UK Department (uk + department)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Head and neck cancer in the UK: what is expected of cytopathology?

G. Kocjan
Objective:, This review highlights the role of cytopathology in cancer management within UK Head and Neck Cancer Networks and informs on the issues raised by recent UK Department of Health documents and other UK professional guidance. UK guidance requires the formal involvement of cytopathologists within multidisciplinary cancer teams, with medical and non-medical cytopathology staff setting up and running rapid access lump clinics, and support for image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) services. UK guidance also makes recommendations for training, resources and quality control. This review also highlights the resource gap between best practice evidence-based guidance for head and neck (HN) cancer services and existing UK provision for cytopathology, as evidenced by lack of availability of experienced staff and adequacy of training and quality control (QC). Finally, it stresses the importance in the UK of the Royal College of Pathologists' guidance, which defines the need for training, the experience needed for new consultants, the requirements for audit and QC. The implications for the additional resources required for HN cancer cytopathology services are discussed. Recent professional guidance specifying the provision of HN cancer services in the UK includes a cytopathology service for cancer networks, such as rapid access FNAC clinics. Although these clinics already operate in some institutions, there are many institutions where they do not and where the provision of cytopathology services would have to be restructured. This would need the support of local cancer networks and their acceptance of the detailed requirements for cytopathology, including resources, training and QC. The standards are not defined locally, as Strategic Health Authorities and Primary Care Trusts have been instructed by the Department of Health to support, invest and implement them. [source]

Opportunistic screening for Chlamydia in general practice: the experience of health professionals

Elizabeth Perkins
Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the UK. The infection is asymptomatic in up to 70% of women, and if untreated, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Chlamydial infection can be diagnosed using urine testing and is easily treated with antibiotics. In 1999, the UK Department of Health funded a pilot opportunistic Chlamydia screening programme in two health authorities. All sexually active women between the ages of 16 and 24 years attending general practices and other healthcare settings, such as family planning clinics, antenatal clinics and genito-urinary medicine services, were offered the opportunity to be screened for Chlamydia, regardless of the purpose of their visit. This evaluation was funded to assess the feasibility and acceptability of opportunistic screening. The evaluation was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The present paper describes findings from the qualitative evaluation study arising from the health professionals' experience of opportunistic screening in general practice. Receptionists were central to the opportunistic screening model in general practice and it was this aspect of the model that raised most concerns. Whilst general practitioners reported that the involvement of receptionists saved them time, the receptionists themselves were sometimes drawn into discussions for which they felt ill equipped and unsuitably located. This research suggests that a call,recall national screening programme would provide a better model to undertake Chlamydia screening in general practice. The advantages of this model are threefold. First, each individual within the target age range can receive information about Chlamydia through the post. Secondly, the test and more detailed information can be managed by a practice nurse in a private and confidential setting. Thirdly, individuals are not repeatedly offered the test when visiting the surgery. [source]

Patient-reported outcome measures in the NHS: new methods for analysing and reporting EQ-5D data

Nancy J. Devlin
Abstract In a landmark move, the UK Department of Health (DH) has introduced the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to measure the performance of health-care providers. From April 2009, generic (EQ-5D) and condition-specific PROMs are being collected from patients before and after four surgical procedures; eventually this will be extended to include a wide range of other NHS services. The aim of this article is to report analysis of the EQ-5D data generated from a pilot study commissioned by the DH and to consider the implications for the use of EQ-5D data in performance indicators and measures of patient benefit. We present two new methods that we have developed for analysing and displaying EQ-5D profile data: a Paretian Classification of Health Change and a health profile grid. We show that EQ-5D profile data can be readily analysed to generate insights into the nature of changes in patient-reported health that would be obscured by summarising these profiles by their index scores, or focusing just on the post operative outcomes. Our methods indicate differences between providers and between sub-groups of patients. Our results also show striking differences in changes in EQ-5D profiles between surgical procedures, which require further investigation. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Involving consumers successfully in NHS research: a national survey

Rosemary Barber BA MSc MAppSci
Abstract Objectives, To investigate how far and in what way consumers are involved in NHS research. Background, There is guidance from the UK Department of Health on involving consumers in research, but it is not known how these policies have been implemented. Design, A national postal survey was conducted of 884 researchers selected randomly from the National Research Register, 16 researchers registered on the INVOLVE database and 15 consumers nominated by researchers who collaborated in the same research projects. Setting, The survey participants were drawn from diverse settings including NHS organizations and universities. Participants, Researchers and consumers collaborating in the same projects. Main outcome measures, Details of how consumers were involved and the number of projects that met previously developed consensus-derived indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. Results, Of the 900 researchers who were sent a postal questionnaire, 518 responded, giving a response rate of 58%. Nine of the 15 consumers responded. Eighty-eight (17%) researchers reported involving consumers, mainly as members of a project steering group, designing research instruments and/or planning or designing the research methods. Most projects met between one and four indicators. Conclusions, This national survey revealed that only a small proportion of NHS researchers were actively involving consumers. This study provides a useful marker of how far the Department of Health's policy on consumer involvement in NHS research has been implemented and in what way. [source]

Nurturing knowledge: the UK Higher Education Links scheme,

Derek A. Eldridge
This article examines the development of academic networks and expertise through the UK Higher Education Links scheme, which is funded by the UK Department for International Development, managed by the British Council and supported by the principals of UK higher education institutions. The links are established between UK and overseas universities primarily to enhance research and/or teaching capacity, with the ultimate aim of alleviating poverty and promoting sustainable development. This article draws on data gathered for a large-scale, multiple-method evaluation which endorsed the scheme's continuation. It is argued that a crucial factor helping to make individual links a success was good relationships between respective co-ordinators, although the nature of these relationships varied. The article discusses the extent to which the formation of fruitful academic networks and partnerships enabling knowledge transfer were encouraged. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Postgraduate Theses from UK Departments of Optometry, 1996,2001

Article first published online: 29 APR 200
First page of article [source]

The National Bowel Cancer Audit: the risks and benefits of moving to open reporting of clinical outcomes

M. R. Thompson
Abstract Background, The government's proposals to openly report clinical outcomes poses challenges to the National Bowel Cancer Audit now funded by the UK department of health. Aim, To identify the benefits and risks of open reporting and to propose ways the risks might be minimized. Methods, A review of the literature on clinical audit and the consequences of open reporting. Results, There are significant potential benefits of a national audit of bowel cancer including protecting patients from sub-standard care, providing clinicians with externally validated evidence of their performance, outcome data for clinical governance and evidence that increases in government expenditure are achieving improvements in survival from bowel cancer. These benefits will only be achieved if the audit captures most of the cases of bowel cancer in the UK, the data collected is complete and accurate, the results are risk adjusted and these are presented to the public in a way that is fair, clear and understandable. Involvement of clinicians who have confidence in the results of the audit and who actively compare their own results against a national standard is essential. It is suggested that a staged move to open reporting should minimise the risk of falsely identifying an outlying unit. Conclusion, The fundamental aim of the National Bowel Cancer Audit is the pursuit of excellence by identification and adoption of best practice. This could achieve a continuous improvement in the care of all patients with bowel cancer in the UK. The ACPGBI suggests a safer way of transition to open reporting to avoid at least some of its pitfalls. [source]

Knowing our own history?

AREA, Issue 1 2008
Geography department archives in the UK
The paper presents an analysis of the returns to a questionnaire survey on the state of department archives within UK departments of geography. The results of the survey are discussed in relation to recent work in geography which has examined the archive as a site for knowledge's making but seldom in its own terms as a resource for the history of geography, and studies within the archival sciences which have considered the archive as something more than a ,storehouse' for collective memory. The paper reveals that the archival record for the history of British geography is at best uneven, and in many departments non-existent, although information on departmental history is held, often as memory, by individual geographers. The paper considers the survey's implications for the future histories of British geography and addresses the nature of the UK geography department archive as resource and responsibility. [source]

How can SMEs effectively implement the CSR agenda?

A UK case study perspective
This paper focuses on implementation of the CSR agenda in small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and reports on research findings from an action research case study that has been conducted in a UK based SME. The case study research demonstrates how the CSR agenda has been implemented using ISO 9001:2000 as a platform and what benefits the case study organization has gained from this approach. These results are compared with a UK survey on feasibility of CSR for SMEs conducted by the UK's Department of Trade and Industry and parallels are drawn. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]