Unaffected Family Members (unaffected + family_member)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evidence of a founder mutation of BRCA1 in a highly homogeneous population from southern Italy with breast/ovarian cancer

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2001
Francesco Baudi
Abstract Several genes have been involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (BOC), but mutations in the BRCA1 gene are by far the most recurrent. In this study, we report the identification of a founder mutation in a geographically and historically homogeneous population from Calabria, a south Italian region. A screening performed on 24 patients from unrelated families highlighted the high prevalence of a 5083del19 alteration in the BRCA1 gene, which accounts for 33% of the overall gene mutations. The same mutation was also detected in 4 patients, all of Calabrian origin, referred to us by research centres from the north of Italy. Allelotype analysis, performed on probands and unaffected family members revealed the presence a common allele, therefore suggesting a founder effect due to a common ancestor. Our findings underscore the importance of ethnic background homogeneity in patients' selection and highlight the usefulness of founder mutations as a potential tool for optimisation of preclinical diagnosis in gene carriers and therapeutic approaches in affected individuals. Hum Mutat 18:163,164, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease in a large family with multiple cases

Marie Joossens MSc
Abstract Background: A large family of Moroccan immigrants was investigated. In this family the father developed Crohn's disease (CD) after moving from Morocco to Belgium and successively 4 of his 8 children subsequently developed CD. There was no previous history of familial CD. Methods: The family was interviewed at their home and an elaborated questionnaire was completed. The food and sanitation characteristics of the family were investigated. Moreover, serological markers were tested in all family members, including ASCA, ASCAg, ALCA, ACCA, Omp, and ANCA, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. Genetic variants in CARD15, TLR4, NOD1, CARD8, and DLG5 associated with CD were tested as well. The complete medical history of all patients was reviewed. Results: There were no known genetic variants associated with CD in this family. None of the serological antibodies could discriminate between patients and unaffected family members, although the antibody titers were higher in diseased family members as compared with the healthy family members. Conclusion: The occurrence of 5 new cases of CD within 1 Moroccan family after immigration to Belgium cannot be explained by the known genetic susceptibility factors, and thus suggests a major environmental factor probably not related to sanitation in childhood. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Anti- Saccharomyces Cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), phenotypes of IBD, and intestinal permeability: A study in IBD families

Severine Vermeire
Abstract Background Serologic markers anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with perinuclear staining (pANCA) have been proposed to study the immunopathogenesis of IBD. Their measurement may allow better phenotyping of the disease and the detection of subclinical disease. Aims To test the hypothesis that serological markers identify an immunologic trait related to disease susceptibility. We also wanted to test the hypothesis that ASCA is a marker related to abnormal tissue permeation by common antigens. Methods We studied the prevalence of pANCA and ASCA in a large cohort of sporadic and familial inflammatory bowel diseases and their unaffected relatives and spouses. Kinetics of ASCA was studied and the relationship between ASCA and 51Cr-EDTA intestinal permeation was investigated. Results ASCA was associated with sporadic Crohn's disease (CD) (63%), with Crohn's patients belonging to pure CD families (62%) and also with their unaffected family members (21%). pANCA was associated with UC (58%). The prevalence of ASCA in CD patients belonging to mixed families was strikingly low (33%). ASCA was a stable marker throughout the disease and was not related to an increased small intestinal permeability. Conclusion ASCA is strongly associated with familial CD in Belgium, and 21% of healthy family members also display the marker. The association is much weaker in patients belonging to mixed families. ASCA is a stable marker and is not a secondary phenomenon due to increased intestinal permeability. [source]

Idiopathic Hyperphosphatasia and TNFRSF11B Mutations: Relationships Between Phenotype and Genotype,

Belinda Chong
Abstract Homozygous mutations in TNFRSF11B, the gene encoding osteoprotegerin, were found in affected members from six of nine families with idiopathic hyperphosphatasia. The severity of the phenotype was related to the predicted effects of the mutations on osteoprotegerin function. Introduction: Idiopathic hyperphosphatasia (IH) is a rare high bone turnover congenital bone disease in which affected children are normal at birth but develop progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and deafness. There is, however, considerable phenotypic variation from presentation in infancy with severe progressive deformity through to presentation in late childhood with minimal deformity. Two recent reports have linked idiopathic hyperphosphatasia with deletion of, or mutation in, the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG), an important paracrine modulator of RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Materials and Methods: We studied subjects with a clinical diagnosis of IH and unaffected family members from nine unrelated families. Clinical, biochemical, and radiographic data were collected, and genomic DNA examined for mutations in TNFRSF11B. The relationship between the mutations, their predicted effects on OPG function, and the phenotype were then examined. Results: Of the nine families studied, affected subjects from six were homozygous for novel mutations in TNFRSF11B. Their parents were heterozygous, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Four of the six mutations occurred in the cysteine-rich ligand-binding domain and are predicted to disrupt binding of OPG to RANKL. Missense mutations in the cysteine residues, predicted to cause major disruption to the ligand-binding region, were associated with a severe phenotype (deformity developing before 18 months age and severe disability), as was a large deletion mutation. Non-cysteine missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain were associated with an intermediate phenotype (deformity recognized around the age of 5 years and an increased rate of long bone fracture). An insertion/deletion mutation at the C-terminal end of the protein was associated with the mildest phenotype. Conclusion: Mutations in TNFRSF11B account for the majority of, but not all, cases of IH, and there are distinct genotype-phenotype relationships. [source]

Clinical Value of Electrocardiographic Parameters in Genotyped Individuals with Familial Long QT Syndrome

MOENNIG, G., et al.: Clinical Value of Electrocardiographic Parameters in Genotyped Individuals with Familial Long QT Syndrome. Rate corrected QT interval (QTc) and QT dispersion (QTd) have been suggested as markers of an increased propensity to arrhythmic events and efficacy of therapy in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS). To evaluate whether QTc and QTd correlate to genetic status and clinical symptoms in LQTS patients and their relatives, ECGs of 116 genotyped individuals were analyzed. JTc and QTc were longest in symptomatic patients (n = 28). Both QTd and JTd were significantly higher in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic (n = 29) or unaffected family members (n = 59). The product of QTd/JTd and QTc/JTc was significantly different among all three groups. Both dispersion and product put additional and independent power on identification of mutation carriers when adjusted for sex and age in a logistic regression analysis. Thus, symptomatic patients with LQTS show marked inhomogenity of repolarization in the surface ECG. QT dispersion and QT product might be helpful in finding LQTS mutation carriers and might serve as additional ECG tools to identify asymptomatic LQTS patients. [source]

A sodium channel gene SCN9A polymorphism that increases nociceptor excitability,

Mark Estacion PhD
Sodium channel NaV1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons, where it amplifies small depolarizations. In studies on a family with inherited erythromelalgia associated with NaV1.7 gain-of-function mutation A863P, we identified a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism within SCN9A in the affected proband and several unaffected family members; this polymorphism (c. 3448C&T, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database rs6746030, which produces the amino acid substitution R1150W in human NaV1.7 [hNaV1.7]) is present in 1.1 to 12.7% of control chromosomes, depending on ethnicity. In this study, we examined the effect of the R1150W substitution on function of the hNaV1.7 channel, and on the firing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in which this channel is normally expressed. We show that this polymorphism depolarizes activation (7.9,11mV in different assays). Current-clamp analysis shows that the 1150W allele depolarizes (6mV) resting membrane potential and increases (,2-fold) the firing frequency in response to depolarization in DRG neurons in which it is present. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in the NaV1.7 channel may influence susceptibility to pain. Ann Neurol 2009;66:862,866 [source]

A novel mutation in the third extracellular domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in a Finnish family with autosomal-dominant recurrent fever

Hanna Nevala
Objective To investigate the presence of TRAPS (tumor necrosis factor receptor,associated periodic syndrome), which is a recently defined, dominantly inherited autoinflammatory syndrome caused by mutations in the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A gene (TNFRSF1A, CD120a), in a Finnish family with recurrent fever. Methods The TNFRSF1A gene was sequenced in both affected and unaffected family members. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses were used to assess membrane expression and serum levels of the TNFRSF1A protein, respectively. Results A missense mutation in exon 4, located in the third extracellular domain of TNFRSF1A and resulting in an amino acid substitution (F112I) close to a conserved cysteine, was found in all 4 affected family members and in 1 asymptomatic individual. The mutation was clearly associated with low levels of soluble TNFRSF1A as well as with the clinical symptoms of recurrent fever and abdominal pain. Impaired shedding of TNFRSF1A after phorbol myristate acetate stimulation was detected in blood granulocytes and monocytes from the 3 adult family members with the mutation, but in the child bearing the mutation and showing clinical symptoms of recent onset, the shedding defect was less marked. Conclusion TRAPS should be suspected in any patient who presents with a history of intermittent fever accompanied by unexplained abdominal pain, arthritis, or skin rash, particularly in the presence of a family history of such symptoms. Screening for low serum levels of soluble TNFRSF1A identifies individuals who are likely to have TNFRSF1A mutations. [source]

MECP2 mutations in Serbian Rett syndrome patients

A. Djarmati
Background,,, Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental X-linked dominant disorder affecting 1/15,000 girls worldwide. Eight years ago, the MECP2 gene was associated with the devastating clinical features observed in Rett syndrome patients. Objectives,,, To investigate the spectrum and the frequency of MECP2 mutations in Serbian Rett syndrome patients. Patients and methods,,, We screened the MECP2 coding region by conventional mutational screening (single-strand conformation polymorphism/sequencing) in 24 patients of Serbian origin and in their 41 unaffected family members. In search for gene dosage alterations in seemingly mutation-negative girls, we developed a new, specific quantitative PCR method. Results,,, Nineteen patients (79%) carried MECP2 mutations, five of which were novel (one nonsense mutation, one duplication and three deletions). Fourteen previously described disease-causing sequence changes and one polymorphism were also detected. Detailed case reports are given for the carriers of the novel mutations. Large MECP2 rearrangements cause Rett syndrome in a significant number of girls without ,classic' mutations in this gene. Therefore, we developed a specific quantitative PCR method, covering MECP2 exons 3 and 4, which previously has not been used for screening. No dosage alterations of the two exons were found in the four tested mutation-negative girls. Conclusions,,, This is the first genetic study of Rett syndrome in Serbian patients describing the MECP2 mutational and phenotypic spectrum in this population. Detailed clinical descriptions of this ethnically homogeneous patient population add to our knowledge of genotype/phenotype correlations in this severe condition. [source]

A nonsense mutation in exon 8 of the APC gene (Arg283Ter) causes clinically variable FAP in a Malaysian Chinese family

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2003
Zulqarnain Mohamed
The present study was carried out to characterize the causative genetic mutation in a medium-sized Malaysian Chinese pedigree of three generations affected with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Clinical data and genetic studies revealed considerable phenotypic variability in affected individuals in this family. Blood was obtained from members of the FAP-01 family and genomic DNA was extracted. Mutation screening of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene was carried out using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The possibility of exon skipping was predicted by splicing motif recognition software (ESEfinder release2.0). SSCP results showed mobility shifts in exon 8 of the APC gene which segregated with affected members of the family. Sequence analysis revealed that the affected individuals are heterozygous for a C847T transition, whilst all the unaffected family members and control individuals are homozygous C at the same position. This nucleotide substitution generates a stop codon at amino acid position 283, in place of the usual arginine (Arg283Ter). We conclude that an Arg283Ter mutation in the APC gene is causative of the FAP phenotype in this family, although there is considerable variation in the presentation of this disease among affected individuals. Computational analysis predicts that this mutation occurs within sequences that may function as splicing signals, so that the sequence change may affect normal splicing. [source]

Systemic disease associations of familial and sporadic glaucoma: the Glaucoma Inheritance Study in Tasmania

Alex W. Hewitt
Abstract. Background:, This aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of various disease-associated and potentially modifiable risk factors between people with familial and sporadic forms of primary open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods:, A cross-sectional, retrospective study design was utilized. A detailed questionnaire enquiring about knowledge of family history, demographic data, current medications, and medical history of systemic disorders was administered. Where possible, living relatives were examined for signs of OAG. Results:, A total of 3,800 potential patients with OAG were identified, of whom 2062 were examined. One thousand twelve (59.5%) subjects were found to have familial OAG, and 688 (40.5%) subjects had no known or identified relative with OAG (sporadic glaucoma). One thousand forty-two unaffected family members examined. A past history of migraine was found more often with familial OAG (OR: 1.67 95% CI: 1.15,2.42). This effect was primarily driven by patients who had a first-degree relative also affected by OAG. Following adjustment for male gender and the age at review, the presence of atherosclerosis was also found to be more common in patients with familial glaucoma than in people with sporadic disease (OR: 1.42 95% CI: 1.05,1.92). No significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension, Raynaud's phenomenon, diabetes mellitus or thyroid disease was identified. Conclusions:, Patients with a known relative affected by OAG were statistically significantly more likely to have a past history for migraine or presence of atherosclerosis compared to people with no known affected relative. An understanding of such differences and systemic comorbidities will be useful for further work investigating the underlying molecular mechanisms of this disease. [source]


Yan-Ling Wei
SUMMARY 1Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder that has a complex set of symptoms and potentially devastating consequences. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are responsible for the development of HCM, but the mtDNA mutations appear to differ considerably among different populations and regions. 2In the present study, three families with HCM were found and investigated: one in Shandong province and two in the Chongqing region of China. The entire mtDNA genome from the 18 affected and 66 unaffected family members was sequenced directly and the mtDNA mutations were determined. 3The frequency of haplogroup M10 was significantly higher in family members with HCM (HCM group) than in unaffected family members (normal group). Three mtDNA mutations were found with a significantly higher frequency in affected individuals than in unaffected family individuals, namely G7697A in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene (P < 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 227.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 23.6,2194.8) and T12477C (P = 0.0037; OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.8,17.6) and G13135A in the NADH dehydrogenase 5 gene (P < 0.0001; OR 26.0; 95% CI 6.9,98.3), suggesting that these mutations are probably associated with susceptibility to HCM. In addition, mitochondrial Complex I activity was markedly decreased in the HCM group, suggesting that these mutations most likely affect mitochondrial respiratory function. 4In conclusion, the results of the present study imply that mtDNA mutations G7697A, T12477C and G13135A are genetic factors that indicate a susceptibility to HCM and that could be used for the large-scale screening of genetic markers as well as the early diagnosis of HCM. [source]

A novel nonsense mutation in the EYA1 gene associated with branchio-oto-renal/branchiootic syndrome in an Afrikaner kindred

JC Clarke
Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the associations of hearing loss, branchial arch defects and renal anomalies. Branchiootic (BO) syndrome is a related disorder that presents without the highly variable characteristic renal anomalies of BOR syndrome. Dominant mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophila eyes absent gene (EYA1) are frequently the cause of both BOR and BO syndromes. We report a South African family of Afrikaner descent with affected individuals presenting with pre-auricular abnormalities and either hearing loss or bilateral absence of the kidneys. Genetic analysis of the pedigree detected a novel EYA1 heterozygous nonsense mutation in affected family members but not in unaffected family members or a random DNA panel. Through mutational analysis, we conclude that this particular mutation is the cause of BOR/BO syndrome in this family as a result of a truncation of the EYA1 protein that ablates the critical EYA homologous region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of BOR/BO syndrome reported in Africa or in those of the Afrikaner descent. [source]