Unfolding Process (unfolding + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Improving thermostability and catalytic activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor by rational and semi-rational design

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Oliver Spadiut
The fungal homotetrameric flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox; EC catalyses the oxidation of various sugars at position C2, while, concomitantly, electrons are transferred to oxygen as well as to alternative electron acceptors (e.g. oxidized ferrocenes). These properties make P2Ox an interesting enzyme for various biotechnological applications. Random mutagenesis has previously been used to identify variant E542K, which shows increased thermostability. In the present study, we selected position Leu537 for saturation mutagenesis, and identified variants L537G and L537W, which are characterized by a higher stability and improved catalytic properties. We report detailed studies on both thermodynamic and kinetic stability, as well as the kinetic properties of the mutational variants E542K, E542R, L537G and L537W, and the respective double mutants (L537G/E542K, L537G/E542R, L537W/E542K and L537W/E542R). The selected substitutions at positions Leu537 and Glu542 increase the melting temperature by approximately 10 and 14 C, respectively, relative to the wild-type enzyme. Although both wild-type and single mutants showed first-order inactivation kinetics, thermal unfolding and inactivation was more complex for the double mutants, showing two distinct phases, as revealed by microcalorimetry and CD spectroscopy. Structural information on the variants does not provide a definitive answer with respect to the stabilizing effects or the alteration of the unfolding process. Distinct differences, however, are observed for the P2Ox Leu537 variants at the interfaces between the subunits, which results in tighter association. [source]

Monitoring of unfolding of metallo-proteins by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Vincenzo Cunsolo
Abstract An electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometric method for the determination of the equilibrium constant and free energy (,G) of protein unfolding was used to monitor the denaturation process at different pH of three metallo-proteins, i.e. wild-type copper azurin, zinc azurin and wild-type amicyanin. The time course of the unfolding process was followed by dissolving the proteins under denaturing conditions (methanol,water (1 : 1, v/v)) at different pH (2.5, 3.0, 3.5) and recording ESI spectra at time intervals. The spectra showed two series of peaks, corresponding to the native holo-protein and the unfolded apo-protein. From the intensity ratio of these two series of peaks at increasing time and at equilibrium, the equilibrium constants for the unfolding process for the three proteins could be determined. From these equilibrium constants a ,G derivation was attempted. The ,G values obtained decrease with decrease in pH, in agreement with the expected reduction of conformational stability of proteins at lower pH. The results obtained confirm that ESI-MS can be used for monitoring of unfolding process and to derive quantitative thermodynamic data. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Retardation of the unfolding process by single N-glycosylation of ribonuclease A based on molecular dynamics simulations

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 2 2008
Youngjin Choi
Abstract The conformational characteristics of glycosylated- and unglycosylated bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNaseA) were traced with unfolding molecular dynamics simulations using CHARMM program at 470 K. The glycosylated RNase (Glc_RNase) possesses nearly identical protein structure with RNaseA, differing only by presence of a single acetylglucosamine residue N-linked to Asn34 in the RNaseA. Attaching of monomeric N -acetylglucosamine residue to the Asn34 in RNaseA resulted in a change of denaturing process of Glc_RNase. Simulations showed that the unfolding of RNaseA involved significant weakening of nonlocal interactions whereas the glycosylation led Glc_RNase to preserve the nonlocal interactions even in its denatured form. Even in simulations over 8 ns at 470 K, Glc_RNase remained relatively stable as a less denatured conformation. However, conformation of RNaseA was changed to a fully unfolded state before 3 ns of the simulations at 470 K. This difference was due to fact that formation of hydrogen bond bridges and nonlocal contacts induced by the attached N -acetylglucosamine of Glc_RNase showing in the unfolding simulations. These high-temperature unfolding MD simulations provided a theoretical basis for the previous experimental work in which Glc_RNase showed slower unfolding kinetics compared with unglycosylated RNaseA, suggesting that single N-glycosylation induced retardation of unfolding process of the ribonuclease protein. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 89: 114,123, 2008. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com [source]

Predicted Unfolding Order of the 13 ,-Helices in the Catalytic Domain of Glucoamylase from Aspergillusawamori var. X100 by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Hsuan-Liang Liu
The unfolding mechanism of the 13 ,-helices in the catalytic domain of Aspergillus awamori var. X100 glucoamylase was investigated by 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with temperature jump technique. Rather than a simultaneous event, the unfolding of these 13 ,-helices followed a random ordered mechanism as ,8,,1,,11,,7,,10,,3,,12,,13,,4,,5,,9,,6,,2. No significant relationships were found between the unfolding order and the length and the hydrophobicity of the helix. ,-Helix 8 located in the inner region of the catalytic domain was predicted to be the first helix to unfold, indicating that the destruction of the secondary structure motif was initiated from the inner region of the catalytic domain. The dynamic behavior of these ,-helices induced by increased kinetic energy during the unfolding process is considered to be similar to the expansion and compression of a series of springs under the influence of mechanical stress. [source]

Chromatin dynamics of unfolding and refolding controlled by the nucleosome repeat length and the linker and core histones

BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 4 2007
Toshiro Kobori
Abstract Chromatin is composed of genomic DNA and histones, forming a hierarchical architecture in the nucleus. The chromatin hierarchy is common among eukaryotes despite different intrinsic properties of the genome. To investigate an effect of the differences in genome organization, chromatin unfolding processes were comparatively analyzed using Schizosaccaromyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and chicken erythrocyte. NaCl titration showed dynamic changes of the chromatin. 400,1000 mM NaCl facilitated beads with ,115 nm in diameter in S. pombe chromatin. A similar transition was also observed in S. cerevisiae chromatin. This process did not involve core histone dissociation from the chromatin, and the persistence length after the transition was ,26 nm for S. pombe and ,28 nm for S. cerevisiae, indicating a salt-induced unfolding to "beads-on-a-string" fibers. Reduced salt concentration recovered the original structure, suggesting that electrostatic interaction would regulate this discrete folding-unfolding process. On the other hand, the linker histone was extracted from chicken chromatin at 400 mM NaCl, and AFM observed the "beads-on-a-string" fibers around a nucleus. Unlike yeast chromatin, therefore, this unfolding was irreversible because of linker histone dissociation. These results indicate that the chromatin unfolding and refolding depend on the presence and absence of the linker histone, and the length of the linker DNA. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 85:295,307, 2007. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com [source]