergoing renal cell carcinoma-specific immunotherapy

Barbara Seliger
Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the most common malignant tumor in the kidney and is resistant to conventional therapies. The diagnosis of RCC is often delayed leading to progression and metastatic spread of the disease. Thus, validated markers for the early detection of the disease as well as selection of patients undergoing specific therapy is urgently needed. Using treatment with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) G250 as a model, proteome-based strategies were implemented for the identification of markers which may allow the discrimination between responders and nonresponders prior to application of G250-mediated immunotherapy. Flow cytometry revealed G250 surface expression in approximately 40% of RCC cell lines, but not in the normal kidney epithelium cell lines. G250 expression levels significantly varied thereby distinguishing between low, medium and high G250 expressing cell lines. Comparisons of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis expression profiles of untreated RCC cell lines versus RCC cell lines treated with a mAb directed against G250 and the characterization of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry and/or Edman sequencing led to the identification of proteins such as chaperones, antigen processing components, transporters, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins and unknown proteins. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins matched with immunoreactive proteins previously identified by proteome analysis combined with immunoblotting using sera from healthy donors and RCC patients, a technique called PROTEOMEX. Immunohistochemical analysis of a panel of surgically removed RCC lesions and corresponding normal kidney epithelium confirmed the heterogeneous expression pattern found by proteome-based technologies. In conclusion, conventional proteome analysis as well as PROTEOMEX could be successfully employed for the identification of markers which may allow the selection of patients prior to specific immunotherapy. [source]

Novel biomarkers of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases: Genomics and proteomics approaches

Chary López-Pedrera Professor
Abstract Atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are enhanced in autoimmune diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The reason for this accelerated process is still debatable and, although traditional risk factors are more prevalent in those patients than in general population, they do not fully explain that enhanced risk. Inflammatory components of the immune response, mainly interleukins, TNF-,, and IFN-,, as well as some autoantibodies, including anti-oxidized low density lipoproteins (anti-oxLDL), anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 (anti- ,2GPI), anti-Heat shock proteins 60/65 (anti-HSP60/65), and anti-oxLDL/,2GPI have been shown to play a leading role in the pathogenesis of both, AT and CVD. However, the role of the autoantibodies in accelerated AT in autoimmune disease patients is still controversial. Recently, DNA microarray and proteomic-based approaches have made substantial breakthrough into the study of various rheumatic diseases, thus allowing for the discovery of previously unknown proteins involved in CVD including some that may be suitable to be used as biomarkers. Herein, we review recent genomics and proteomic approaches that have been applied to the study of autoimmune diseases with atherosclerotic and CV risk. The pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics studies given over to the analysis of ancient and new drugs used to relieve the physiopathology associated to these complex diseases are also discussed. [source]

Tetranectin and apolipoprotein A-I in cerebrospinal fluid as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease

E.-S. Wang
Wang E-S, Sun Y, Guo J-G, Gao X, Hu J-W, Zhou L, Hu J, Jiang C-C. Tetranectin and apolipoprotein A-I in cerebrospinal fluid as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122: 350,359. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objective,,, The application of biomarkers may potentially improve the efficiency of the diagnosis for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, no reliable biomarker has been identified to date. This study is aimed to identify proteins that might serve as potential biomarkers for PD diagnosis or pathogenesis. Materials and methods,,, Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) technique, in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), was used to determine the differentially expressed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins in PD patients (n = 3) compared with normal controls (n = 3). Selected proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting analysis in the CSF of PD patients (n = 8), Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 6) and normal control subjects (n = 7). Results,,, Eight proteins were identified after MS and protein database interrogation. In the CSF of PD patients, the expression levels of one isoform of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), tetranectin, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), and two unknown proteins were down-regulated, whereas the expression levels of another apoA-I isoform, proapolipoprotein, and lipoprotein were up-regulated. Western blotting indicates that the expression of tetranectin was reduced in the CSF from PD patients and elevated in AD, while the expression of apoA-I was changed only in the CSF from PD patients. Conclusion,,, Our preliminary results suggest that tetranectin and apoA-I may serve as potential biomarkers for PD, though further validation is needed. [source]

Quantitative profiling of LNCaP prostate cancer cells using isotope-coded affinity tags and mass spectrometry

Katie L. Meehan
Abstract Androgens are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases including adenocarcinoma of the prostate. These hormones are important for growth, maintenance, and integrity of structure and function of the prostate. Androgen-deprivation is currently the only effective systemic therapy for prostate cancer but the effects of androgens on the proteome are still poorly described. Here we quantitatively profile changes in the proteome of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in response to androgen using the newly developed isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) labeling and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (2-D LC-MS/MS). ICAT enables the concurrent identification and comparative quantitative analysis of proteins present in various biological samples including human cell and tissue extracts. Quantification and identification of 139 proteins in complex protein mixtures obtained from androgen-stimulated and unstimulated LNCaP cells were achieved. Changes in levels of 77 proteins in response to androgens were detected. Some of these proteins have been previously reported to be regulated by androgens and include spermine synthase, fatty acid synthase and calreticulin precursor. A large number of proteins that have not been previously reported to be expressed in prostate cells were also quantitatively identified. Examples of these include members of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily, "similar" to hypothetical protein DKFZp434B0328.1, "similar" to 14-3-3 protein zeta and "similar" to hypothetical protein 458, components of the actin cytoskeleton and a range of unknown/uncharacterized proteins. This catalogue of proteins provides an overview of the proteome of prostate cancer cells and the global changes that occur in response to androgens. [source]