Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Ulceration

  • aphthou ulceration
  • chronic ulceration
  • digital ulceration
  • foot ulceration
  • gastric ulceration
  • genital ulceration
  • leg ulceration
  • mucosal ulceration
  • oral ulceration
  • peptic ulceration
  • recurrent aphthou ulceration
  • skin ulceration
  • venous ulceration

  • Selected Abstracts

    Outcomes of Childhood Hemangiomas Treated with the Pulsed-Dye Laser with Dynamic Cooling: A Retrospective Chart Analysis

    BACKGROUND Laser treatment of childhood hemangiomas remains controversial. Previous studies have used outdated technology, resulting in a potential overrepresentation of adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes of hemangiomas treated with the most current laser technology. METHODS A retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients with a median age of 3.0 months and a total of 105 hemangiomas were enrolled over a 2.5-year period. All were treated with the 595-nm long-pulse pulsed-dye laser (LP-PDL) with dynamic epidermal cooling at 2- to 8-week intervals depending on the stage of growth. Exclusion criteria were previous laser, surgical, or corticosteroid treatment. Three reviewers assessed outcomes. RESULTS Near-complete or complete clearance in color were achieved for 85 (81%) and in thickness for 67 (64%) hemangiomas. There was no scarring or atrophy. Ulceration occurred in one case and resolved during treatment. Hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation occurred in 4% and 14% of hemangiomas, respectively. CONCLUSION Early treatment of childhood hemangiomas with the 595-nm LP-PDL with dynamic cooling may reduce the proliferative phase and result in excellent rates of clearing and few adverse events. [source]

    Periungual Basal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma, the most common malignancy in humans, rarely occurs on the nail unit and may be frequently misdiagnosed clinically. OBJECTIVES To present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit successfully treated with the mohs technique and to review the literature regarding this unique presentation of this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case report and review of the English literature of nail unit basal cell carcinoma. RESULTS In addition to the currently described patient, 17 other patients with nail unit basal cell carcinaoma have been reported. The tumor occurred approximately 3 times more often on the fingers then on the toes and had a slight predilection to occur in men. Ulceration, noted in more than one-half of patients, was the most common presentation of nail unit basal cell carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery. Often with second intention healing, was successfully employed in 39% of patients. CONCLUSIONS Basal cell carcinaom infrequently involves the nail unit and often presents as ulceration. Adequate biopsy of the lesion is essential in making a timely diagnosis. Mohs micrographic surgery with second intension healing is an effective treatment that may offer excellent cosmetic and functional results. [source]

    Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma in a tertiary hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Felix Boon Bin Yap MD MRCP
    Background, Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer among Orientals. Data on this malignancy is lacking in Malaysia, prompting a retrospective study to determine the clinical characteristics in the skin clinic, Sarawak General Hospital between 2000 and 2008. Methods, Demographic data and clinical features of 64 histopathologically proven BCC from 43 patients were retrieved. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the clinical characteristics based on the region of involvement and gender. Results, The mean age of presentation was 60.9 years. Male to female ratio was 1.05. Majority of the patients were Chinese (44.2%) followed by Malays (32.6%), Bidayuhs (14.0%) and Ibans (6.9%). Nodular BCC accounted for 95.3% of cases while 4.7% were superficial BCC. All the nodular BCC were pigmented. Ulceration was noted in 18%. There were 82.8% of BCC on the head and neck region and 17.2% on the trunk and limb region. BCC on the latter region were larger (mean 35.0 cf. 14.4 mm, p < 0.001) and ulcerated (45.5% cf. 11.3%, p = 0.01). Superficial BCC were also more frequently encountered in this region (18.2% cf. 1.9%, p = 0.02). Compared to women, men had larger BCC (mean 21.1 cf. 13.3 mm, p = 0.03) and kept them for a longer duration (mean 21.6 cf. 13.3 months, p = 0.04). Conclusion, Clinical characteristics of BCC in Sarawak were similar to other Asian studies. Additionally, BCC on the trunk and limbs and in men were larger, ulcerative and long standing warranting better efforts for earlier detection. [source]

    Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review

    tjan Luzar
    The present manuscript gives emphasis on recognizing different morphological variants of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), on validation of immunohistochemical markers and on discussing potential diagnostic pitfalls. Material and methods: Histological features analyzed in 66 AFXs were: ulceration, morphological variants, growth pattern, location in the skin and vascular/perineural invasion. The antibodies used were CK-MNF116, CK-AE1/AE3, S100, smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD31 and EMA. Results: The study included 59 males, 7 females, aged 55,95 years, mean 77 years. All developed on sun damaged skin. Ulceration was present in 50%. Morphological patterns were pleomorphic spindle and epithelioid cells (60.6%), predominantly spindle cells (19.7%), purely spindle-cells (13.6%), and predominantly epithelioid cells (6.1%). Most were localized in the dermis (57.6%). An expansile (36.4%) rather than infiltrative (6.1%) growth into superficial subcutis was also noted. No vascular/perineural invasion was seen. Additional changes were hemorrhagic and pseudoangiomatous areas (24.2%), granular cell change (22.7%), keloid-like areas (9.1%), myxoid change (7.6%), osteoclast-like giant cells (6.1%) and clear cell change (4.6%). AFXs were consistently negative for S100, CK-MNF116, CK-AE1/AE3 and desmin. Focal positivity for SMA (45.2%), EMA (24.4%) and CD 31 (9.5%) was seen. Conclusions: A diagnosis of AFX is still made by exclusion of other malignant neoplasms with similar morphology. Immunohistochemistry plays a crucial role in this distinction, but can also be misleading. This study expands the spectrum of non-vascular CD31 positive tumors. Luzar B, Calonje E. Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls. [source]

    Successful treatment of ulcerated haemangioma with propranolol

    M Naouri
    Abstract Background, Ulceration is a frequent complication of proliferating haemangioma. Methods, Four patients with ulcerated hemangioma aged 2, 4, 5 months and 5 weeks were treated with 2 mg/kg KG propranolol. Results, Efficacy and safety of propranolol were excellent in all four cases. Conclusions, Propranolol may be the first-choice therapy for ulcerated haemangioma. [source]

    Review of Pododermatitis Circumscripta (Ulceration of the Sole) in Dairy Cows

    Sarel R. van Amstel
    Sole ulcers are among the most frequent causes of lameness in dairy cattle. They are found most commonly in the hind lateral claw, are frequently bilateral, and have a high rate of reoccurrence. The pathogenesis of sole ulceration is primarily based on mechanical injury by the 3rd phalanx to the corium, basement membrane, and basal layers of the sole epidermis as a result of failure of the suspensory apparatus in the claw. The main pathways in the failure of the suspensory system include inflammatory (dermal vascular changes followed by disruption of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation caused by local and systemic mediators) and noninflammatory (hormonal and biochemical changes in the peripartum period resulting in alterations of connective tissue in the suspensory system) pathways. Sole ulcers tend to occur in specific locations; the most reported site is the junction of the axial heel and sole. Other locations include the apex of the toe and the heel. Varying degrees of lameness may result, and the most severe are seen with complicated cases in which ascending infection affects the deeper structures of the claw. Pathologic changes at the ulcer site include dyskeratosis and dilated horn tubules with microcracks. Vascular changes include dilatation and thrombosis of capillaries with "neocapillary formation." Areas of dyskeratosis may remain for as long as 50 days at the ulcer site. Treatment includes corrective trimming and relief of weight bearing. Complicated cases may require surgical intervention. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 13-14 2008
    Article first published online: 29 JUL 200
    NSAIDs stroke risk NSAIDs have been linked with an increased risk of stroke in an epidemiological study from The Netherlands (Arch Intern Med 2008;168: 1219-24). Nine years' follow-up of 7636 older persons (mean age 70) identified 807 strokes. The risk of stroke was significantly increased for current use of nonselective NSAIDs (hazard ratio 1.72 for all strokes) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs (HR 2.75 for all strokes; HR 4.54 for ischaemic stroke). Increased risk was found for several individual NSAIDs but was statistically significant only for naproxen (HR 2.63) and the withdrawn rofecoxib (HR 3.38). HPV vaccine chosen The DoH has chosen GlaxoSmithKline's Cervarix HPV vaccine for the national immunisation campaign beginning in September. Cervarix is a bivalent vaccine conferring immunity against HPV16 and 18, which account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers worldwide. Its competitor, Gardasil, is a quadrivalent vaccine additionally protecting against HPV6 and 11, which cause 90 per cent of genital warts. The procurement process assessed the vaccines against ,a wide range of criteria such as their scientific qualities and cost effectiveness'. The DoH has not revealed what it will pay for Cervarix. Melatonin for insomnia Lundbeck has introduced melatonin (Circadin) as monotherapy for the short-term treatment of primary insomnia characterised by poor quality of sleep in patients who are aged 55 or over. The dose is 2mg once daily two hours before bed-time and after food for three weeks. A course costs £10.77. Fesoterodine launched Pfizer has introduced feso-terodine (Toviaz), a prodrug for tolterodine (Detrusitol), for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder. Treatment is initiated at a dose of 4mg per day and increased to 8mg per day according to response. The full therapeutic effect may not occur until after two to eight weeks; treatment should be re-evaluated after eight weeks. A month's treatment at either dose costs £29.03, the same as sustained-release tolterodine (Detrusitol XL). Intensive glycaemic control for T2D? Two large trials of intensive glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes have conflicting implications for clinical practice. The ACCORD study (N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545-9) found that treating patients at high CVD risk to a target HbA1c of <6.0 per cent was associated with a 22 per cent increased risk of death and no reduction in macrovascular end-points compared with a target of 7.0-7.9 per cent. The ADVANCE study compared treating to a standard (HbA1c 7.3 per cent) or low (HBA1c 6.5 per cent) target. More intensive glycaemic control significantly reduced microvascular end-points, primarily due to a reduction in nephropathy. There was no difference in the risk of retinopathy or macrovascular end-points. Nicorandil as ulcer cause The potassium-channel activator nicorandil (Ikorel) may be associated with gastro-intestinal ulceration but is frequently overlooked as a possible cause, warns the MHRA in its latest Drug Safety Update (2008;1:Issue 11). Ulceration may affect any portion of the gastro-intestinal tract from the mouth to the perianal area, and it is frequently severe and may cause perforation. Ulcers due to nicorandil are refractory to treatment and only resolve on withdrawal of the drug. Withdrawal should be carried out under the supervision of a cardiologist. , This issue of Drug Safety Update also includes an overview of safety issues with natalizumab (Tysabri) for multiple sclerosis. Atypical antipsychotics diabetes risk ,small' The excess risk of diabetes due to treatment with an atypical antipsychotic is small compared with older anti-psychotics, say UK researchers (Br J Psychiatry 2008;192:406-11). Their meta-analysis of 11 studies found that, compared with the use of first-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, the over-all increased risk of diabetes with atypicals was 32 per cent. Risperidone was associated with lowest excess risk (16 per cent), followed by quetiapine (Seroquel) and olanzapine (Zyprexa; 28 per cent) then clozapine (39 per cent). Most studies had method-ological limitations. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Ulceration and antihypertensive use are risk factors for infection after skin lesion excision

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2010
    Anthony Penington
    Abstract Background:, A prospective audit was performed of wound complications of skin lesion excision in a private practice setting. Methods:, For 924 consecutive skin lesion excisions performed by a single surgeon, information was collected on tumour size and site, closure method and on risk factors of age, known diabetes, use of steroids, antihypertensives or anticoagulants and ulceration of the lesion. Patients were given written instructions to wet the wound in the shower after one or two days. A wound ,infection' event was recorded if the wound appeared inflamed or if the patient had been treated with antibiotics by any practitioner. Wound bleeding was recorded if the patient returned or attended elsewhere for management of bleeding. Results:, Sixty-seven wounds (7.25%) met the broad definition of ,infection' and 18 (1.9%) wounds suffered bleeding. Ulceration (odds ratio (OR) 3.15, P= 0.008) and use of antihypertensives (OR 2.5, P= 0.006) were independent risk factors for infection along with site and closure method. The patients who did not wet their wounds post-operatively were also at an increased risk of infection (OR 2.1, P= 0.018). Aspirin caused a slight, non-statistically significant increase in bleeding rate, and warfarin caused a larger, but still not statistically significant, increase in bleeding. Use of other anticoagulants caused a significant increase in bleeding (OR 10.9, P= 0.006). Conclusion:, Ulceration of the skin lesion and use of antihypertensives are significant risk factors for wound infection. Wetting surgical wounds with clean tap water does not increase, and may even reduce, wound infection rate. [source]

    Sarcoidosis with cutaneous granulomatous vasculitis

    Chia-Hung Wei
    ABSTRACT Ulceration of non-caseating granulomas is a rare cutaneous presentation of sarcoidosis. Granulomatous vasculitis is classically associated with Wegener's granulomatosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis or Churg,Strauss syndrome. It is also commonly noted in pulmonary sarcoidosis, but has seldom been reported in cutaneous sarcoidosis, particularly the ulcerative variant. We present a rare case of sarcoidosis with multiple purpuric leg ulcers showing a granulomatous vasculitis histologically. [source]

    Is there a benefit to sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with T4 melanoma?

    CANCER, Issue 24 2009
    Csaba Gajdos MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether patients with thick (Breslow depth >4 mm), clinically lymph node-negative melanoma require sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. The authors examined the impact of SLN biopsy on prognosis and outcome in this patient population. METHODS: A review of the authors' institutional review board-approved melanoma database identified 293 patients with T4 melanoma who underwent surgical excision between 1998 and 2007. Patient demographics, histologic features, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 227 T4 patients who had an SLN biopsy, 107 (47%) were positive. The strongest predictors of a positive SLN included angiolymphatic invasion, satellitosis, or ulceration of the primary tumor. Patients with a T4 melanoma and a negative SLN had a significantly better 5-year distant disease-free survival (DDFS) (85.3% vs 47.8%; P < .0001) and overall survival (OS) (80% vs 47%; P < .0001) compared with those with metastases to the SLN. For SLN-positive patients, only angiolymphatic invasion was a significant predictor of DDFS, with a hazard ratio of 2.29 (P = .007). Ulceration was not significant when examining SLN-positive patients but the most significant factor among SLN-negative patients, with a hazard ratio of 5.78 (P = .02). Increasing Breslow thickness and mitotic rate were also significantly associated with poorer outcome. Patients without ulceration or SLN metastases had an extremely good prognosis, with a 5-year OS >90% and a 5-year DDFS of 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically lymph node-negative T4 melanoma cases should be strongly considered for SLN biopsy, regardless of Breslow depth. SLN lymph node status is the most significant prognostic sign among these patients. T4 patients with a negative SLN have an excellent prognosis in the absence of ulceration and should not be considered candidates for adjuvant high-dose interferon. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Fever, Oral Ulcerations, Arthralgias, Neutropenia, and a Polycyclic Skin Eruption in a 14-Year-Old Girl

    Ryan Turner M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Time-trends in gastroprotection with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 1218,1228 Summary Background, Preventive strategies are advocated in patients at risk of upper-gastrointestinal complications associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aim, To examine time-trends in preventive strategies. Methods, In a study population comprising 50 126 NSAID users ,50 years from the Integrated Primary Care Information database, we considered two preventive strategies: co-prescription of gastroprotective agents and prescription of a cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitor. In patients with ,1 risk factor (history of upper-gastrointestinal bleeding/ulceration, age >65 years, use of anticoagulants, aspirin, or corticosteroids), correct prescription was defined as the presence of a preventive strategy and under-prescription as the absence of one. In patients with no risk factors, correct prescription was defined as the lack of a preventive strategy, and over-prescription as the presence of one. Results, Correct prescription rose from 6.9% in 1996 to 39.4% in 2006 (P < 0.01) in high-risk NSAID users. Under-prescription fell from 93.1% to 59.9% (P < 0.01). In the complete cohort, over-prescription rose from 2.9% to 12.3% (P < 0.01). Conclusions, Under-prescription of preventive strategies has steadily decreased between 1996 and 2006; however, 60% of NSAID users at increased risk of NSAID complications still do not receive adequate protection. [source]

    Longstanding malformation of right sided pinna in an elderly man

    Deeke Yolmo
    ABSTRACT The pinna is the second most common site for external ear vascular malformation in the head and neck. These malformations are relatively uncommon in adults and can pose difficult therapeutic challenges. We hereby present a case of a 69-year-old man with a congenital lesion in the right pinna consistent with an arteriovenous malformation. The lesion was complicated by ulceration and bleeding for 6 months prior to presentation. Resection of pinna was carried out, and satisfactory functional and esthetic results were obtained. There was no recurrence at 22 months of regular follow up. [source]

    Assessment of Incidence, Cause, and Consequences of Pressure Ulcers to Evaluate Quality of Provided Care

    BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers are one of the most frequently registered complications in general surgery. OBJECTIVE To obtain insight into the incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers and to evaluate the value of pressure ulcer registration to assess quality of care. RESULTS During the 9-year study period, 275 pressure ulcers were registered (5.8% of total registered complications). Age and female sex were independent risk factors for pressure ulcer development. Pressure ulcer classification was as follows: mild (53.3%), moderate (35.6%), severe (9.5%), and irreversible damage (1.5%). Patients undergoing hip surgery and major limb amputation were at risk for pressure ulcer development (10.4% and 8.8%, respectively). In most patients (89.5%), pressure ulcers had no consequences other than local wound therapy; in 12 patients (4.4%), pressure ulceration led to alteration in medication; in 15 patients (5.5%), length of hospital stay was prolonged; and four patients (0.4%) suffered from irreversible damage. CONCLUSION The incidence of pressure ulcers is strongly correlated to sex, age, and indication of admittance. Most ulcers were classified as mild and had no consequences. The insight obtained into incidence, cause, and consequences of pressure ulcers can be used as an indicator of quality of provided care if adjusted for case mix and indication of operation. [source]

    Periungual Basal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma, the most common malignancy in humans, rarely occurs on the nail unit and may be frequently misdiagnosed clinically. OBJECTIVES To present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit successfully treated with the mohs technique and to review the literature regarding this unique presentation of this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case report and review of the English literature of nail unit basal cell carcinoma. RESULTS In addition to the currently described patient, 17 other patients with nail unit basal cell carcinaoma have been reported. The tumor occurred approximately 3 times more often on the fingers then on the toes and had a slight predilection to occur in men. Ulceration, noted in more than one-half of patients, was the most common presentation of nail unit basal cell carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery. Often with second intention healing, was successfully employed in 39% of patients. CONCLUSIONS Basal cell carcinaom infrequently involves the nail unit and often presents as ulceration. Adequate biopsy of the lesion is essential in making a timely diagnosis. Mohs micrographic surgery with second intension healing is an effective treatment that may offer excellent cosmetic and functional results. [source]

    Trigeminal Trophic Syndrome,Report of Four Cases and Review of the Literature

    Parrish Sadeghi MD
    Background. Trigeminal trophic syndrome is a unilateral, frequently crescent-shaped neurotrophic ulceration of the face occurring after injury to the trigeminal nerve. The appearance of the ulcers resembles other disease entities such as granulomatous disease, neoplasm, vasculitis, infection, and factitial dermatitis. Objectives. The objectives of this study are to increase awareness of this disorder and to emphasize the importance of eliciting a thorough neurologic history when evaluating facial ulcerations. Methods. Four cases are reported and, using MEDLINE, the English and non-English literature from 1982 to 2002 is reviewed. Results. Including this report, there have been 60 cases of trigeminal trophic syndrome reported from 1982 to 2002. The age at presentation ranged from 14 months to 93 years. Time of onset from injury to the trigeminal ganglion or its branches and the development of the ulcers ranged from 2 weeks to 30 years. One-third of the patients had undergone trigeminal nerve ablation for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and another third had a history of stroke. Other causes included craniotomy, head trauma, herpes infection. Conclusion. The majority of cases of trigeminal trophic syndrome are associated with a history of stroke or trigeminal nerve ablation. Successful surgical outcome can be achieved if the underlying neurologic pathology is addressed before the reconstructive procedure. [source]

    Interobserver Agreement on Dermoscopic Features of Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Ketty Peris MD
    background. A dermoscopic method based on the absence of a pigment network and the presence of at least one of six positive features has been described for diagnosis of pigmented basal cell carcinoma (BCC). objective. To evaluate the observers' global agreement and interobserver agreement on each dermoscopic parameter of the method recently proposed. methods. Dermoscopic images of 56 pigmented BCCs were examined by five observers with different degrees of experience in dermoscopy. results. An overall full agreement was reached for the absence of pigment network (k = 1). Very good agreement was detected for the presence of spoke wheel areas (k = 0.85) and arborizing vessels (k = 0.72), and good agreement was shown for ulceration (k = 0.49) and multiple blue-gray globules (k = 0.41). No agreement was identified on large blue-gray ovoid nests (k = 0.28) and leaflike areas (k = 0.26). conclusion. We confirm the reproducibility of the method and show that ulceration, spoke wheel areas, and arborizing tel- angiectases represent the most robust positive parameters. [source]

    High-dose immunoglobulines and extracorporeal photochemotherapy in the treatment of febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease

    Federica Marenco
    ABSTRACT Febrile ulcero-necrotic Mucha-Habermann disease (FUMHD) is a rare subtype of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (only 41 cases described to date), characterized by an acute onset of ulcero-necrotic papules accompanied by high fever and severe constitutional symptoms. We report a case of a 23-year-old man with a steroid-resistant FUMHD treated by intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) combined with methotrexate. Only one case of FUMHD treated by IVIG has been reported to date in literature. Also in our case, IVIG proved to be effective in inducing a dramatic improvement of ulceration and in arresting the appearance of new lesions. Moreover, in our experience we decided to perform a maintenance treatment with extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), to the best of our knowledge not previously used in the treatment of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. ECP, which involves extracorporeal exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photo-activated 8-methoxypsoralen, induces an immunological reaction against auto-reactive T cell clones, without immune-depression and thus could potentially be useful particularly in FUMHD avoiding the risk of an infective reactivation. [source]

    Intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi,Goutières syndrome implicates SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis

    Aim, To describe a spectrum of intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi,Goutières syndrome (AGS) associated with mutations in the AGS5 gene SAMHD1. Method, We used clinical and radiological description and molecular analysis. Results, Five individuals (three males, two females) were identified as having biallelic mutations in SAMHD1 and a cerebral arteriopathy in association with peripheral vessel involvement resulting in chilblains and ischaemic ulceration. The cerebral vasculopathy was primarily occlusive in three patients (with terminal carotid occlusion and basal collaterals reminiscent of moyamoya syndrome) and aneurysmal in two. Three of the five patients experienced intracerebral haemorrhage, which was fatal in two individuals. Post-mortem examination of one patient suggested that the arteriopathy was inflammatory in origin. Interpretation, Mutations in SAMHD1 are associated with a cerebral vasculopathy which is likely to have an inflammatory aetiology. A similar disease has not been observed in patients with mutations in AGS1 to AGS4, suggesting a particular role for SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis. Our report raises important questions about the management of patients with mutations in SAMHD1. [source]

    Some historical aspects of diabetic foot disease

    Henry Connor
    Abstract During the 19th century and for much of the 20th century, disease of the lower limb in diabetic patients was conceptualized not, as it is now, as ,the diabetic foot' or as ,a diabetic foot ulcer' but as ,gangrene in the diabetic foot' or as ,diabetic gangrene'. The prognostically and therapeutically important distinction between gangrene due to vascular insufficiency and gangrene due to infection in a limb with a normal or near normal blood supply was not made until about 1893. The advent of aseptic surgery improved the survival of amputation flaps, but surgery remained a hazardous undertaking until the discovery of insulin. Although insulin therapy reduced the risk of surgical intervention, diabetic foot disease now replaced hyperglycaemic coma as the major cause of diabetic mortality. The increasing workload attributable to diabetic foot disease after the introduction of insulin is reflected in the publications on diabetes in the 1920s. In some hospitals in North America this led to initiatives in prophylactic care and patient education, the importance of which were only more widely appreciated some 60 years later. A continuing emphasis on ischemia and infection as the major causes of diabetic foot disease led to a neglect of the role of neuropathy. In consequence, the management of diabetic neuropathic ulceration entered a prolonged period of therapeutic stagnation at a time when significant advances were being made in the management of lepromatous neuropathic ulceration. Reasons for the revival of progress in the management of diabetic neuropathic ulceration in the 1980s will be discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effectiveness of footwear and offloading interventions to prevent and heal foot ulcers and reduce plantar pressure in diabetes: a systematic review

    S. A. Bus
    Abstract Background Footwear and offloading techniques are commonly used in clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of foot ulcers in diabetes, but the evidence base to support this use is not well known. The goal of this review was to systematically assess the literature and to determine the available evidence on the use of footwear and offloading interventions for ulcer prevention, ulcer treatment, and plantar pressure reduction in the diabetic foot. Methods A search was made for reports on the effectiveness of footwear and offloading interventions in preventing or healing foot ulcers or reducing plantar foot pressure in diabetic patients published prior to May 2006. Both controlled and uncontrolled studies were included. Assessment of the methodological quality of studies and data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers. Interventions were assigned into four subcategories: casting, footwear, surgical offloading and other offloading techniques. Results Of 1651 articles identified in the baseline search, 21 controlled studies were selected for grading following full text review. Another 108 uncontrolled and cross-sectional studies were examined. The evidence to support the use of footwear and surgical interventions for the prevention of ulceration is meagre. Evidence was found to support the use of total contact casts and other non-removable modalities for treatment of neuropathic plantar ulcers. More studies are needed to support the use of surgical offloading techniques for ulcer healing. Plantar pressure reduction can be achieved by several modalities including casts, walkers, and therapeutic footwear, but the diversity in methods and materials used limits the comparison of study results. Conclusions This systematic review provides support for the use of non-removable devices for healing plantar foot ulcers. Furthermore, more high-quality studies are urgently needed to confirm the promising effects found in both controlled and uncontrolled studies of footwear and offloading interventions designed to prevent ulcers, heal ulcers, or reduce plantar pressure. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A report from the international consensus on diagnosing and treating the infected diabetic foot,

    Benjamin A. Lipsky Chairman
    Abstract In persons with diabetes, foot infection, that is, invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in tissues accompanied by tissue destruction or a host inflammatory response, usually begins with skin trauma or ulceration 1. While most foot infections remain superficial, they can spread to subcutaneous tissues, including muscle, joints, and bone. Many diabetic foot ulcers eventuate in an amputation; infection plays a role in approximately 60% of cases 2,4. Neuropathy is the main factor leading to skin breaks, while arterial perfusion largely affects infection outcome. Among the factors predisposing diabetic patients to foot infections are ill-defined immunological perturbations 5, 6; foot anatomy may foster proximal spread of infection and ischemic necrosis 7, 8. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ethnic differences in plantar pressures in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    M. P. Solano
    Abstract Aims To compare plantar foot pressures between Caucasian and Hispanic diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) without a history of foot ulceration and between Caucasian and Hispanic non-diabetic individuals. Methods Forty-four Hispanic diabetic patients with PN (HDPN), 35 Caucasian diabetic patients with PN (CDPN), 41 non-diabetic Hispanic subjects and 33 non-diabetic Caucasian subjects participated. Total and regional peak plantar pressures (PPs) and pressure time integrals (PTIs) were assessed using the EMED-SF-4 plantar pressure system. Results Hispanic diabetic patients with PN had significantly lower peak PP than Caucasian diabetic patients with PN in the entire foot (552.4 ± 227.9 vs. 810.1 ± 274.6 kPa; P < 0.001), forefoot (464.1 ± 222.6 vs. 699.6 ± 323.1 kPa; P < 0.001), hindfoot (296.3.4 + 101.8 vs. 398.1 + 178.3 kPa; P < 0.01) and at the fifth metatarsal head (MTH5; 204.3 ± 143.2 vs. 388.2 ± 273.9 kPa; P < 0.001). The PTI in the entire foot, forefoot and MTH5 were also lower in HDPN than in CDPN. The ethnic differences between the diabetic groups with PN for the entire foot, forefoot and MTH5 remained significant after adjusting for the effect of age, gender, weight and duration of diabetes. There were no significant differences in peak PP and PTI among non-diabetic individuals, except for a lower peak PP at the MTH5 in Hispanic compared with Caucasian subjects. Conclusions Despite a well-known higher incidence of foot complications in diabetic Hispanic subjects, dynamic plantar pressures are lower in Hispanic diabetic patients with PN when compared with their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting that differences in other risk factors exist between these two ethnic groups. [source]

    Systematic review of methods to diagnose infection in foot ulcers in diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2006
    S. O'Meara
    Abstract Aim, To undertake a systematic review of the diagnostic performance of clinical examination, sample acquisition and sample analysis in infected foot ulcers in diabetes. Methods, Nineteen electronic databases plus other sources were searched. To be included, studies had to fulfil the following criteria: (i) compare a method of clinical assessment, sample collection or sample analysis with a reference standard; (ii) recruit diabetic individuals with foot ulcers; (ii) present 2 × 2 diagnostic data. Studies were critically appraised using a 12-item checklist. Results Three eligible studies were identified, one each on clinical examination, sample collection and sample analysis. For all three, study groups were heterogeneous with respect to wound type and a small proportion of participants had foot ulcers due to diabetes. No studies identified an optimum reference standard. Other methodological problems included non-blind interpretation of tests and the time lag between index and reference tests. Individual signs or symptoms of infection did not prove to be useful tests when assessed against punch biopsy as the reference standard. The wound swab did not perform well when assessed against tissue biopsy. Semiquantitative analysis of wound swab might be a useful alternative to quantitative analysis. The limitations of these findings and their impact on recommendations from relevant clinical guidelines are discussed. Conclusion, Given the importance of this topic, it is surprising that only three eligible studies were identified. It was not possible to describe the optimal methods of diagnosing infection in diabetic patients with foot ulceration from the evidence identified in this systematic review. Diabet. Med. 23, 341,347 (2006) [source]

    The effects of applied felted foam on wound healing and healing times in the therapy of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2003
    S. Zimny
    Abstract Aims The application of felted foam is a promising method for plantar pressure reduction in the ulcer region of diabetic foot ulcers, but knowledge of its effects on wound healing is sparse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of felted foam on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers compared with a standard method of plantar pressure relief. Materials and methods A total of 54 Type 1 or Type 2 diabetic patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers were evaluated in this prospective randomized controlled study. Ulcer healing was assessed by planimetric measurement of the wound area at beginning of the study and after 10 weeks and at least until wound healing. The patients were consecutively enrolled in the study; 24 patients were randomized to the felted foam therapy, and 30 patients were randomized to conventional therapy. Results In the felted foam group, the initial average wound area was 102.3 ± 45.3 mm2 (mean ± sd), and 5.4 ± 3.1 mm2 after 10 weeks with an average healing time of 75 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 67,84]. In the conventional therapy group, the initial average wound area was 112.5 ± 50.8 mm2, and 10.6 ± 4.2 mm2 after 10 weeks with an average healing time of 85 days (95% CI 79,92) (P = 0.03). The mean wound radius decreased by 0.48 mm (95% CI 0.42,0.56) per week in the felted foam group and by 0.39 mm (95% CI 0.35,0.42) per week in the conventional group (P = 0.005). Conclusions The felted foam technique appears to be at least as effective as conventional plantar ulcer treatment. It may be a useful alternative in treating neuropathic foot ulceration, especially in patients who are not able to avoid weight-bearing reliably. [source]

    The hazards of the holiday foot: persons at high risk for diabetic foot ulceration may be more active on holiday

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2003
    D. G. Armstrong
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Case of eosinophilic granulomatous enterocolitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection with marked hypoalbuminemia and ascites

    Nuthapong Ukarapol
    We report a 10-year-old boy presenting with generalized pitting edema, ascites, abdominal pain, and chronic mucous diarrhea for 4 weeks. He had underlying diseases of hemoglobin E and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and had been treated with immunosuppressive agents for a long period of time, including prednisolone and methotrexate. After extensive investigations, Strongyloides stercoralis infection, leading to protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic granulomatous enterocolitis, was diagnosed. In the present report, we demonstrate early colonoscopic findings, revealing patchy erythema and small raised mucosal nodules with erosions at the cecum. Histopathological study showed open ulceration with cryptitis, intense infiltration of eosinophils and histiocytes with granuloma formation, in which Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were noted. [source]

    Rare case of inflammatory fibrous polyp of the esophagus

    B. Solito
    SUMMARY. Esophageal inflammatory fibrous polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasms. The manuscript illustrates a case of a man complaining of pyrosis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Diagnostic work-up showed an expansive lesion of the distal esophagus simulating malignancy but with negative, repeated, multiple biopsies. The considerable size of the lesion, and the suspicion of a malignant tumor because of the presence of ulceration, indicated esophagectomy with extensive lymphadenectomy and intrathoracic esophagogastroplasty. The diagnosis of inflammatory polyp of the esophagus was achieved postoperatively. The Discussion deals with a review of the literature and considers the performed operation a good choice considering the hypothesis of a malign neoplastic evolution of this lesion. [source]

    Primary malignant melanoma in the oesophagus of a foal

    S. S. Caston
    Summary A 2-month-old filly was evaluated for severe colic. Ultrasound, abdominocentesis and physical examination findings prompted an abdominal exploratory surgery. Perforation of the stomach was discovered during the surgery. The filly was humanely subjected to euthanasia under anaesthesia and post mortem examination was performed. In addition to gastric and duodenal ulceration, a thickened, black area of the proximal oesophagus was discovered. Histopathology of the lesion revealed primary malignant melanoma. Although rare, primary melanoma can occur in noncutaneous locations. [source]

    Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys

    N. Du Toit
    Summary Typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 40 aged donkeys at routine post mortem examinations subjected to euthanasia for colic-related clinical signs at The Donkey Sanctuary. Gross pathological changes included oedema, ulceration and haemorrhage involving the caecum and ventral colon. Histopathology indicated endoparasite and bacterial associated inflammation in 20 and 11 cases, respectively. Bacterial culture in 18 cases did not yield a definite aetiological agent. Other management and stress related factors were looked at to identify obvious risk factors. This report describes the clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters and pathological changes observed in 40 donkeys diagnosed with typhlocolitis. [source]