Unknown Pathogenesis (unknown + pathogenesis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Intravascular histiocytosis presenting with extensive vulvar necrosis

Pedram Pouryazdanparast
Intravascular histiocytosis (IVH) is a rare reactive cutaneous lesion of unknown pathogenesis. Most cases are reported in association with rheumatoid arthritis, and cutaneous eruptions typically occur near swollen joints. The skin changes have included erythematous and violaceous macules, papules, plaques and indurated patches with a livedo-like pattern of erythema. We report the first case of IVH presenting with florid vulvar necrosis in an 87-year-old patient without a history of rheumatoid arthritis. Physical examination revealed an edematous, exudative and diffusely necrotic vulva with erythema surrounding the areas of necrosis, extending out to the thighs. The debrided skin revealed an extensively necrotic epidermis and multiple clusters of markedly dilated blood vessels within the dermis. These vessels contained fibrin thrombi admixed with numerous CD68+ and CD163+ histiocytes. Her skin changes improved significantly after surgical debridement and treatment with antibiotics. Interestingly, our patient was also found to have a lupus anticoagulant with elevated anticardiolipin antibodies. This is the first report of IVH possibly related to a thrombogenic diathesis associated with a hypercoagulable state. A diagnosis of IVH is important and may necessitate further clinical evaluation to exclude the possibility of co-existent systemic disease. [source]

Sudden Cardiac Death due to Giant Cell Inflammatory Processes,

Rebecca A. Hamilton M.D.
Abstract:, Granulomatous inflammation of the myocardium may occur in a number of systemic disease processes including those with infectious etiologies such as fungal, mycobacterial and parasitic infections, as well as hypersensitivity reactions, and rarely autoimmune disorders. In many of these disorders, giant cells are components of the inflammatory infiltrate. Systemic granulomatous processes of unknown pathogenesis, most notably sarcoidosis, may also be associated with involvement of the myocardium. Occasionally, these disorders are associated with sudden death due to pathologic involvement of the heart. In contrast, giant cell myocarditis, also known as idiopathic myocarditis, a rare, frequently fulminant and fatal disorder of unknown etiology, is isolated to the heart and lacks systemic involvement. This disorder is most commonly diagnosed at autopsy. We present two cases in which sudden death resulted from a giant cell inflammatory process affecting the myocardium. Both individuals lacked antemortem diagnoses and collapsed at their respective places of employment. These cases compare and contrast the clinical and pathologic issues involved in the differential diagnoses of the subgroup of sudden cardiac deaths resulting from giant cell inflammatory processes that affect the myocardium, as well as the value of histologic examination and immunohistochemical studies. [source]

A case of POEMS syndrome with high concentrations of interleukin-6 in pericardial fluid

N. Shikama
Abstract. Shikama N, Isono A, Otsuka Y, Terano T, Hirai A (Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba Municipal Hospital; and Second Department of Internal Medicine, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan). A case of POEMS syndrome with high concentrations of interleukin-6 in pericardial fluid. J Intern Med 2001; 250: 170,173. The POEMS syndrome (plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy of various forms, monoclonal gammopathy, skin changes) is a rare multisystem disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines has been implicated in the pathogenesis of POEMS syndrome, however, it is not known whether there is an association between abnormalities in cytokines and pericardial fluid. We present a case of POEMS syndrome with high concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in pericardial fluid. In our patient, pericarditis developed into cardiac tamponade, and the concentration of IL-6 in pericardial fluid was remarkably elevated compared with that in serum (1760 vs. 6.57 pg mL,1). We suggest that IL-6 is associated with the progression or maintenance of pericarditis as a result of POEMS syndrome. [source]

Lhermitte-Duclos Disease: Case Report

Jeffrey J. Carlson MD
ABSTRACT Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare disorder with an unknown pathogenesis. A single report of a pathological proven case of Lhermitte-Duclos disease is presented with clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings. A brief review of the condition is provided with an emphasis on imaging description. [source]

Idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis due to occlusion of proximal coiled ducts

J. Ogino
Summary Idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis is a very rare disease of unknown pathogenesis. We report a 25-year-old man with acquired generalized anhidrosis due to occlusion of the coiled ducts. He did not have sweat secretion over the entire surface of the body, including the palms and soles. Sweat-inducing stimuli provoked tingling pain on the skin. Pilocarpine iontophoresis on the forearm did not induce sweat secretion. Neurological examination did not reveal any abnormality in the central or peripheral nervous system. Skin biopsy showed that the coiled ducts were occluded by an amorphous eosinophilic substance. This amorphous eosinophilic substance was positive with periodic acid,Schiff (PAS) staining and was resistant to digestion by diastase. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the coiled ducts were completely occluded by an amorphous substance. The substance occluding the coiled ducts contained fibrous structures. These findings suggested that the acquired generalized anhidrosis in this patient was caused by occlusion of the coiled ducts by a PAS-positive substance probably derived from dark cell granules. [source]