Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

A Decision Rule for Predicting Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis When Gram Stain Is Negative or Unavailable

Bema K. Bonsu MBChB
Abstract Objectives:, Among children with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, the task of separating aseptic from bacterial meningitis is hampered when the CSF Gram stain result is unavailable, delayed, or negative. In this study, the authors derive and validate a clinical decision rule for use in this setting. Methods:, This was a review of peripheral blood and CSF test results from 78 children (<19 years) presenting to Children's Hospital Columbus from 1998 to 2002. For those with a CSF leukocyte count of >7/,L, a rule was created for separating bacterial from viral meningitis that was based on routine laboratory tests, but excluded Gram stain. The rule was validated in 158 subjects seen at the same site (Columbus, 2002,2004) and in 871 subjects selected from a separate site (Boston, 1993,1999). Results:, One point each (maximum, 6 points) was assigned for leukocytes >597/,L, neutrophils >74%, glucose <38 mg/dL, and protein >97 mg/dL in CSF and for leukocytes >17,000/mL and bands to neutrophils >11% in peripheral blood. Areas under receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AROCs) for the resultant score were 0.98 for the derivation set and 0.90 and 0.97, respectively, for validation sets from Columbus and Boston. Sensitivity and specificity pairs for the Boston data set were 100 and 44%, respectively, at a score of 0 and 97 and 81% at a score of 1. Likelihood ratios (LRs) increased from 0 at a score of 0 to 40 at a score of ,4. Conclusions:, Among children with CSF pleocytosis, a prediction score based on common tests of CSF and peripheral blood and intended for children with unavailable, negative, or delayed CSF Gram stain results has value for diagnosing bacterial meningitis. [source]

Parallel processing of remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery: full-pixel versus mixed-pixel classification

Antonio J. Plaza
Abstract The rapid development of space and computer technologies allows for the possibility to store huge amounts of remotely sensed image data, collected using airborne and satellite instruments. In particular, NASA is continuously gathering high-dimensional image data with Earth observing hyperspectral sensors such as the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's airborne visible,infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), which measures reflected radiation in hundreds of narrow spectral bands at different wavelength channels for the same area on the surface of the Earth. The development of fast techniques for transforming massive amounts of hyperspectral data into scientific understanding is critical for space-based Earth science and planetary exploration. Despite the growing interest in hyperspectral imaging research, only a few efforts have been devoted to the design of parallel implementations in the literature, and detailed comparisons of standardized parallel hyperspectral algorithms are currently unavailable. This paper compares several existing and new parallel processing techniques for pure and mixed-pixel classification in hyperspectral imagery. The distinction of pure versus mixed-pixel analysis is linked to the considered application domain, and results from the very rich spectral information available from hyperspectral instruments. In some cases, such information allows image analysts to overcome the constraints imposed by limited spatial resolution. In most cases, however, the spectral bands collected by hyperspectral instruments have high statistical correlation, and efficient parallel techniques are required to reduce the dimensionality of the data while retaining the spectral information that allows for the separation of the classes. In order to address this issue, this paper also develops a new parallel feature extraction algorithm that integrates the spatial and spectral information. The proposed technique is evaluated (from the viewpoint of both classification accuracy and parallel performance) and compared with other parallel techniques for dimensionality reduction and classification in the context of three representative application case studies: urban characterization, land-cover classification in agriculture, and mapping of geological features, using AVIRIS data sets with detailed ground-truth. Parallel performance is assessed using Thunderhead, a massively parallel Beowulf cluster at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The detailed cross-validation of parallel algorithms conducted in this work may specifically help image analysts in selection of parallel algorithms for specific applications. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Job completion prediction using case-based reasoning for Grid computing environments

Lilian Noronha Nassif
Abstract One of the main focuses of Grid computing is solving resource-sharing problems in multi-institutional virtual organizations. In such heterogeneous and distributed environments, selecting the best resource to run a job is a complex task. The solutions currently employed still present numerous challenges and one of them is how to let users know when a job will finish. Consequently, reserve in advance remains unavailable. This article presents a new approach, which makes predictions for job execution time in Grid by applying the case-based reasoning paradigm. The work includes the development of a new case retrieval algorithm involving relevance sequence and similarity degree calculations. The prediction model is part of a multi-agent system that selects the best resource of a computational Grid to run a job. Agents representing candidate resources for job execution make predictions in a distributed and parallel manner. The technique presented here can be used in Grid environments at operation time to assist users with batch job submissions. Experimental results validate the prediction accuracy of the proposed mechanisms, and the performance of our case retrieval algorithm. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Characteristics of Important Stopover Locations for Migrating Birds: Remote Sensing with Radar in the Great Lakes Basin

ave terrestre migratoria; migración; radar; sitios de escala temporal; WSR-88D Abstract:,A preliminary stage in developing comprehensive conservation plans involves identifying areas used by the organisms of interest. The areas used by migratory land birds during temporal breaks in migration (stopover periods) have received relatively little research and conservation attention. Methodologies for identifying stopover sites across large geographic areas have been, until recently, unavailable. Advances in weather-radar technology now allow for evaluation of bird migration patterns at large spatial scales. We analyzed radar data (WSR-88D) recorded during spring migration in 2000 and 2001 at 6 sites in the Great Lakes basin (U.S.A.). Our goal was to link areas of high migrant activity with the land-cover types and landscape contexts corresponding to those areas. To characterize the landscapes surrounding stopover locations, we integrated radar and land-cover data within a geographic information system. We compared landscape metrics within 5 km of areas that consistently hosted large numbers of migrants with landscapes surrounding randomly selected areas that were used by relatively few birds during migration. Concentration areas were characterized by 1.2 times more forest cover and 9.3 times more water cover than areas with little migrant activity. We detected a strong negative relationship between activity of migratory birds and agricultural land uses. Examination of individual migration events confirmed the importance of fragments of forested habitat in highly altered landscapes and highlighted large concentrations of birds departing from near-shore terrestrial areas in the Great Lakes basin. We conclude that conservation efforts can be more effectively targeted through intensive analysis of radar imagery. Resumen:,Una etapa preliminar en el desarrollo de planes de conservación integrales implica la identificación de áreas utilizadas por los organismos de interés. Las áreas utilizadas por aves terrestres migratorias durante escalas temporales en la migración (períodos de parada) han recibido relativamente poca atención de investigación y conservación. Hasta hace poco, las metodologías para la identificación de sitios de parada en áreas geográficas extensas han sido escasas. Ahora, los avances en la tecnología de radar meteorológico permiten la evaluación de patrones de migración de aves en escalas espaciales grandes. Analizamos datos de radar (WSR-88D) registrados en seis sitios en la cuenca de los Grandes Lagos (E.U.A.) durante la migración en las primaveras de 2000 y 2001. Nuestra meta fue relacionar áreas con gran actividad migratoria con los tipos de cobertura de suelo y los contextos del paisaje correspondientes a esas áreas. Para caracterizar los paisajes circundantes a las localidades de parada, integramos los datos de radar y de cobertura de suelo a un sistema de información geográfica. Comparamos las medidas del paisaje en un radio de 5 km en las áreas que consistentemente albergaron a grandes números de migrantes con los paisajes circundantes a áreas seleccionadas aleatoriamente y que eran utilizadas por relativamente pocas aves durante la migración. Las áreas de concentración se caracterizaron por tener 1.3 veces más cobertura forestal y 9.3 veces más cobertura de agua que las áreas con poca actividad migratoria. Detectamos una fuerte relación negativa entre la actividad de las aves migratorias y los usos de suelo agrícolas. El examen de eventos migratorios individuales confirmó la importancia de los fragmentos de hábitat boscoso en paisajes muy alterados y resaltó las grandes concentraciones de aves partiendo de áreas terrestres cercanas a la costa en la cuenca de los Grandes Lagos. Concluimos que los esfuerzos de conservación pueden ser abordados más efectivamente mediante el análisis intensivo de imágenes de radar. [source]

Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political, and Scientific Factors

áreas marinas protegidas; planificación de conservación; reservas marinas Abstract:,As the process of marine-protected-area design and implementation evolves, the incorporation of new tools will advance our ability to create and maintain effective protected areas. We reviewed characteristics and approaches that contribute to successful global marine conservation efforts. One successful characteristic emphasized in most case studies is the importance of incorporating stakeholders at all phases of the process. Clearly defined goals and objectives at all stages of the design process are important for improved communication and standardized expectations of stakeholder groups. The inclusion of available science to guide the size and design of marine protected areas and to guide clear monitoring strategies that assess success at scientific, social, and economic levels is also an important tool in the process. Common shortcomings in marine conservation planning strategies include government instability and resultant limitations to monitoring and enforcement, particularly in developing nations. Transferring knowledge to local community members has also presented challenges in areas where in situ training, local capacity, and existing infrastructure are sparse. Inaccessible, unavailable, or outdated science is often a limitation to conservation projects in developed and developing nations. To develop and maintain successful marine protected areas, it is necessary to acknowledge that each case is unique, to apply tools and lessons learned from other marine protected areas, and to maintain flexibility to adjust to the individual circumstances of the case at hand. Resumen:,A medida que evoluciona el proceso de diseño e implementación de áreas marinas protegidas, la incorporación de nuevas herramientas mejorará nuestra habilidad para crear y mantener áreas protegidas efectivas. Revisamos las características y enfoques que contribuyen a los esfuerzos exitosos de conservación marina global. La importancia de incorporar a los actores en todas las fases del proceso es una característica exitosa enfatizada en la mayoría de los estudios de caso. Es importante que haya metas y objetivos claramente definidos para todas las etapas del proceso de diseño para mejorar la comunicación y estandarizar las expectativas de los grupos interesados. La inclusión de la ciencia disponible para guiar el tamaño y diseño de áreas marinas protegidas y para guiar las estrategias de monitoreo que evalúa el éxito a nivel científico, social y económico también son herramientas importantes en el proceso. Defectos comunes en las estrategias de planificación de conservación marina incluyen la inestabilidad gubernamental y las resultantes limitaciones para el monitoreo y vigilancia, particularmente en países en desarrollo. La transferencia de conocimiento a miembros de la comunidad local también ha enfrentado retos en áreas donde el entrenamiento in situ, la aptitud local y la infraestructura existente son escasos. La ciencia inaccesible, no disponible u obsoleta a menudo es una limitación para los proyectos de conservación en países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Para desarrollar y mantener áreas marinas protegidas exitosas, es necesario reconocer que cada caso es único, aplicar herramientas y lecciones aprendidas en otras áreas marinas protegidas y mantener la flexibilidad para ajustarse a las circunstancias individuales de cada caso. [source]

Introduction Strategies Put to the Test: Local Adaptation versus Heterosis

exogamia; introducciones multi-fuente; introducciones uni-fuente; Succisa pratensis Abstract:,Plant biodiversity has declined seriously because of both habitat deterioration and habitat fragmentation. As a result, many species have been forced into small, fragmented, and isolated populations and are believed to suffer from higher extinction risks. Genetic reinforcement and the establishment of new populations are now widely used to prevent extinction. However, the genetic background of transplants may seriously affect the long-term success of these populations because increased genetic variation may reduce the risk of inbreeding or lead to better performance by restored heterozygosity levels (heterosis). Introduced transplants, however, may be poorly adapted to the new local conditions. We tested the initial success of alternative introduction strategies. We evaluated the potential for inbreeding, heterosis, and/or local adaptation after introduction of artificial populations of Succisa pratensis. We introduced individuals from local and distant artificial populations that were created from either small or large populations. We created the artificial populations with the same census population size but varying effective population sizes by adjusting the relatedness of individuals. We analyzed the demographic consequences of inbreeding, heterosis, and/or local adaptation of these artificial populations. Reduced performance after selfing was manifested by a reduction in seed production, seed weight, germination, and flowering percentage. Seed production, seed weight, flowering percentage, and number of flowerheads were negatively affected by small population size. Local adaptation increased biomass and flowering percentage for local individuals. Seed weight and seed production exhibited significant heterosis. Our results demonstrate that threatened populations can benefit from introduction and genetic reinforcement of individuals from related populations. Significant differences among the artificial populations for several measured performance components suggest that introduction or reinforcement is best achieved through material from a local population or, when unavailable, from several large populations. Resumen:,La biodiversidad de plantas ha declinado seriamente tanto por el deterioro como la fragmentación de hábitats. Como resultado, muchas especies han sido relegadas a poblaciones pequeñas, fragmentadas y aisladas cuyos riesgos de extinción se piensa que son mayores. El reforzamiento genético y el establecimiento de poblaciones nuevas se utilizan ampliamente en la actualidad para prevenir la extinción. Sin embargo, los antecedentes genéticos de transplantes pueden afectar seriamente el éxito de estas poblaciones a largo plazo debido a que el incremento en la variación genética puede reducir el riesgo de endogamia o puede conducir a un mejor rendimiento por lograr niveles de heterocigosidad restaurados (heterosis). No obstante, los trasplantes introducidos pueden adaptarse deficientemente a las nuevas condiciones locales. Probamos el éxito inicial de estrategias de introducción alternativas. Evaluamos el potencial de endogamia, heterosis y/o adaptación local después de la introducción de poblaciones artificiales de Succisa pratensis. Introdujimos individuos de poblaciones locales y de poblaciones artificiales distantes que fueron creadas a partir de poblaciones tanto pequeñas como grandes. Las poblaciones artificiales fueron creadas con el mismo tamaño poblacional censal pero variaron en tamaños poblacionales efectivos al ajustar la parentela de los individuos. Analizamos las consecuencias demográficas de la endogamia, heterosis y/o adaptación local de estas poblaciones artificiales. Después de la autofecundación se manifestó una reducción en el rendimiento por reducción en la producción y peso de semillas y en el porcentaje de germinación y floración. La producción y peso de semillas, el porcentaje de floración y el número de botones florales fueron afectados negativamente por el tamaño poblacional pequeño. La adaptación local incrementó la biomasa y el porcentaje de floración en individuos locales. El peso y producción de semillas mostró heterosis significativa. Nuestros resultados demuestran que las poblaciones amenazadas pueden beneficiarse de la introducción y del reforzamiento genético de individuos de poblaciones emparentadas. Las diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones artificiales en varios de los componentes de rendimiento medidos sugiere que la introducción o reforzamiento se logra mejor con material de una población local o, cuando no disponible, con material de varias poblaciones grandes. [source]

Synergistic Effects of Subsistence Hunting and Habitat Fragmentation on Amazonian Forest Vertebrates

Carlos A. Peres
These effects are likely to be considerably aggravated by forest fragmentation because fragments are more accessible to hunters, allow no (or very low rates of ,) recolonization from nonharvested source populations, and may provide a lower-quality resource base for the frugivore-granivore vertebrate fauna. I examined the likelihood of midsized to large-bodied bird and mammal populations persisting in Amazonian forest fragments of variable sizes whenever they continue to be harvested by subsistence hunters in the aftermath of isolation. I used data from a comprehensive compilation of game-harvest studies throughout Neotropical forests to estimate the degree to which different species and populations have been overharvested and then calculated the range of minimum forest areas required to maintain a sustainable harvest. The size distribution of 5564 Amazonian forest fragments,estimated from Landsat images of six regions of southern and eastern Brazilian Amazonia,clearly shows that these are predominantly small and rarely exceed 10 ha, suggesting that persistent overhunting is likely to drive most midsized to large vertebrate populations to local extinction in fragmented forest landscapes. Although experimental studies on this negative synergism remain largely unavailable, the prospect that increasingly fragmented Neotropical forest regions can retain their full assemblages of avian and mammalian species is unlikely. Resumen: La cacería de subsistencia tiene efectos negativos profundos sobre la diversidad de especies, la biomasa y estructura de las comunidades de vertebrados en bosques de la Amazonía que de otra forma están poco perturbadas. Estos efectos se agravan considerablemente por la fragmentación del bosque porque los fragmentos son más accesibles a los cazadores, no permiten la recolonización por poblaciones no cazadas o disminuyen las tasas de recolonizacíon y pueden proporcionar una base de recursos de menor calidad para la fauna de vertebrados frugívoro-granívoros. Examiné la posibilidad de persistencia de poblaciones de aves y mamíferos medianos a grandes en fragmentos de bosque de tamaño variable si continúan sujetos a la cacería de subsistencia como una consecuencia del aislamiento. Utilicé datos de una compilación extensiva de estudios de cacería en bosques neotropicales para estimar el grado en que diferentes especies y poblaciones han sido sobre explotadas y calculé el área de bosque minima requerida para mantener una cosecha sostensible. La distribucíon de tamaños de 5564 fragmentos de bosque amazónica, estimado a partir de imágues de Landsat de seis regiones del sur y del esté de la Amazonía brasileña indica claramente que estos fragmentós son principalmente pegueños y que rara vez exceden las lolta, lo que sugiere que la sobre cacería persistente probablemente lleve a la extincíon local de poblaciones de vertebrados de tamaño mediano a grande en paisajes boscosos fragmentados. Aunque estudios experimentales de este sinergismo negativo no están disponibles, la perspectiva de que las regiones neotropicales cada vez más fragmentadas, puedan retener las comunidades completas de aves y mamíferos poco es probable. [source]

Use of Premontane Moist Forest and Shade Coffee Agroecosystems by Army Ants in Western Panama

Dina L. Roberts
Behavioral and distributional studies of these two species have been confined largely to humid lowland forest. We conducted intensive systematic area searches at elevations between 1200 and 1800 m in western Panama to assess the distribution of both species in intact premontane moist forest, shade coffee plantations, and sun coffee plantations. Both species were repeatedly observed in forest, shade coffee plantations close to forest, and shade coffee plantations distant from forest. Neither species was observed in sun coffee plantations. We believe that retention of certain forest-like characteristics in the traditional shade coffee farm contributes to the persistence of these forest organisms in modified landscapes. Large canopy trees not only provide shade that buffers temperature extremes but also supply the ground layer with regular inputs of leaf litter and coarse woody debris from fallen trunks. Both E. burchelli and L. praedator hunt in leaf litter, and E. burchelli uses coarse woody debris as nesting sites ( bivouacs). There were significantly fewer potential bivouacs available in sun coffee plantations than in forest and shade coffee habitats. Also, litter depth was less in sun coffee than in forest and shade coffee. Our results provide the first evidence that shade coffee plantations can provide additional habitat for E. burchelli and L. praedator, top predators of the leaf litter arthropod community. E. burchelli and L. praedator act as critical links between swarm-attendant bird species and leaf-litter arthropods, providing an easily exploited food resource that would otherwise be unavailable for many birds. Continued conversion of shade coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations could have negative effects on army ants and associated biodiversity. Resumen: Las hormigas arrierras Neotropicales, Eciton burchelli y Labidus praedator ( Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ecitoninae) son especies que requieren de extensas áreas de hábitat para cazar. Los estudios conductuales y de la distribución de estas especies se han realizado principalmente en bosques húmedos en tierras bajas. Desarrollamos búsquedas sistemáticas intensivas en elevaciones entre 1200 y 1800 msnm en Panama occidental para determinar la distribución de ambas especies en bosque húmedo premontano intacto, en plantaciones de café con y sin sombra. Las dos especies fueron observadas recurrentemente en bosque y en plantaciones de café de sombra cercanos y lejanos al bosque. Consideramos que la retención de ciertas características del bosque en las plantaciones de café de sombra contribuye a la persistencia de estos organismos de bosque en ambientes modificados. Los árboles no solo proporcionan sombra que amortigua la temperatura, sino que proporcionan hojarasca y restos leñosos de troncos caídos. Tanto E. burchelli como L. praedator cazan en la hojarasca, E. burchelli utiliza restos leñosos para anidar (vivaques). Encontramos significativamente menos vivaques en plantaciones de café sin sombra al compararlos con bosque y plantaciones de café con sombra. Asimismo, la profundidad de la capa de hojarasca fue menor en plantaciones de café sin sombra en comparación con bosque y plantaciones de café con sombra. Nuestros resultados proporcionan la primera evidencia de que las plantaciones con sombra proporcionan hábitat adicional para E. burchelli y L. praedator, depredadores de la comunidad de artrópodos en la hojarasca. E. burchelli y L. praedator actúan como eslabones críticos entre especies de aves que se alimentan de hormigas y los artrópodos de la hojarasca, proporcionando un recurso alimenticio fácilmente explotado que de otra manera no estaría disponible para muchas aves. La continua transformación de plantaciones de café con sombra a plantaciones sin sombra pudiera tener efectos negativos sobre las hormigas arrieras y la biodiversidad asociada. [source]


ABSTRACT Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters. [source]

Consistency of immigrant and country-of-birth suicide rates: a meta-analysis

M. Voracek
Objective:, Multifaceted evidence (family, twin, adoption, molecular genetic, geographic and surname studies of suicide) suggests genetic risk factors for suicide. Migrant studies are also informative in this context, but underused. In particular, a meta-analysis of the associations of immigrant (IMM) and country-of-birth (COB) suicide rates is unavailable. Method:, Thirty-three studies, reporting IMM suicide rates for nearly 50 nationalities in seven host countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA), were retrieved. Results:, Total-population IMM and COB suicide rates were strongly positively associated (combined rank-order correlation across 20 eligible studies: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.56,0.73, P < 10,9). The effect generalized across both sexes, host countries and study periods. Conclusion:, Following the logic of the migrant study design of genetic epidemiology, the correspondence of IMM and COB suicide rates is consistent with the assumption of population differences in the prevalence of genetic risk factors for suicide. [source]

Plasticity of the visual system after early brain damage

The aim of this review is to discuss the existing evidence supporting different processes of visual brain plasticity after early damage, as opposed to damage that occurs during adulthood. There is initial evidence that some of the neuroplastic mechanisms adopted by the brain after early damage to the visual system are unavailable at a later stage. These are, for example, the ability to differentiate functional tissue within a larger dysplastic cortex during its formation, or to develop new thalamo-cortical connections able to bypass the lesion and reach their cortical destination in the occipital cortex. The young brain also uses the same mechanisms available at later stages of development but in a more efficient way. For example, in people with visual field defects of central origin, the anatomical expansion of the extrastriatal visual network is greater after an early lesion than after a later one, which results in more efficient mechanisms of visual exploration of the blind field. A similar mechanism is likely to support some of the differences found in people with blindsight, the phenomenon of unconscious visual perception in the blind field. In particular, compared with people with late lesions, those with early brain damage appear to have stronger subjective awareness of stimuli hitting the blind visual field, reported as a conscious feeling that something is present in the visual field. Expanding our knowledge of these mechanisms could help the development of early therapeutic interventions aimed at supporting and enhancing visual reorganization at a time of greatest potential brain plasticity. [source]

Cerebral cortical laminar necrosis on diffusion-weighted MRI in hypoglycaemic encephalopathy

Y. Yoneda
Abstract Background Laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex characterized neuropathologically by delayed selective neuronal necrosis occurs in hypoglycaemic encephalopathy and other brain diseases. Case report A 37-year-old male with insulin-treated Type 1 diabetes mellitus developed hypoglycaemic encephalopathy associated with respiratory failure. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI during the subacute period demonstrated high signals along the cerebral cortex. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography showed diffuse, severe cerebral hypoperfusion. The patient remained comatose and died 1 month later. Conclusions High signals along the cortical bands on diffusion-weighted MRI suggest cortical laminar necrosis, although a postmortem examination was unavailable. Sustained hypoglycaemic brain injury, possibly associated with respiratory hypoxia, may be the underlying mechanism. [source]

Assessing diabetic control , reliability of methods available in resource poor settings

A. P. Rotchford
Abstract Aims and methods To examine the reliability of random venous or capillary blood glucose testing, random urine glucose testing, and a current symptom history in predicting a high HbA1c in Type 2 diabetic patients taking oral hypoglycaemic agents in a poorly controlled rural African population. Results For a cut-off point for HbA1c of , 8%, for random venous plasma glucose of , 14 mmol/L (present in 47.2% of subjects), specificity was 97.1% (95% CI 85.1,99.9), sensitivity 56.8% (48.8,64.5) and positive predictive value (PPV) 98.9% (94.2,99.9). HbA1c, 8% is predicted by a random capillary blood glucose of 17 mmol/L (present in 28.4% of subjects) with specificity 100% (90.0,100.0), PPV 100% (93.7,100.0) and sensitivity of 34.3% (27.2,42.1). HbA1c, 8% is predicted by the presence of heavy glycosuria (, 55 mmol/L) (present in 35.6%) with specificity 94.1% (80.3,99.3), sensitivity of 41.9% (34.1,49.9) and PPV 97.1% (89.9,99.6). Polyuria/nocturia (present in 31.3%) was the only symptom found to be associated with poor control, with a specificity for predicting HbA1c of , 8% of 81.5% (61.9,93.7), PPV 89.1% (76.4,96.4) and sensitivity 30.6% (22.9,39.1). Conclusions Where resources are short, random glucose testing can be used to detect a significant proportion of those with the worst control with a high degree of specificity enabling primary care staff to modify treatment safely. Where facilities are limited capillary blood or urine testing with reagent strips, may be substituted for venous plasma testing in the laboratory. A symptom history was insufficient to replace biochemical testing, but where this is unavailable, urinary symptoms may be helpful. Diabet. Med. 19, 195,200 (2002) [source]

Using multi-scale species distribution data to infer drivers of biological invasion in riparian wetlands

Jane A. Catford
Abstract Aim, Biological invasion is a major conservation problem that is of interest to ecological science. Understanding mechanisms of invasion is a high priority, heightened by the management imperative of acting quickly after species introduction. While information about invading species' ecology is often unavailable, species distribution data can be collected near the onset of invasion. By examining distribution patterns of exotic and native plant species at multiple spatial scales, we aim to identify the scale (of those studied) that accounts for most variability in exotic species abundance, and infer likely drivers of invasion. Location, River Murray wetlands, south-eastern Australia. Methods, A nested, crossed survey design was used to determine the extent of variation in wetland plant abundance, grazing intensity and water depth at four spatial scales (reaches, wetland clumps, wetlands, wetland sections), and among three Depth-strata. We examined responses of exotic and native species groups (grouped into terrestrial and amphibious taxa), native weeds and 10 individual species using hierarchical ANOVA. Results, As a group dominated by terrestrial taxa, exotic species cover varied at reach-, wetland- and section-scales. This likely reflects differences in abiotic characteristics and propagule pressure at these scales. Groups based on native species did not vary at any scale examined. Cover of 10 species mostly varied among and within wetlands (patterns unrelated to species' origin or functional group), but species' responses differed, despite individual plants being similar in size. While flora mostly varied among wetlands, exotic cover varied most among reaches (26%), which was attributed to hydrological modification and human activities. Main conclusions, Multi-scale surveys can rapidly identify factors likely to affect species' distributions and can indicate where future research should be directed. By highlighting disproportionate variation in exotic cover among reaches, this study suggests that flow regulation and human-mediated dispersal facilitate exotic plant invasion in River Murray wetlands. [source]

Residence time and potential range: crucial considerations in modelling plant invasions

John R. U. Wilson
ABSTRACT A prime aim of invasion biology is to predict which species will become invasive, but retrospective analyses have so far failed to develop robust generalizations. This is because many biological, environmental, and anthropogenic factors interact to determine the distribution of invasive species. However, in this paper we also argue that many analyses of invasiveness have been flawed by not considering several fundamental issues: (1) the range size of an invasive species depends on how much time it has had to spread (its residence time); (2) the range size and spread rate are mediated by the total extent of suitable (i.e. potentially invasible) habitat; and (3) the range size and spread rate depend on the frequency and intensity of introductions (propagule pressure), the position of founder populations in relation to the potential range, and the spatial distribution of the potential range. We explored these considerations using a large set of invasive alien plant species in South Africa for which accurate distribution data and other relevant information were available. Species introduced earlier and those with larger potential ranges had larger current range sizes, but we found no significant effect of the spatial distribution of potential ranges on current range sizes, and data on propagule pressure were largely unavailable. However, crucially, we showed that: (1) including residence time and potential range always significantly increases the explanatory power of the models; and (2) residence time and potential range can affect which factors emerge as significant determinants of invasiveness. Therefore, analyses not including potential range and residence time can come to misleading conclusions. When these factors were taken into account, we found that nitrogen-fixing plants and plants invading arid regions have spread faster than other species, but these results were phylogenetically constrained. We also show that, when analysed in the context of residence time and potential range, variation in range size among invasive species is implicitly due to variation in spread rates, and, that by explicitly assuming a particular model of spread, it is possible to estimate changes in the rates of plant invasions through time. We believe that invasion biology can develop generalizations that are useful for management, but only in the context of a suitable null model. [source]

Trends in morphine prescriptions, illicit morphine use and associated harms among regular injecting drug users in Australia

Abstract This paper examines population trends in morphine prescriptions in Australia, and contrasts them with findings from annual surveys with regular injecting drug users (IDU). Data on morphine prescriptions from 1995 to 2003 were obtained from the Drug Monitoring System (DRUMS) run by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Data collected from regular IDU as part of the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) were analysed (2001,2004). The rate of morphine prescription per person aged 15,54 years increased by 89% across Australia between 1995 and 2003 (from 46.3 to 85.9 mg per person). Almost half (46%) of IDU surveyed in 2004 reported illicit morphine use, with the highest rates in jurisdictions where heroin was less available. Recent morphine injectors were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, out of treatment and homeless in comparison to IDU who had not injected morphine. They were also more likely to have injected other pharmaceutical drugs and to report injection related problems. Among those who had injected morphine recently, the most commonly reported injecting harms were morphine dependence (38%), difficulty finding veins into which to inject (36%) and scarring or bruising (27%). Morphine use and injection is a common practice among regular IDU in Australia. In some cases, morphine may be a substitute for illicit heroin; in others, it may be being used to treat heroin dependence where other pharmacotherapies, such as methadone and buprenorphine, are perceived as being unavailable or undesirable by IDU. Morphine injection appears to be associated with polydrug use, and with it, a range of problems related to drug injection. Further research is required to monitor and reduce morphine diversion and related harms by such polydrug injectors. [source]

Clinical Information Systems: Instant Ubiquitous Clinical Data for Error Reduction and Improved Clinical Outcomes

Craig F. Feied MD
Abstract Immediate access to existing clinical information is inadequate in current medical practice; lack of existing information causes or contributes to many classes of medical error, including diagnostic and treatment error. A review of the literature finds ample evidence to support a description of the problems caused by data that are missing or unavailable but little evidence to support one proposed solution over another. A primary recommendation of the Consensus Committee is that hospitals and departments should adopt systems that provide fast, ubiquitous, and unified access to all types of existing data. Additional recommendations cover a variety of related functions and operational concepts, from backups and biosurveillance to speed, training, and usability. [source]

Photochemical treatment of a mixed PAH/surfactant solution for surfactant recovery and reuse

Youn-Joo An
Because of their hydrophobic nature, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally thought to be unavailable to in situ remediation processes, and solubilization of PAHs by surfactants is usually recommended. However, mixed PAH/surfactant solutions are wastewaters that need a post-treatment after solubilization. In this study, mixed solutions of PAH and perfluorinated surfactant (PFS) were photochemically treated with and without hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the subsequent recovery and reuse of surfactant solutions were demonstrated. Phenanthrene and pyrene were selected as representative PAHs and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate (LiFOS) as a PFS. Direct photolysis (UV only) and UV/H2O2 process enhanced the PAH degradation in LiFOS solutions compared to water. Both treatment processes selectively degraded PAHs without damaging PFS, suggesting that PFS withstands photolysis. Overall, it is demonstrated that UV and UV/H2O2 processes of mixed PAH/PFS solutions are effective for surfactant recovery/reuse, as well as PAH degradation. [source]

Estimating metabolic biotransformation rates in fish from laboratory data

Jon A. Arnot
Abstract A method is proposed for estimating metabolic biotransformation rate constants for nonionic organic chemicals from measured laboratory bioconcentration and dietary bioaccumulation data in fish. Data have been selected based on a quality review to reduce uncertainty in the measured values. A kinetic mass balance model is used to estimate rates of chemical uptake and elimination. Biotransformation rate constants are essentially calculated as the difference between two quantities, a measured bio-concentration factor or elimination rate constant, and a model-derived bioconcentration factor or elimination rate constant estimated assuming no biotransformation. Model parameterization exploits key empirical data when they are available and assumes default values when study specific data are unavailable. Uncertainty analyses provide screening level assessments for confidence in the biotransformation rate constant estimates. The uncertainty analyses include the range for 95% of the predicted values and 95% confidence intervals for the calculated biotransformation values. Case studies are provided to illustrate the calculation and uncertainty methods. Biotransformation rate constants calculated by the proposed method are compared with other published estimates for 31 chemicals that range in octanol,water partition coefficients from approximately 101 to 108 and represent over four orders of magnitude in biotransformation potential. The comparison of previously published values with those calculated by the proposed method shows general agreement with 82% of the estimated values falling within a factor of three. [source]

Using BiowinÔ, Bayes, and batteries to predict ready biodegradability

Robert S. Boethling
Abstract Wether or not a given chemical substance is readily biodegradable is an important piece of information in risk screening for both new and existing chemicals. Despite the relatively low cost of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development tests, data are often unavailable and biodegradability must be estimated. In this paper, we focus on the predictive value of selected BiowinÔ models and model batteries using Bayesian analysis. Posterior probabilities, calculated based on performance with the model training sets using Bayes' theorem, were closely matched by actual performance with an expanded set of 374 premanufacture notice (PMN) substances. Further analysis suggested that a simple battery consisting of Biowin3 (survey ultimate biodegradation model) and Biowin5 (Ministry of International Trade and Industry [MITI] linear model) would have enhanced predictive power in comparison to individual models. Application of the battery to PMN substances showed that performance matched expectation. This approach significantly reduced both false positives for ready biodegradability and the overall misclassification rate. Similar results were obtained for a set of 63 pharmaceuticals using a battery consisting of Biowin3 and Biowin6 (MITI nonlinear model). Biodegradation data for PMNs tested in multiple ready tests or both inherent and ready biodegradation tests yielded additional insights that may be useful in risk screening. [source]

Microbial transformation of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous and sediment phases

Sangjin Lee
Abstract Recent studies showed that synthetic pyrethroids(SPs)can move via surface runoff into aquatic systems. Fifty-six of SP-degrading bacteria strains were isolated from contaminated sediments, of which six were evaluated for their ability to transform bifenthrin and permethrin in the aqueous phase and bifenthrin in the sediment phase. In the aqueous phase, bifenthrin was rapidly degraded by strains of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila, and the half-life (t1/2) was reduced from >700 h to 30 to 131 h. Permethrin isomers were degraded by Aeromonas sobria, Erwinia carotovora, and Yersinia frederiksenii. Similar to bifenthrin, the t1/2 of cis - and trans -permethrin was reduced by approximately 10-fold after bacteria inoculation. However, bifenthrin degradation by S. acidaminiphila was significantly inhibited in the presence of sediment, and the effect was likely caused by strong adsorption to the solid phase. Bifenthrin t1/2 was 343 to 466 h for a field sediment, and increased to 980 to 1200 h for a creek sediment. Bifenthrin degradation in the inoculated slurry treatments was not greatly enhanced when compared with the noninoculated system. Therefore, although SP-degrading bacteria may be widespread in aquatic systems, adsorption to sediment could render SPs unavailable to the degraders, thus prolonging their persistence. [source]

Effect of nonaqueous-phase liquids on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil for worm uptake and bacterial genotoxicity

Antonio Quiñones-Rivera
Abstract A study was conducted to determine the effect of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) on the bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soil. Sentry 19 oil and pristane reduced the availability of BaP for assimilation by the earthworm Eisenia fetida and for mutagenicity in a rifampicin-sensitive strain of Pseudomonas putida. As much as 80% of the compound could be rendered unavailable to the worms or for genotoxicity. Tests with five alkanes and an oil showed that the extent of reduction in genotoxicity of BaP varied with the identity, viscosity, and hydrophobicity of the NAPL. The magnitude of the decline in availability for genotoxicity differed in tests of three soils. Because little or no BaP was lost from the soil, the diminished bioavailability was not the result of a diminished total concentration of the compound. These findings show that exposure to hydrophobic toxicants can be appreciably altered in soils containing NAPLs. [source]

Predator Inspection Behaviour in a Characin Fish: an Interaction between Chemical and Visual Information?

ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2003
Grant E. Brown
Recent evidence suggests that predator inspection behaviour by Ostariophysan prey fishes is regulated by both the chemical and visual cues of potential predators. In laboratory trials, we assessed the relative importance of chemical and visual information during inspection visits by varying both ambient light (visual cues) and predator odour (chemical cues) in a 2 × 2 experimental design. Shoals of glowlight tetras (Hemigrammus erythrozonus) were exposed to a live convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) predator under low (3 lux) or high (50 lux) light levels and in the presence of the odour of a cichild fed tetras (with an alarm cue) or swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri, with an alarm cue not recognized by tetras). Tetras exhibited threat-sensitive inspection behaviour (increased latency to inspect, reduced frequency of inspection, smaller inspecting group sizes and increased minimum approach distance) towards a predator paired with a tetra-fed diet cue, regardless of light levels. Similar threat-sensitive inspection patterns were observed towards cichlids paired with a swordtail-fed diet cue only under high light conditions. Our data suggest that chemical cues in the form of prey alarm cues in the diet of the predator, are the primary source of information regarding local predation risk during inspection behaviour, and that visual cues are used when chemical information is unavailable or ambiguous. [source]

Mapping the information resources available to patients with colorectal cancer

S.J. KING phd
KING S.J., LIVINGSTON P.M., TURNER L., BYRNE K., JOHN M., SIDWELL J. & SCOTT C. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care Mapping the information resources available to patients with colorectal cancer The objectives of this study were to identify gaps in information provision along the colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment pathway as provided by health services within the North Eastern Metropolitan Integrated Cancer Service in Victoria Australia; to evaluate the information and recommend consistent, high quality health information resources; and to recommend strategies to improve delivery of patient information. A random sample of health professionals (n= 47) from various disciplines at eight health service sites participated in semi-structured interviews regarding the types of information they provided to CRC patients. Information items were mapped against a published CRC patient management framework and evaluated. A total of 193 information items were collected with 24 items specific to CRC. Gaps in information provision were evident in the community, at diagnosis, in clinics, when treatment was determined and when completed. The quality of information delivery to CRC patients across the public health sites was variable. Resources were often unavailable, out of date and inaccessible in other languages. Results indicate a need to improve health information availability and resource delivery to all CRC patients across different health services particularly at diagnosis and after treatment. Further research is required to determine patient preferences for information about CRC. [source]

Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: to treat or not to treat

V. Parkhutik
Background and purpose:, Comprehensive indications for treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenosis remain unavailable. Even less is known about endovascular treatment of asymptomatic cases. We treated symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral ostium stenosis with angioplasty and stenting and investigated the long term outcome. Methods:, Consecutive patients with two different indications were included. Group 1 (G1) had symptomatic >50% stenosis. Group 2 (G2) had asymptomatic >50% stenosis and severe lesions of anterior circulation and were expected to benefit from additional cerebral blood supply. Results:, Twenty nine vertebral origin stenoses in 28 patients (75% men, mean age 64 ± 9 years) were treated. There were 16 G1 and 13 G2 cases. Technical success rate was 100%. Immediate neurological complications rate was 3.4% (one G1 patient with vertebral TIA due to release of emboli). Two further strokes were seen during follow up (32 ± 24 months): vertebrobasilar stroke in a G2 patient with permeable stent in V1 segment, new ipsilateral V3 occlusion and high-risk cardioembolic source, and carotid stroke in a G1 patient who had had ipsilateral carotid stenting. There were no deaths of any cause. Asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one out of 19 patients from both groups who underwent a follow up angiography. Conclusions:, Angioplasty and stenting appears to be technically feasible and safe in asymptomatic and symptomatic vertebral stenosis. More studies are needed in order to clarify its role in primary and secondary prevention of vertebrobasilar stroke. High risk anterior circulation lesions should be taken into account as a possible indication in patients with asymptomatic vertebral stenosis. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2002
Hirofumi Michimae
Abstract., Larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus have two distinct morphs: normal and broad-headed, cannibal morphs. We performed three experiments to differentiate among the following hypotheses: The broad-headed morph is induced to allow: (1) feeding on nutritious conspecifics; (2) exclusion of strong competitors for food or space; or (3) feeding on large, tough prey when smaller prey items are unavailable. When newly hatched larvae were reared with a heterospecific, Rana pirica (an anuran amphibian) tadpoles, the broad-headed morph was induced more frequently compared with those reared with conspecifics. The phenotype expressed depended on the size of the tadpoles: The broad-headed morph occurred more frequently with small and the normal morph with large tadpoles. Metamorphosis occurred sooner in larvae fed conspecifics compared with those fed heterospecific tadpoles, and the mean growth rate of larvae fed conspecifics was significantly faster than that of those fed tadpoles, suggesting that the heterospecific tadpoles were less nutritive than the conspecifics. These results do not support the hypotheses that the broad-headed morph evolved for consuming conspecifics because of their better balance of nutrients or for excluding strong competitors for food or space. We tentatively conclude that the morph evolved to eat large, tough prey, including both conspecifics and heterospecific tadpoles. Because H. retardatus usually spawns very early in the spring in small ponds partially covered with ice and snow, newly hatched larvae may starve from the lack of proper food owing to extremely low water temperatures. Thus, the broad-headed morph of H. retardatus may represent a cold-habitat adaptation to overcome the severe circumstance when the only food items available are relatively large conspecifics or heterospecific tadpoles. [source]


Jonathan Scher
Acknowledging the rapid growth of child sexual abuse in the United States, this Note advocates for the recognition of a limited exception to the blanket-hearsay ban on out-of-court statements made by unavailable declarants set out by the Supreme Court in Crawford v. Washington. In order to protect a criminal defendant's Sixth Amendment confrontation right, Crawford requires that hearsay evidence that is "testimonial" in nature be deemed inadmissible if the witness is unavailable and the defendant does not have a prior opportunity to cross-examine the witness against him. However, Crawford noted that, where nontestimonial hearsay is at issue, cross-examination may not be necessary. Accordingly, where a child sexual abuse victim makes statements during a structured or semi-structured forensic interview to a member of a multidisciplinary team, these statements should be deemed nontestimonial and thus admitted into evidence, without requiring cross-examination of the child. Allowing for this exception to the general hearsay ban in Crawford is not only consistent with current precedent, but it is also warranted to promote public policy and to curb the negative impact such abuse has on society. [source]

Evaluating low level sequence identities

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2001
AROM homologous?, Are Aspergillus QUTA
A review published several years ago [Hawkins, A.R. & Lamb, H.K. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 232, 7,18] proposed that genetic, biochemical and physiological data can override sequence comparison in the determination of homology in instances where structural information is unavailable. Their lead example was the hypothesis that the transcriptional activator protein for quinate catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans, QUTA, is derived from the pentafunctional AROM protein by a gene duplication followed by cleavage [Hawkins, A.R., Lamb, H.K., Moore, J.D. & Roberts, C.F. (1993) Gene136, 49,54]. We tested this hypothesis by a sensitive combination of position-specific log-odds scoring matrix methods. The position-specific log-odds scoring matrices were derived from a large number of 3-dehydroquinate synthase and 5- enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase domains that were proposed to be the domains from the AROM protein that gave rise to the transcriptional activator protein for quinate metabolism. We show that the degree and pattern of similarity between these position-specific log-odds scoring matrices and the transcriptional activator protein for quinate catabolism in A. nidulans is that expected for random sequences of the same composition. This level of similarity provides no support for the suggested gene duplication and cleavage. The lack of any trace of evidence for homology following a comprehensive sequence analysis indicates that the homology hypothesis is without foundation, underlining the necessity to accept only similarity of sequence and/or structure as evidence of evolutionary relatedness. Further, QUTA is homologous throughout its entire length to an extended family of fungal transcriptional regulatory proteins, rendering the hypothesized QUTA,AROM homology even more problematic. [source]

The impact of an introduced predator on a threatened galaxiid fish is reduced by the availability of complex habitats

Summary 1. The availability of complex habitats such as macrophytes may be vital in determining the outcomes of interactions between introduced predators and native prey. Introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) have impacted numerous small native freshwater fishes in the southern hemisphere, but the potential role of complex habitats in determining the direct outcomes of brown trout , native fish interactions has not been experimentally evaluated. 2. An in-lake enclosure experiment was used to evaluate the importance of structurally complex habitats in affecting the direct impacts of brown trout on a threatened galaxiid fish. Five Galaxias auratus and a single brown trout were added to enclosures containing one of three different habitat types (artificial macrophytes, rocks and bare silt substrate). The experiment also had control enclosures without brown trout. Habitat-dependence of predation risk was assessed by analysis of G. auratus losses to predation, and stomach contents of remaining fish were analysed to determine if brown trout directly affect the feeding of G. auratus and whether this is also habitat-dependent. 3. Predation risk of G. auratus differed significantly between habitat types, with the highest mortality in enclosures with only bare silt substrate and the lowest in enclosures containing artificial macrophytes. This result highlights the importance of availability of complex habitats for trout , native fish interactions and suggests that increasing habitat degradation and loss in fresh waters may exacerbate the direct impacts of introduced predators. 4. Stomach contents analyses were restricted to fish in enclosures with artificial macrophytes and rocks, as most fish were consumed in enclosures with brown trout and only bare silt substrate. These analyses suggest that brown trout do not directly affect the feeding of G. auratus in complex habitats, but it is still unknown whether its feeding is reduced if complex habitats are unavailable. [source]

Predicting the impacts of an introduced species from its invasion history: an empirical approach applied to zebra mussel invasions

Anthony Ricciardi
SUMMARY 1.,Quantitative models of impact are lacking for the vast majority of known invasive species, particularly in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, managers lack predictive tools to help them prioritise invasion threats and decide where they can most effectively allocate limited resources. Predictive tools would also enhance the accuracy of water quality assessments, so that impacts caused by an invader are not erroneously attributed to other anthropogenic stressors. 2.,The invasion history of a species is a valuable guide for predicting the consequences of its introduction into a new environment. Regression analysis of data from multiple invaded sites can generate empirical models of impact, as is shown here for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Dreissena's impacts on benthic invertebrate abundance and diversity follow predictable patterns that are robust across a range of habitat types and geographic regions. Similar empirical models could be developed for other invaders with a documented invasion history. 3.,Because an invader's impact is correlated with its abundance, a surrogate model may be generated (when impact data are unavailable) by relating the invader's abundance to environmental variables. Such a model could help anticipate which habitats will be most affected by invasion. Lack of precision should not be a deterrent to developing predictive models where none exist. Crude predictions can be refined as additional data become available. Empirical modelling is a highly informative and inexpensive, but underused, approach in the management of aquatic invasive species. [source]