Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of UVB

  • broadband uvb
  • narrow-band uvb
  • narrowband uvb

  • Terms modified by UVB

  • uvb damage
  • uvb dose
  • uvb exposure
  • uvb irradiation
  • uvb phototherapy
  • uvb radiation
  • uvb therapy
  • uvb treatment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Histologic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Ultraviolet B Laser and Light Source Treatment of Leukoderma in Striae Distensae

    David J. Goldberg MD
    Background. Lasers and light sources emitting ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation have been shown to repigment striae distensae. Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic and ultrastuctural changes seen after UVB laser, or light source,induced repigmentation of striae distensae. Methods. Ten subjects with hypopigmented striae were selected. Five subjects were treated with an XeCl excimer UVB laser, and five subjects were treated with a UVB light device. Six months after the final treatment, the biopsies were evaluated for both standard and electron microscopic changes in melanocytes. Results. Analyses of biopsied skin after treatment with both the UVB laser and light source showed increased melanin content, hypertrophy of melanocytes, and an increase in the number of melanocytes in all patients. Conclusions. Repigmentation of striae distensae with either a UVB laser or light source is due to an increase in melanin pigment, hypertrophy of melanocytes, and an increase in melanocytes. DAVID J. GOLDBERG, MD, ELLEN S. MARMUR, MD, CHRYSALINE SCHMULTS, MD, MUSSARRAT HUSSAIN, MD, AND ROBERT PHELPS, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Mutation spectrum in UVB-exposed skin epidermis of Xpa -knockout mice: Frequent recovery of triplet mutations

    Hironobu Ikehata
    Abstract Knockout mutations in both alleles of the Xpa gene give rise to a complete deficiency in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. We used transgenic mice harboring the ,-phage-based lacZ mutational reporter gene to study the effect of Xpa null mutation (Xpa,/,) on damage induction, repair, and mutagenesis in mouse skin epidermis after UVB irradiation. UVB induced equal amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (64PPs) in mouse skin epidermis of Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. Neither photolesion was removed in the Xpa,/, epidermis by 12 hr after irradiation whereas removal of 64PPs was observed in the epidermis of wild-type mice. Irradiation with 200 and 300 J/m2 UVB increased the lacZ mutant frequency in the epidermis of Xpa,/, mice, but the induced mutant frequencies were not significantly different from those previously determined for wild-type mice. One-hundred lacZ mutants isolated from the UVB-exposed epidermis of Xpa,/, mice were analyzed and compared with mutant sequences previously determined for irradiated wild-type mice. The distribution of the mutations along the lacZ transgene and the preferred dipyrimidine context of the UV-specific mutations were similar in mutants from the Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. The spectra of the mutations in the two genotypes were both highly UV-specific and similar in a dominance of C , T transitions at dipyrimidine sites; however, Xpa,/, mice had a higher frequency than wild-type mice of two-base tandem substitutions, including CC , TT mutations, three-base tandem mutations and double base substitutions that were separated by one unchanged base in a three-base sequence (alternating mutations). These tandem/alternating mutations included a remarkably large number of triplet mutations, a recently reported, novel type of UV-specific mutation, characterized by multiple base substitutions or frameshifts within a three-nucleotide sequence containing a dipyrimidine. We conclude that the triplet mutation is a UV-specific mutation that preferably occurs in NER-deficient genetic backgrounds. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status

    Emanuela Cicarma
    Please cite this paper as: Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e67,e72. Abstract Background:, A variety of studies have shown beneficial effects of different types of phototherapy in skin disorders. Such therapy leads to enhanced cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, which may be one of the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, another nutrient, folate, can probably also be influenced by UV radiation. Objective:, The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of low-dose narrowband UVB (nUVB) phototherapy of patients with psoriasis, atopic eczema and other skin disorders on serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (the serum marker for vitamin D status) and on serum and erythrocyte-folate. Methods:, 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D), serum and erythrocyte-folate levels were measured before and after low-dose nUVB (TL-01 tubes) phototherapy of these patients. The spectrum of the TL-01 tube was compared with the solar spectrum, and the efficiency spectra of vitamin D photosynthesis were calculated. Results:, For patients with a high initial 25(OH)D serum level (> 80 nmol/l), no significant (P = 0.36) increase in 25(OH)D levels was seen, in contrast to patients with a low initial level (< 80 nmol/l) where a significant increase (P < 0.001) was observed. The increase was 30,60%, depending on the UVB dose (2.35,13.4 J/cm2). No significant nUVB-effect was found on the erythrocyte and serum-folate level. Conclusion:, Low-dose nUVB treatment gives a significant increase (P < 0.001) of the vitamin D status in persons with low initial levels of 25(OH)D, but no effect on the folate level. [source]

    The role of ultraviolet radiation in melanomagenesis

    Anna-Katharina Von Thaler
    Please cite this paper as: The role of ultraviolet radiation in melanomagenesis. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: 81,88. Abstract:, The role of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the pathogenesis has been discussed controversially for many decades. Studies in mice (SCID, HGF/SF, SV40T) which develop malignant melanoma, show a role of UVB in melanomagenesis. In contrast to this, the role of UVA is less clear. We will review the recent in vitro and in vivo data in support of the hypothesis that UVA is also involved in the development of malignant melanoma. The role of UVA in p53 activation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and photoproduct formation is discussed. [source]

    Transcriptional regulation of ASK/Dbf4 in cutaneous melanoma is dependent on E2F1

    Sandeep Nambiar
    Background:, Melanoma is a complex genetic disease, the management of which will require an in-depth understanding of the biology underlying its initiation and progression. Recently, we have reported the differential regulation of a novel gene, namely ASK/Dbf4, in melanoma and suggested upregulation of ASK/Dbf4 as a novel molecular determinant with prognostic relevance that confers a proliferative advantage in cutaneous melanoma. As trans -acting factor binding is fundamental to understand the regulation of gene expression, this study focuses on characterization of the specific transcriptional regulation of ASK/Dbf4 in melanoma. Objective:, We investigated whether ASK/Dbf4 is a transcriptional target of the important cell cycle regulator E2F1 in melanoma. Results:, As evidenced by gel supershift assays on nuclear extracts from various melanoma cell lines (SK-MEL-28, MV3, M13, A375 and BLM), E2F1 bound to the ASK/Dbf4 minimal promoter (MP). In addition, cisplatin-mediated abrogation of E2F1 binding to the ASK/Dbf4 MP resulted in a transcriptional decrease in ASK/Dbf4. Further, the current study also demonstrated that ASK/Dbf4 regulation was refractory to UVB, a well-known risk factor for melanoma. Conclusions:, In summary, our study not only elucidated that ASK/Dbf4, a novel cell survival gene in melanoma was transcriptionally regulated by E2F1, but also that the induction of ASK/Dbf4 was refractory to UVB exposure suggesting that its upregulation was not an early event in melanomagenesis. [source]

    Selective down-regulation of the ,6-integrin subunit in melanocytes by UVB light

    Sven Krengel
    Abstract:,In vivo, melanocytes bind to laminin (LM) molecules of the basement membrane (BM) via the integrins ,3,1 and ,6,1, and they adhere to neighbouring keratinocytes via E-cadherin. Only few studies have addressed the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on the interaction of melanocytes with their microenvironment. In this report, we examined the influence of UVB irradiation on the expression of the most important melanocyte-adhesion molecules (E-, N-cadherin, ,2-, ,3-, ,5-, ,6-, ,V-, ,1-, ,3-integrins and ICAM-1) in vitro by flow cytometry. We were able to demonstrate that the ,6-integrin subunit is selectively and reversibly down-regulated by UVB in a dwzm 150ose-dependent manner. In comparison, keratinocytes lacked UVB-inducible alterations in the expression of ,6-integrin. In the presence of LM-1, the UVB-induced down-regulation of ,6-integrin in melanocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, LM-1 increased the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced cell death, as measured by annexinV-binding analysis. This effect was reversed by preincubation with an ,6-integrin-blocking antibody. By immunofluorescence, we could demonstrate that UVB leads to a dose-dependent internalization of ,6-integrin, providing an obvious explanation for the down-regulation on the outer cell surface observed by flow cytometry. We suggest that adhesion to LM-1 through ,6-integrin represents a protective mechanism for melanocytes to withstand UVB damage. Through ,6-integrin internalization, sunburns might alter the interaction between melanocytes and the BM, resulting in apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage (anoikis). Repeated sunburns may then lead to the selection of a population of melanocytes which are capable of anchorage-independent survival, culminating in solar nevogenesis and melanoma development. [source]

    In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

    Bo Bang
    Abstract:,In vitro studies with human cell lines have demonstrated that the death receptor Fas plays a role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between Fas expression and apoptosis as well as clustering of Fas in human epidermis after a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Clustering of Fas was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy on cryostat sections from skin biopsies. Soluble FasL in suction blister fluid was quantified by ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increased expression intensity of Fas after irradiation, with 1.6-, 2.2- and 2.7-fold increased median expression at 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation, respectively (n = 4). Apoptosis was demonstrated by the TUNEL reaction, and the maximum of apoptotic cells was detected at 48 h after irradiation. Double-staining for Fas and TUNEL showed that apoptosis was restricted to the Fas-positive epidermal subpopulation, but there was no correlation between the intensities of Fas expression and TUNEL reaction. Median expression intensity of FasL-positive cells transiently decreased to 0.9- and 0.8-fold of the preirradiation respective level after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, and returned to the respective preirradiation level at 72 h after irradiation (n = 4). Concentrations of soluble FasL in suction blister fluid from UVB-irradiated skin did not differ from those in unirradiated skin (n = 5). Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a rapid clustering of Fas within 30 min after irradiation. A simultaneous clustering of the adapter signalling protein FADD suggested that Fas clustering has a functional significance. Our results are in accordance with previous findings from in vitro studies, and suggest that Fas is activated in vivo in human epidermis after UVB exposure. [source]

    The effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on nitric oxide synthase expression in murine keratinocytes

    M. Sasaki
    Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), which has several physiological functions in skin, is generated by NO synthase (NOS). NOS has at least three isoforms; endothelial NOS (eNOS), brain NOS (bNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS). Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation has been reported to stimulate NO production in skin via induction or activation of NOS, however, the exact mechanism of NOS induction by UVB irradiation remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of UVB on the expression of NOS isoforms in murine keratinocytes, and found a significant increase in NO production within 48 h. mRNA and protein expressions of bNOS were both enhanced by UVB irradiation in murine keratinocytes, whereas iNOS mRNA expression was suppressed at 4 and 12 h after UVB irradiation. These results suggest that the enhancement of NO production observed after UVB irradiation in murine keratinocytes may be explained in part by the upregulation of bNOS expression, but not iNOS expression. [source]

    Modulation of the bacterial response to spectral solar radiation by algae and limiting nutrients

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2002
    J. M. Medina-Sánchez
    SUMMARY 1. The response of bacterial production (measured as [3H]TdR incorporation rate) to spectral solar radiation was quantified experimentally in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake over 2 years. Bacterial responses were consistent: ultraviolet-B (UVB) was harmful, whereas ultraviolet-A (UVA) + photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and PAR enhanced bacterial activity. Full sunlight exerted a net stimulatory effect on bacterial activity in mid-summer but a net inhibitory effect towards the end of the ice-free period. 2. Experiments were undertaken to examine whether the bacterial response pattern depended on the presence of algae and/or was modulated by the availability of a limiting inorganic nutrient (phosphorus, P). In the absence of algae, [3H]TdR incorporation rates were significantly lower than when algae were present under all light treatments, and the consistent bacterial response was lost. This suggests that the bacterial response to spectral solar radiation depends on fresh-C released from algae, which determines the net stimulatory outcome of damage and repair in mid-summer. 3. In the absence of algae, UVB radiation inhibited bacteria when they were strongly P-deficient (mean values of N : P ratio: 46.1), whereas it exerted no direct effect on bacterial activity when they were not P-limited. 4. P-enrichment of lake water markedly altered the response of bacteria to spectral solar radiation at the end of ice-free period, when bacteria were strongly P-deficient. Phosphorus enrichment suppressed the inhibitory effect of full sunlight that was observed in October, both in whole lake water (i.e. including algae) and in the absence of algae. This indicates that the bacterial P-deficiency, measured as the cellular N : P ratio, was partly responsible for the net inhibitory effect of full sunlight, implying a high bacterial vulnerability to UVB. [source]

    Responses of plants in polar regions to UVB exposure: a meta-analysis

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    Abstract We report a meta-analysis of data from 34 field studies into the effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on Arctic and Antarctic bryophytes and angiosperms. The studies measured plant responses to decreases in UVB radiation under screens, natural fluctuations in UVB irradiance or increases in UVB radiation applied from fluorescent UV lamps. Exposure to UVB radiation was found to increase the concentrations of UVB absorbing compounds in leaves or thalli by 7% and 25% (expressed on a mass or area basis, respectively). UVB exposure also reduced aboveground biomass and plant height by 15% and 10%, respectively, and increased DNA damage by 90%. No effects of UVB exposure were found on carotenoid or chlorophyll concentrations, net photosynthesis, Fv/Fm or ,PSII, belowground or total biomass, leaf mass, leaf area or specific leaf area (SLA). The methodology adopted influenced the concentration of UVB absorbing compounds, with screens and natural fluctuations promoting significant changes in the concentrations of these pigments, but lamps failing to elicit a response. Greater reductions in leaf area and SLA, and greater increases in concentrations of carotenoids, were found in experiments based in Antarctica than in those in the Arctic. Bryophytes typically responded in the same way as angiosperms to UVB exposure. Regression analyses indicated that the percentage difference in UVB dose between treatment and control plots was positively associated with concentrations of UVB absorbing compounds and carotenoids, and negatively so with aboveground biomass and leaf area. We conclude that, despite being dominated by bryophytes, the vegetation of polar regions responds to UVB exposure in a similar way to higher plant-dominated vegetation at lower latitudes. In broad terms, the exposure of plants in these regions to UVB radiation elicits the synthesis of UVB absorbing compounds, reduces aboveground biomass and height, and increases DNA damage. [source]

    Solar UVB and warming affect decomposition and earthworms in a fen ecosystem in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    Abstract Combined effects of co-occurring global climate changes on ecosystem responses are generally poorly understood. Here, we present results from a 2-year field experiment in a Carex fen ecosystem on the southernmost tip of South America, where we examined the effects of solar ultraviolet B (UVB, 280,315 nm) and warming on above- and belowground plant production, C : N ratios, decomposition rates and earthworm population sizes. Solar UVB radiation was manipulated using transparent plastic filter films to create a near-ambient (90% of ambient UVB) or a reduced solar UVB treatment (15% of ambient UVB). The warming treatment was imposed passively by wrapping the same filter material around the plots resulting in a mean air and soil temperature increase of about 1.2 °C. Aboveground plant production was not affected by warming, and marginally reduced at near-ambient UVB only in the second season. Aboveground plant biomass also tended to have a lower C : N ratio under near-ambient UVB and was differently affected at the two temperatures (marginal UVB × temperature interaction). Leaf decomposition of one dominant sedge species (Carex curta) tended to be faster at near-ambient UVB than at reduced UVB. Leaf decomposition of a codominant species (Carex decidua) was significantly faster at near-ambient UVB; root decomposition of this species tended to be lower at increased temperature and interacted with UVB. We found, for the first time in a field experiment that epigeic earthworm density and biomass was 36% decreased by warming but remained unaffected by UVB radiation. Our results show that present-day solar UVB radiation and modest warming can adversely affect ecosystem functioning and engineers of this fen. However, results on plant biomass production also showed that treatment manipulations of co-occurring global change factors can be overridden by the local climatic situation in a given study year. [source]

    Altered kelp (Laminariales) phlorotannins and growth under elevated carbon dioxide and ultraviolet-B treatments can influence associated intertidal food webs

    Abstract Due to the importance of brown algae, such as kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyta), within most cool nearshore environments, any direct responses of kelp to multiple global changes could alter the integrity of future coastal marine systems. Fifty-five-day manipulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ultraviolet light (UVB) within outdoor sea-tanks, approximating past, present and two predicted future levels, examined the direct influences on Saccharina latissima (=Laminaria saccharina) and Nereocystis luetkeana development and biochemistry, as well as the indirect influences on a marine herbivore (Tegula funebralis; Gastropoda, Mollusca) and on naturally occurring intertidal detritivores. Kelp species displayed variable directional (negative and positive growth) and scale responses to CO2 and UVB manipulations, which was influenced by interactions. Kelp phlorotannin (phenolic) production in blade tissues was induced by elevated UVB levels, and especially enhanced (additively) by elevated CO2, further suggesting that some actively growing kelp species are carbon limited in typical nearshore environments. Negative indirect effects upon detritivore consumers fed CO2 -manipulated kelp blade tissues were detected, however, no statistical relationships existed among UVB-treated tissues, and test herbivores did not distinguish between phlorotannin-altered CO2: UVB-treated kelp blade tissues. Results suggest that past and future conditions differentially benefit these kelp species, which implies a potential for shifts in species abundance and community composition. Higher CO2 conditions can indirectly impede marine decay processes delaying access to recycled trace nutrients, which may be disruptive to the seasonal regrowth of algae and/or higher trophic levels of nearshore ecosystems. [source]

    Cooler temperatures increase sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation in embryos and larvae of the frog Limnodynastes peronii

    Abstract Recent studies suggest that complex interacting processes are driving global amphibian declines. Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the solar spectrum associated with ozone depletion has been implicated in declines, and evidence suggests that the effects of UVB radiation on amphibians may be greater at cooler temperatures. We tested the thermal sensitivity of UVB effects on amphibians in a controlled factorial experiment using the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii as a model species. We compared survival, growth and locomotor performance of embryonic and larval L. peronii reared under low and high UVB exposures at both 20 and 30 °C. Embryonic and larval L. peronii proved extremely sensitive to UVB damage and exhibited greater sensitivity at 20 °C compared with 30 °C. Embryonic survival to Gosner stage 25 was unaffected by UVB exposure at 30 °C, but at 20 °C survival was reduced to 52% under high UVB. Larval survival exhibited a similar trend. At 20 °C, all tadpoles survived under low UVB, whereas under high UVB there was 100% mortality after 15 days of exposure. At 30 °C, 86% survived under low UVB, but only 46% survived under high UVB. Sublethal effects such as, embryonic malformation, retarded larval growth and reduced larval swimming performance were also greater at 20 °C compared with 30 °C. Our results strongly indicate that UVB damage in amphibians is markedly increased at cooler temperatures. Thus, populations of UVB sensitive species occurring at cold climates may be at greater risk of declines due to increased solar UVB radiation. [source]

    Fading of artificial hair colour and its prevention by photofilters

    B. Locke
    Fading of artificial hair colour has been investigated by simulating actual usage conditions through exposure to artificial radiation in a weatherometer, with 0.35 mW (m2nm),1 at 340 nm, for 16,48 h, and by periodical washing. Hair colour was produced by using commercial two-part, permanent hair dyes with light auburn, medium auburn and dark auburn shades. Formulations based on red couplers, such as 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene and 1-naphthol, as well as primary intermediates, such as 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diamino pyrazole sulphate, were employed. Results indicate that the extent of fading, as measured by the total colour change parameter, dE, is greatest for coloured hair subjected to both irradiation and shampooing, and significantly smaller for hair undergoing only irradiation or washing. Colour loss has been also found to be dependent upon the hair type employed, with coloured natural white and bleached hair undergoing much greater change than coloured brown hair. It has been also shown that hair colour based on pyrazole intermediates displayed the deepest fading as a result of shampooing (dE 4,6 after 10 shampooings) and irradiation per shampooing (dE 14,16 after 32 h of light exposure and four shampooings). The contribution of UV light (UVB + UVA) to the artificial hair-colour loss was found experimentally to be dependent upon the irradiation dose and varied from 63% at 16 h of irradiation time to 27% at 48 h of light exposure. The theoretical extent of photoprotection by a formulation was assessed by calculating the percentage of UV light it attenuates in the wavelength range from 290 to 400 nm. The results indicate that UVB photofilters, such as octyl methoxy cinnamate, absorb <25% of the total UV irradiation at concentrations as high as 30 mg (g hair),1. UVA absorbers were found to be more effective, with benzophenone-3 and benzophenone-4 absorbing about 40% of UV at the same concentration. Corresponding experimental data were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical predictions. The data are also presented for colour protection with treatments containing two photo-absorbers: benzophenone-3,ZnO; benzophenone-4,ZnO; octyl methoxy cinnamate,ZnO; and dimethylpabaimidopropyl laurdimonium tosylate-benzophenone-3. [source]

    Adaptive response of the skin to UVB damage: role of the p53 protein

    L. Verschooten
    Synopsis Different adaptation mechanisms like heat shock response, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, melanin pigmentation and thickening of the epidermis are present in the human skin to protect against the adverse effects of solar UV irradiation. When DNA damage is beyond repair, cells undergo apoptosis to prevent their replication. We discuss the current knowledge on these different adaptation mechanisms to UVB damage, the most energetic fraction of solar UV that reaches the skin. As p53 protein, the guardian of the genome, plays a key role in protective response to genotoxic damage, its role in this adaptive response of the skin to UV will be further discussed. Résumé Pour se protéger contre les effets néfastes de l'irradiation UV de la lumière solaire, la peau humaine dispose de différents mécanismes de protection adaptatifs: résistance au choc thermique, arrêt du cycle cellulaire et réparation de l'ADN, pigmentation mélanique et épaississement de l'épiderme. Quand les altèrations dépassent les capacités de réparation, les cellules entrent en apoptose pour empêcher la réplication d'une cellule avec de l'ADN endommagé. Dans cet article, on passe en revue les connaissances actuelles sur les différents mécanismes d'adaptation de la peau aux altérations provoquées par les UVB, la fraction la plus énergétique des UV solaires qui atteint la peau. Puisque la protéine P53, gardienne du génome, joue un rôle clé dans la réponse de protection aux altérations génotoxiques, son rôle dans la réponse d'adaptation de la peau aux UV sera discuté en détail. [source]

    Relationship between UVA protection and skin response to UV light: proposal for labelling UVA protection

    M. Jean-Louis Refrégier
    Synopsis Definition and validation of a most relevant method to assess ultravoilet A (UVA) protection is a major concern for industry, authorities and consumers. However, due to the lack of knowledge about all the biological phenomena involved, the level of UVA protection needed, the ways to assess and label it, remain controversial. In order to overcome this situation, the paper deals with the outcomes of a mathematical model to calculate the distribution between ultravoilet B (UVB) and UVA components of skin responses to UV light. Mathematical calculations of UVB and UVA erythemal components of skin response to sunlight are developed from the well-known determination procedure to calculate the sunburn protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens. The model establishes the relationship between the UVA component of skin erythemal response to overall UV radiation received from sunlight and the ratio SPF/PFAe (erythemal protection factor) where SPF is the product and PFAe is related to the UVA part of the sunlight. Depending on the efficacy profile of sunscreens, the skin erythemal response may be mainly promoted by UVB rays as it normally occurs in unprotected skin or on contrary by UVA rays. Therefore, the efficacy profile of sunscreens defines the deepness where biological events induced by sunlight take place. This new relationship pinpoints the tremendous importance of the protection afforded by sunscreen products in the UVA range when erythema is taken as biological response. By extrapolation of the model to any other biological skin response it becomes possible to predict how to improve the efficiency of sunscreen products in the future. UVA protection afforded by sunscreens should be improved until reaching the same level as the SPF protection factor so that all UV-induced biological responses could be prevented or lowered at the same extend. To enforce this improvement, a proposal to classify sunscreen products in relation with their UVA protection is made. Résumé Bien que les méfaits du rayonnement UVA soient à présent reconnus et l'importance de s'en protéger au même titre que ceux du rayonnement UVB totalement admise, l'obtention d'un consensus au niveau international, sur les méthodes pour mesurer l'efficacité des produits solaires vis-à-vis des UVA et sur les niveaux d'efficacité souhaitables, semble impossible à atteindre. Afin de tenter de surmonter les obstacles actuels, nous présentons un modèle mathématique qui permet d'établir la relation qui dèfinit le poids relatif des rayonnements UVB et UVA dans l'initiation des phénomènes biologiques engendrés par le rayonnement solaire, en fonction des caractéristiques du produit solaire utilisé et en particulier de son efficacité protectrice vis-à-vis des UVA. Dans le cas de l'érythème nous établissons ainsi que la proportion des effets engendrés par le rayonnement UVA est définie par le rapport SPF/PFAe: le SPF étant le facteur de protection contre l'érythème vis-à-vis de l,ensemble du rayonnement UV, c'est l'indice de protection affiché sur les produits; et, PFAe étant le facteur de protection du produit vis-à-vis du seul rayonnement UVA. L'extrapolation possible de ce modèle à l'ensemble des phénomènes biologiques met en évidence que le facteur de proportionnalité entre la protection globale et celle apportée vis-à-vis des UVA (SPF/PFAe) permet d'établir une classification de la qualité des systèmes filtrants en fonction de leur aptitude à prèvenir l'ensemble des méfaits du rayonnement solaire. Ce modèle démontre l'importance d'évaluer l,efficacité protectrice des produits solaires vis-à-vis du rayonnement UVA et son enseignement plus pertinent que celle de seulement évaluer l'allure des spectres d'absorption. Nous jugeons que l'application directe de ce modèle, au même titre que les méthodes d'évaluation de l,allure des spectres d'absorption, n'est aujourd'hui pas souhaitable en raison des connaissances et donc de la validation insuffisantes des méthodes in vitro en particulier pour évaluer les produits non parfaitement photostables. En conséquence, nous proposons de mettre en place une qualification qui repose sur l'évaluation de la protection UVA par les mèthodes in vivo dûment étudiées et validées telles que les méthodes PPD ou PFA. La mise en place du système proposé de qualification des produits solaires, permettrait d'apporter rapidement aux consommateurs une meilleure information sur la qualité des produits et permettrait de créer une dynamique d'amélioration de la qualité de l'ensemble des produits commercialisés. [source]

    Role of topical and nutritional supplement to modify the oxidative stress,

    P. Morganti
    Synopsis Background: Evidence suggests that signs of skin ageing such as wrinkling, ragging and actinic lentigines, may be connected to cumulative oxidative damage incurred throughout our lifetimes. To counteract this oxidative injury, skin is equipped with a network on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, such as tocopherols, ascorbate polyphenols. All these compounds administered topically by cosmetics or by oral route by diet supplements, have been shown to exert an antioxidant/protective effect in skin or skin cells. Objective: The object of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo the activity performed by different topical antioxidants and nutritional supplements. Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out for 8 weeks on 30 dry-skinned elderly volunteers, women aged between 48 and 59 years, with moderate xerosis and photoageing. Surface skin lipids, skin hydration and MDA determination were topically detected by 3C System. ROS was evaluated on the blood serum and on IL-3 stimulated human leukocytes by ROS Meter System at 505 nm. All the subjects applied twice a day for 2 months a nanocolloidal gel and/or take a diet supplement by oral route at the quantity of two capsules per day. All the formulations used were antioxidant-enriched (ascorbic acid, tocopherol, alpha-lipoic acid, melatonin, emblica). Results: Oxidative stress and consequently lipids peroxidation decreased from 30 to 40% (P < 0.005) in blood serum of all the subjects treated with antioxidant compounds topically and by oral route. Both free radicals recovered in blood serum and on skin (in vivo) and ROS induced by irradiation of leucocytes with UVB light (in vitro), appear sensibly lower in subjects antioxidant-treated. Conclusions: From the obtained data, it seems possible to conclude that all the compounds used play interesting role as topical and systemic photoprotectants, thanks to their interesting antioxidant property. Moreover, the antioxidant treatment seems to be a promising therapeutic approach also in reducing the oxidative stress of people affected by photoaging. Résumé Les faits semblent montrer que les signes du vieillissement cutané tels que les rides, la perte d'élasticité ou les taches de vieillesse, peuvent être liés aux effets oxydants cumulés subis tout au long de la vie. Pour contrer ces effets oxydants, la peau est équipée d'un réseau de systèmes antioxydants enzymatiques et non enzymatiques tels que les tocophérols, l'ascorbate et les polyphénols. Tous ces composés, administrés par voie topique par des cosmétiques ou par voie orale avec des suppléments alimentaires, se sont révélés exercer un effet antioxydant/protecteur sur la peau ou les cellules de la peau. L'objet de cette étude était d'évaluer aussi bien in-vitro qu'in-vivo l'activité de différents antioxydants topiques et suppléments alimentaires. Une étude randomisée contre placebo en double aveugle a été conduite sur 8 semaines avec 30 volontaires,gés à peau sèche, des femmes de 48 à 59 ans, présentant une xérose et un viellissement modéré. Les lipides à la surface de la peau, l'hydratation de la peau et la MDA ont été suivis de façon topique par le SYSTEM 3 C. Les ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) ont été déterminés dans le sérum sanguin et sur les leucocytes humains 12-3 stimulés par un SYSTEM ROS-METER à 505 nm. Tous les sujets ont appliqué deux fois par jour pendant deux mois un gel nanocolloïdal et/ou pris des suppléments alimentaires par voie orale à raison de deux gélules par jour. Toutes les formulations utilisées étaient enrichies en antioxydant (acide ascorbique, tocophérol, acide alpha-lipoïque, mélatonine, emblica). Le stress oxydant et par conséquent la péroxydation des lipides diminue de 30 à 40% (p < 0.005) dans le sérum sanguin de tous les sujets traités avec des composés antioxydants par voie topique ou orale. Les radicaux libres retrouvés aussi bien dans le sérum sanguin que dans la peau (in-vivo) et la ROS induite par l'irradiation des leucocytes avec la lumière ultraviolette (in-vitro) apparaissent significativement moins élevés chez les sujets traités aux antioxydants par voie topique ou orale. D'après les données obtenues il semble possible de conclure que tous les composés utilisés jouent un rôle intéressant comme photoprotecteurs topiques et systémiques grâce à leurs intéressantes propriétés antioxydantes. De plus, le traitement antioxydant semble être une approche thérapeutique prometteuse en ce qu'elle réduit aussi le stress oxydant des personnes touchées par le vieillissement. [source]

    UVB phototherapy and skin cancer risk: a review of the literature

    Ernest Lee MD
    Background, UVB phototherapy is a common treatment modality for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Although UVB has been in use for many decades, many clinicians are hesitant to use this type of phototherapy because of concern over increasing the skin cancer risk. Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have been published examining this issue, but a consensus or analysis of the skin cancer risk is required for the dermatologist to make an educated risk,benefit analysis. Objective, To assess the risk of skin cancer associated with UVB phototherapy. Methods, All prospective or retrospective studies were identified in MEDLINE from 1966 to June 2002. Bibliographies were searched to identify any additional studies examining this issue. All studies that attempted to quantify or qualify any additional skin cancer risk from UVB phototherapy were included. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Results, Eleven studies (10 of which concerned psoriasis patients), involving approximately 3400 participants, were included. Of note, three of the studies involved the same cohort: members of the 16-center US Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) Follow-up Study. Other than the most recent Finnish study, all studies eventually showed no increased skin cancer risk with UVB phototherapy. One of the PUVA cohort studies examined genital skin cancers, and found an increased rate of genital tumors associated with UVB phototherapy, although this study has not been duplicated. Conclusion, The evidence suggests that UVB phototherapy remains a very safe treatment modality. [source]

    Molecular response of nasal mucosa to therapeutic exposure to broad-band ultraviolet radiation

    David Mitchell
    Abstract Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) phototherapy is a promising new treatment for inflammatory airway diseases. However, the potential carcinogenic risks associated with this treatment are not well understood. UV-specific DNA photoproducts were used as biomarkers to address this issue. Radioimmunoassay was used to quantify cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6,4) photoproducts in DNA purified from two milieus: nasal mucosa samples from subjects exposed to intranasal phototherapy and human airway (EpiAirwayÔ) and human skin (EpiDermÔ) tissue models. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect CPD formation and persistence in human nasal biopsies and human tissue models. In subjects exposed to broadband ultraviolet radiation, DNA damage frequencies were determined prior to as well as immediately after treatment and at increasing times post-treatment. We observed significant levels of DNA damage immediately after treatment and efficient removal of the damage within a few days. No residual damage was observed in human subjects exposed to multiple UVB treatments several weeks after the last treatment. To better understand the molecular response of the nasal epithelium to DNA damage, parallel experiments were conducted in EpiAirway and EpiDerm model systems. Repair rates in these two tissues were very similar and comparable to that observed in human skin. The data suggest that the UV-induced DNA damage response of respiratory epithelia is very similar to that of the human epidermis and that nasal mucosa is able to efficiently repair UVB induced DNA damage. [source]

    Effect of PUVA, narrow-band UVB and cyclosporin on inflammatory cells of the psoriatic plaque

    Gul Erkin
    Background:, Because antigen presenting is necessary for T-cell activation, antigen-presenting cells should be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, our purpose was to evaluate and compare effects of PUVA, cyclosporine A and narrow-band UVB on dendritic cells and activated lymphocytes in the psoriatic lesions. Methods:, Forty-five volunteered patients (15 patients in each treatment group as PUVA, cyclosporin A and narrow-band UVB) were enrolled in this study. Lesional skin biopsies were taken from each patient before and after treatments. Fresh frozen biopsies were studied for the expressions of CD1a, CD68, CD86, CD4, CD8 and HLA-DR proteins by immunohistochemistry. Results:, There was no correlation between severity of the lesions and expressions of the antigens. Only PUVA significantly decreased CD1a+ epidermal Langerhans cells' (LCs) counts. Treatment modalities decreased expression of costimulator CD86, and most of them decrease antigen-presenting capacity of skin by decreasing HLA class-II expression. Conclusions:, All treatment modalities equally reduce lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. PUVA is the only treatment that decreases epidermal LCs. All treatments effectively diminish expression of CD86 and inhibit this step of inflammation. [source]

    Cadherin expression pattern in melanocytic tumors more likely depends on the melanocyte environment than on tumor cell progression

    Sven Krengel
    Background:, Adhesion molecules have been assigned an important role in melanocytic tumor progression. By the loss of E-cadherin, melanocytes might escape the control of neighbouring keratinocytes. Although in vitro data support this hypothesis, there are yet no conclusive immunohistochemical results on cadherin expression in melanocytic tumors. Objective:, To gain detailed insight in the expression of cadherins and their cytoplasmic binding partners, the catenins, in various types of benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms. Methods:, Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of E-, P-, and N-cadherin and ,-, ,-, and ,-catenin in compound and dermal nevi, Spitz nevi, blue nevi, ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated nevi, and malignant melanomas of various tumor thickness. Results:, In both nevi and melanomas, E-cadherin expression in melanocytic cells decreased, following a gradient from junctional to deeper dermal localization. The pattern of E-cadherin expression was more heterogeneous in melanomas than in nevi. In some melanomas, E-cadherin was only weakly positive in the epidermal tumor cells. P-cadherin expression was similar to that of E-cadherin. N-cadherin expression in melanocytic lesions was a rare finding, however, a small percentage of melanomas showed expression in some cell nests. Some Spitz nevi exhibited strong N-cadherin immunoreactivity. Most melanocytic cells were ,- and ,-catenin-positive and ,-catenin-negative. UVB irradiation did not influence the expression of cadherins and catenins in melanocytic nevi in vivo. Conclusions:, It is presumed that the gradual loss of E-cadherin expression represents a reaction of melanocytic cells to altered conditions in the dermal environment, e.g. lack of contact to keratinocytes, or new contact with dermal extracellular matrix molecules, respectively. Melanoma cells apparently are less dependent on these environmental factors and, therefore, show a more heterogeneous expression pattern. This might be of importance for the adaptation of the tumor cells to local requirements. However, in view of our results, a causative role of (loss of ) E-cadherin or (gain of ) N-cadherin for melanocytic tumor progression still remains to be proven. [source]

    MMP-2, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP are differentially expressed in lesional skin of melanocytic nevi and their expression is modulated by UVB-light

    S. Krengel
    Background:, In malignant melanoma, recent studies have demonstrated an important role of matrix-metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), its co-activating enzyme membrane-type matrix-metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP), and the endogenous inhibitor of MMP-2, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Melanocytic nevi are benign neoplasms of the melanocytic lineage, but may exhibit dysplastic features that can be difficult to distinguish from early stage melanoma. As shown in earlier studies, nevi show important morphological and phenotypical changes in response to ultraviolet light (UVB) irradiation. Objective:, To clarify the role of MMP-2, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in UVB-irradiated vs. non-irradiated melanocytic nevi. Methods:, Immunohistochemical comparison of the MMP-2, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression pattern. Results:, MMP-2 is expressed by lesional keratinocytes and its expression is up-regulated by UVB-irradiation. MMP-2 expression was not observed in melanocytic cells. TIMP-2, by contrast, is predominantly expressed by melanocytic nevus cells, and its expression is in part down-regulated by UVB-irradiation. MT1-MMP is expressed by basal keratinocytes and to a weaker extent by melanocytic nevus cells. Conclusions:, MMP-2 expression by keratinocytes in nevi probably represents the result of activation of keratinocyte turnover in lesional epidermis. MMP-2 could play a role in the downward movement of junctional nevus cells into the dermis. The reduction of TIMP-2 expression in melanocytic cells by UV-light together with the enhanced expression of MMP-2 in the adjacent epidermis may promote basement membrane degradation. The expression pattern of MT1-MMP in close proximity to epithelial,mesenchymal interfaces underlines the synergistic role of MT1-MMP in this process. [source]

    2-Ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate as novel UVA filters

    Thitinun Monhaphol
    A series of 2-ethylhexylmethoxy substituted cinnamates and benzalmalonates have been synthesized and characterized. 2-Ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (E8) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (B8) show UVA absorption with high molar absorption coefficients (12000-14000 cm,1 M,1 at 350 nm). E8 undergoes trans to cis photoisomerization under UVA exposure causing the decrease in UV absorption efficiency. E8 is more photostable than butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM). For example, 41.64 J cm,2 UVA irradiation produces 20 ± 2% and 25 ± 2% loss in UV absorption for E8 and BMDBM, respectively. Similar irradiation produces no change in the UV absorption of B8. Both the oily liquid E8 and the yellow solid B8 can be dissolved in various organic solvents, ranging from methanol to hexane, various silicone fluids and 2-ethylhexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC, a widely used UVB filter). A liquid broadband filter comprising B8 and EHMC shows excellent photostability in both UVB and UVA regions. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Yangqiao Zheng
    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280,400 nm) is known to affect macroalgal physiology negatively, while nutrient availability may affect UV-absorbing compounds (UVACs) and sensitivity to UVR. However, little is known about the interactive effects of UVR and nitrate availability on macroalgal growth and photosynthesis. We investigated the growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Bory) Grev. at different levels of nitrate (natural or enriched nitrate levels of 41 or 300 and 600 ,M) under different solar radiation treatments with or without UVR. Nitrate-enrichment enhanced the growth, resulted in higher concentrations of UVACs, and led to negligible photoinhibition of photosynthesis even at noon in the presence of UVR. Net photosynthesis during the noon period was severely inhibited by both ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA) and ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) in the thalli grown in seawater without enriched nitrate. The absorptivity of UVACs changed in response to changes in the PAR dose when the thalli were shifted back and forth from solar radiation to indoor low light, and exposure to UVR significantly induced the synthesis of UVACs. The thalli exposed to PAR alone exhibited higher growth rates than those that received PAR + UVA or PAR + UVA + UVB at the ambient or enriched nitrate concentrations. UVR inhibited growth approximately five times as much as it inhibited photosynthesis within a range of 60,120 ,g UVACs · g,1 (fwt) when the thalli were grown under nitrate-enriched conditions. Such differential inhibition implies that other metabolic processes are more sensitive to solar UVR than photosynthesis. [source]

    Combining etanercept with traditional agents in the treatment of psoriasis: a review of the clinical evidence

    PA Foley
    Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder manifesting primarily in skin and potentially in joints, frequently necessitating treatment with conventional systemic therapies, phototherapy or biological agents. Patients with moderate to severe disease suffer a diminished quality of life, experience significant comorbidities and have a higher mortality. Although traditional treatments are effective in the short-term, their use is often limited by concerns over long-term toxicity, including end-organ damage and risk of malignancy. Combination therapy is a commonly used approach and is often more effective than any single agent. Lower doses of two treatments in combination can also minimize potential side effects from a single agent at higher doses. Etanercept is a recombinant human tumour necrosis factor (TNF), receptor (p75) protein fused with the Fc portion of IgG1 that binds to TNF,. This article reviews the evidence on the efficacy and safety of etanercept in combination with methotrexate, acitretin, narrowband UVB and cyclosporin. The largest body of evidence assesses the combination with methotrexate, although evidence is available for the other combinations. Data suggest that although highly effective as monotherapy, etanercept in combination with a conventional systemic agent can enhance efficacy and allow drug sparing. Potentially, the combination may also result in faster treatment responses and permit safe transitioning from one systemic agent to another. Evidence to date suggests that these benefits can be achieved without significant additional toxicity, although long-term data on the efficacy and safety of the combination in psoriatic populations is limited and further evaluation is warranted. [source]

    ETFAD/EADV eczema task force 2009 position paper on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis

    U Darsow
    Abstract Background, The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is made using evaluated clinical criteria. Management of AD must consider the symptomatic variability of the disease. Methods, EADV eczema task force developed its guideline for atopic dermatitis diagnosis and treatment based on literature review and repeated consenting group discussions. Results and Discussion, Basic therapy relies on hydrating topical treatment and avoidance of specific and unspecific provocation factors. Anti-inflammatory treatment based on topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists is used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, but the topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection may induce disease exacerbation and can justify additional antimicrobial/antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) can relieve pruritus, but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength or UVB 311 nm. Dietary recommendations should be specific and given only in diagnosed individual food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy to aeroallergens may be useful in selected cases. Stress-induced exacerbations may make psychosomatic counselling recommendable. ,Eczema school' educational programmes have been proven to be helpful. [source]

    Psoralen and ultraviolet A and narrow-band ultraviolet B in inducing stability in vitiligo, assessed by vitiligo disease activity score: an open prospective comparative study

    A Bhatnagar
    Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder with great cosmetic and psychological morbidity and an unpredictable course. No treatment available is a definitive cure. Systemic psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) has been the mainstay of treatment. Narrow-band UVB (NBUVB) was later introduced. In this study, we have compared the phototherapy modalities PUVA and NBUVB in inducing stability in vitiligo, assessed by using vitiligo disease activity score (VIDA), for the first time. Aims To investigate the position of NBUVB vis-à-vis PUVA in terms of stability achieved during therapy as indicated by the VIDA scores. Subjects and methods It was an open, prospective study of 50 patients divided equally in PUVA and NBUVB groups. The study period was from January 2004 to June 2005. This study was done as a part of a larger project to compare the efficacy of mentioned modalities in degree of repigmentation. Results In the NBUVB group, disease activity was present in 40% patients before commencement of therapy, which was reduced to 16% at the end of therapy (statistically significant, P = 0.049). In the PUVA group, similar figures were 20% and 16%, respectively. In the NBUVB group, 50% of patients whose disease was active prior to commencement of therapy had less than 50% repigmentation, whereas an equal number of patients had repigmentation of more than 50%. Almost an equal number of stable patients had less than and more than 50% repigmentation. In the PUVA group, 4 of the 5 (80%) patients who had active disease had less than 50% repigmentation, whereas only 1 patient (20%) with active disease obtained more than 50% repigmentation. The time to attain stability was 3.6 ± 2.1 months in the NBUVB group and 3.22 ± 3.1 months in the PUVA group. Eight of the 10 (80%) patients with unstable disease in the NBUVB group achieved stability, whereas 2 of the 5 (40%) patients of similar pre-treatment status in the PUVA group achieved stability. Conclusion NBUVB was in a more statistically advantageous position vis-à-vis PUVA, in respect to stability achieved and efficacy in both active and stable disease in a comparable time period. [source]

    Treatment of vitiligo vulgaris with narrow-band UVB and oral Polypodium leucotomos extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    MA Middelkamp-Hup
    Abstract Background, The first choice treatment for vitiligo vulgaris is narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB), but no satisfactory treatment exists. Objectives, To investigate if Polypodium leucotomos, an antioxidative and immunomodulatory plant extract, improves NB-UVB-induced repigmentation. Methods, Fifty patients with vitiligo vulgaris randomly received 250 mg oral P. leucotomos or placebo three times daily, combined with NB-UVB twice weekly for 25,26 weeks. Results, Repigmentation was higher in the P. leucotomos group vs. placebo in the head and neck area (44% vs. 27%, P = 0.06). Small repigmentation increases (P = n.s.) were observed for the trunk (6% increased repigmentation), extremities (4%), and hands and feet (5%) in the P. leucotomos group vs. placebo. Patients attending more than 80% of required NB-UVB sessions showed increased repigmentation in the head and neck area in the P. leucotomos group vs. placebo (50% vs. 19%, P < 0.002); no significant differences were seen in the other body areas. Patients with skin types 2 and 3 showed more repigmentation in the head and neck area in the P. leucotomos group vs. placebo (47% vs. 21%, P = 0.01), and no significant differences were seen in the other body areas. No conclusions could be drawn on skin types 4 and 5 due to low patient numbers. Conclusion, There is a clear trend towards an increase in repigmentation of vitiligo vulgaris affecting the head and neck area when NB-UVB phototherapy is combined with oral P. leucotomos. This effect may be more pronounced in light skin types. [source]

    Combination of narrow band UVB and topical calcipotriol for the treatment of vitiligo

    EO Goktas
    Abstract Background, Narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been used successfully for the treatment of vitiligo. Recently, topical calcipotriol has also been claimed to be effective, either as monotherapy or as a part of combination therapies. Objective, The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of NB-UVB and NB-UVB plus topical calcipotriol in the treatment of vitiligo. Methods, NB-UVB treatment was given to 24 patients with generalized vitiligo three times weekly. Topical calcipotriol cream was only applied to the lesions located on the right side of the body. Treatment was continued for 6 months. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining the average response rates of the lesions at 3-month intervals. Results, The average response rates of patients receiving combination of NB-UVB plus calcipotriol and NB-UVB alone were 51 ± 19.6% and 39 ± 18.9%, respectively. The median cumulative UVB dose and number of UVB exposures for initial repigmentation were 6345 mj/cm2 (range; 2930,30980) and 18 (range; 12,67) for the combination therapy, and 8867.5 mj/cm2 (range; 2500,30980) and 24 (range; 15,67) for the narrow band UVB therapy, respectively. Conclusions, These findings indicate that concurrent topical calcipotriol potentates the efficacy of NB-UVB in the treatment of vitiligo. This combination not only provides earlier pigmentation with lower total UVB dosage and less adverse UVB effects, but also reduces the duration and cost of treatment as well. [source]

    UVB in the management of early stage mycosis fungoides

    F Pavlotsky
    Background, Several options for treatment of early mycosis fungoides (MF) offer similar success rates. Previous small studies have shown UVB to be at least as effective as PUVA. Objective, To summarize our experience with UVB treatment of early MF. Methods, A retrospective analysis of early-stage MF patients treated by narrow band (NB) or broad band (BB) UVB in our institution between 1996 and 2002. Most patients achieving complete response (CR) were put on maintenance until natural sun exposure was possible and followed up every 3,6 months. The results were compared to those previously reported regarding PUVA. Results, Sixty-eight and 43 patients were treated by NB and BB UVB, respectively. Eighty-six per cent (84 and 89% in NB and BB UVB groups, respectively) of IA and 71% (78 and 44% in NB and BB UVB groups, respectively) of IB patients achieved CR within a mean of 12.8 and 10.6 weeks, respectively. When maintenance was stopped, 65 and 30% had not relapsed after an average follow up of 27 and 222 weeks, respectively. Non-relapse rate was 33 and 48% for those having had vs. those not having had maintenance, respectively. Conclusions, Our results are comparable to all previously reported for skin-targeted treatments, including PUVA and, to our belief, reflect the nature of early MF, in which CR can probably be achieved in most of the patients. Among the responding patients there is no relapse during prolonged follow-up in about one third of the cases. Thus, we believe treatment should be stopped completely following first CR induction and maintenance treatment should be considered for relapsing patients only. Both broad and narrow UVB options are good and future choices should be made on the basis of short- and long-term side-effects. [source]