UK Children (uk + child)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children , an emerging problem

S. Ehtisham
SUMMARY Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus has never previously been described in UK children, although an increasing incidence in childhood is recognized in international studies. The prevalence of obesity in UK children is increasing and is a recognized risk factor for the development of diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize children with Type 2 diabetes in the West Midlands and Leicester. Methods Children were identified by contacting paediatricians responsible for diabetes in five hospitals. Details were collected on demographics, mode of presentation, investigations and treatment on a standard proforma. Results Eight girls were identified with Type 2 diabetes, aged 9,16 years and who were of Pakistani, Indian or Arabic origin. They were all overweight (percentage weight for height 141,209%) and had a family history of diabetes in at least two generations. They presented insidiously with hyperglycaemia and glycosuria without ketosis and five were asymptomatic. Islet cell antibodies measured in seven patients were negative. Four had acanthosis nigricans which is a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and the other four had high plasma levels of insulin and/or C peptide. These patients are distinct from those with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). All were initially managed with dietary measures, seven have been treated with oral anti-diabetic agents of whom two have subsequently required insulin. Conclusions These are the first UK case reports of Type 2 diabetes in children. Paediatricians need to be aware of the risk of Type 2 diabetes developing in childhood in high-risk ethnic groups, particularly in association with obesity and a positive family history. [source]

Vitamin K prescribing patterns and bone health surveillance in UK children with cystic fibrosis

D. S. Urquhart
Abstract Background, Bone disease has become an increasingly recognized complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). Although causes of CF bone disease are multifactorial, there has been recent interest in the role of vitamin K in CF bone disease. Aims,and,methods, A questionnaire survey of all UK paediatric CF centre dietitians and centre directors was carried out to ascertain current practice with regard to vitamin K prescribing and bone health surveillance. Results, The survey had a 97% response rate representing 3414 CF children. Twenty-three centre directors and 19 dietitians responded, and at least moderate agreement was noted with kappa scores >0.41 for all but one question assessed. Ninety-three per cent centres report that >90% pancreatic insufficient patients receive vitamins A, D and E, yet only 18% centres routinely supplement vitamin K. The majority (60%) report that <10% of their CF patients receive vitamin K, whilst vitamin K dosage varied from 0.3,0.5 to 10 mg day,1. Only one centre undertook no bone health surveillance, and vitamin D levels are measured in 89%, calcium intake assessed in 82% and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans performed in 61% centres. Discussion, Heterogeneity in both vitamin K prescribing practices and bone health surveillance in CF across the UK were noted, underlining the need for a national consensus on bone health management, as well as acting as a call for longitudinal research into the clinical effectiveness of vitamin K therapy in CF. [source]

Treatment for myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome: population-based experience in the UK and results from the Medical Research Council AML 10 and AML 12 trials

Anupama Rao
Summary Down syndrome (DS) children are at an increased risk of developing myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We retrospectively analysed the population-based data on 81 children with myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) from the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours and experience in the Medical Research Council (MRC) AML 10 and AML 12 trials, which enrolled 46 children with ML-DS from 1988 to 2002. Eight per cent of UK children with AML had DS, but DS children comprised only 5% of children registered in MRC trials. The unique clinical characteristics of ML-DS were confirmed. Overall survival (OS) of ML-DS at 5 years increased from 47% in UK children diagnosed from 1988 to 1995 to 75% in children diagnosed from 1996 to 2002. OS for DS children registered in AML 10 and AML 12 was 74% in 5 years and improved from AML 10 to AML 12 (56% vs. 83%) There was no significant difference in OS between DS and non-DS children (OS: 74% vs. 62%, P = 04) in the trials, but this result masked a significant increase in early death amongst DS children, with a significant reduction in mortality later on. Relapse was significantly reduced (3% vs. 39%, P = 00003), leading to the improved disease-free survival (83% vs. 56%, P = 002). Given the increased number of earl treatment-related deaths, future treatment protocols should aim to reduce chemotherapy dosage or intensity whilst maintaining low rates of resistant and recurrent disease. [source]

Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections

Richard Reading
Dyskinesias and associated psychiatric disorders following streptococcal infections . DaleRC, HeymanI, SurteesRAH, ChurchAJ, GiovannoniG, GoodmanR & NevilleBGR . ( 2004 ) Archives of Disease in Childhood , 89 , 604 , 610 . Background The classical extrapyramidal movement disorder following , haemolytic streptococcus (BHS) infection is Sydenham's chorea (SC). Recently, other post-streptococcal movement disorders have been described, including motor tics and dystonia. Associated emotional and behavioural alteration is characteristic. Aims To describe experience of post-streptococcal dyskinesias and associated comorbid psychiatric features presenting to a tertiary referral centre 1999,2002. Methods In all patients, dyskinetic movement disorders followed BHS pharyngeal infection. BHS infection was defined by pharyngeal culture of the organism, or paired streptococcal serology. Movement disorders were classified according to international criteria, and validated by experienced child neurologists. Psychiatric complications were defined using ICD-10 criteria using a validated psychiatric interview. Results In the 40 patients, the following dyskinetic movement disorders were present: chorea (n = 20), motor tics (n = 16), dystonia (n = 5), tremor (n = 3), stereotypies (n = 2), opsoclonus (n = 2) and myoclonus (n = 1). Sixty-five per cent of, the, chorea, patients, were, female,, whereas, 69% of the tic patients were male. ICD-10 psychiatric diagnoses were made in 62.5%. Using the same psychiatric instrument, only 8.9% of UK children would be expected to have an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis. Emotional disorders occurred in 47.5%, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (27.5%), generalized anxiety (25%) and depressive episode (17.5%). Additional psychiatric morbidity included conduct disorders (27.5%) and hyperkinetic disorders (15%). Psychiatric, movement and post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders were commonly observed in family members. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, 72.5% had continuing movement and psychiatric disorders. Conclusion Post-streptococcal dyskinesias occur with significant and disabling psychiatric comorbidity and are potential autoimmune models of common ,idiopathic' movement and psychiatric disorders in children. Multiple factors may be involved in disease expression including genetic predisposition, developmental status and the patient's sex. [source]