Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (umbilical + vein_endothelial_cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

  • human umbilical vein endothelial cell

  • Selected Abstracts

    S -Allyl- L -Cysteine Sulfoxide Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Induced Monocyte Adhesion and Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Chai Hui
    Abstract Garlic and its water-soluble allyl sulfur-containing compound, S -Allyl- L -cysteine Sulfoxide (ACSO), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying the therapeutic effect of ACSO in inhibiting the formation of atherosclerostic lesion. This study aimed to investigate whether ACSO could modulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,)-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte adhesion and TNF-,-mediated signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. While TNF-, promoted the intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA transcription in a dose- and time-dependent manner, ACSO treatment significantly reduced the levels of TNF-,-induced intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA transcripts (P < 0.01). Furthermore, ACSO dramatically inhibited TNF-, triggered adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to endothelial cells and porcine coronary artery rings. Moreover, ACSO mitigated TNF-, induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and overproduction of superoxide anion, associated with the inhibition of NOX4, a subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, mRNA transcription. In addition, ACSO also inhibited TNF-,-induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK1/2 and I,B, but not p38. Apparently, ACSO inhibited proinflammatory cytokine-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and related intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppressing the overproduction of superoxide anion in endothelial cells. Therefore, our findings may provide new insights into ACSO on controlling TNF-,-mediated inflammation and vascular disease. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Chitosan Oligosaccharides Inhibit the Expression of Interleukin-6 in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Through p38 and ERK1/2 Protein Kinases

    Hong-Tao Liu
    However, the potential roles of COS in the treatment of vascular inflammations remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of COS on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Induction of HUVECs with LPS (100 ng/ml) increased the mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 (versus the vehicle-treated group, p < 0.01), which were significantly reverted by the pre-treatment with COS (50,200 ,g/ml) for 24 hr before LPS exposure (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.05 or 0.01). Signal transduction studies showed that the pre-treatment of HUVECs with COS (50,200 ,g/ml) for 24 hr markedly inhibited the LPS-induced over-expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphorylated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B). Moreover, the LPS-induced NF-,B activation was suppressed by the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (30 ,M) (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.01), but not by the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (25 ,M). Additionally, both MAPK inhibitors markedly suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression in HUVECs (versus the LPS-treated group, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our results suggest that COS inhibit LPS-induced up-regulation of IL-6 in HUVECs, and this can be regulated by at least two parallel signalling pathways: one via p38 MAPK pathway independent of NF-,B activation and one via ERK1/2 pathway dependent on NF-,B activation. [source]

    Growth Inhibition Activity of Thioacetal Artemisinin Derivatives Against Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 8 2004
    Sangtae Oh
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Triptolide functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor

    Ming-Fang He
    Abstract Triptolide is a key anti-inflammatory compound of the Chinese herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (Celastraceae). It also possesses potent antitumor activity. In this study, we show that triptolide is an angiogenesis inhibitor based on various angiogenesis assays. The IC50 in in vitro assays was 45 nM, which was much lower than the plasma concentrations of triptolide in the rat or human administered with T. wilfordii extracts for treating inflammation. When dosed in vivo, triptolide potently inhibited angiogenesis at 100 nM in Matrigel plug assay. Triptolide at 0.75 mg/kg/day significantly blocked tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression in murine tumorigenesis assay. The underlying mechanism of triptolide correlated with downregulation of proangiogenic Tie2 and VEGFR-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell by semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Although Tie2 inhibition appeared to be a later event as compared with VEGFR-2, Tie2 overexpression significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of triptolide on endothelial proliferation and network formation. By contrast, Tie2 knockdown mimicked the inhibitory effect of triptolide on endothelial network formation. Our findings suggest that antitumor action of triptolide is partly via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blocking 2 endothelial receptor-mediated signaling pathways, and triptolide can be a promising antiangiogenic agent. [source]

    Prostacyclin inhibits endothelial cell XIAP ubiquitination and degradation

    Jun-Yang Liou
    To understand the role of prostacyclin (PGI2) in protecting endothelial cells from apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2) on H2O2 -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) apoptosis. cPGI2 suppressed H2O2 -induced annexin V-positive cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of HUVEC with 50 µM cPGI2 for 4 h produced the maximal anti-apoptotic effect. Authentic PGI2 generated by adenoviral transfer of PGI2 synthetic genes exerted a similar protective effect. cPGI2 inhibited Smac/DIABLO release from mitochondria, caspase 3 activation, focal adhesion protein degradation, and cell detachment. cPGI2 selectively protected X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (X-linked IAP, XIAP) from H2O2 -induced ubiquitination, and preserved XIAP protein levels. PD-98059 but not H-89 abrogated the protective action of cPGI2. cPGI2 increased ERK phosphorylation which was blocked by PD-98059. HUVEC stably transfected with dominant negative Ras abrogated XIAP preservation by cPGI2 while constitutive active Ras increased ERK phosphorylation and protected XIAP from degradation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that PGI2 inhibits XIAP ubiquitination and degradation via the Ras/MEK-1/ERK signaling pathway. Preservation of XIAP proteins represents a key mechanism by which PGI2 protects endothelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis. J. Cell. Physiol. 212:840,848, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Enamel matrix derivative exhibits angiogenic effect in vitro and in a murine model

    Kuo Yuan
    Abstract Objectives: Angiogenesis is one of the most critical events in the wound healing process. Any increase in angiogenesis could result in more rapid and complete healing. A recent study found that enamel matrix derivative (EMD) could accelerate early periodontal wound healing. We wanted to clarify whether EMD caused an angiogenic effect and, thus, possibly enhanced wound healing. Methods: We performed in vitro proliferation and chemotaxis assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures, and a tissue culture assay using blood vessel fragments in fibrin gel. Collagen membranes soaked with EMD were implanted subcutaneously in mice to test the in vivo angiogenic effect. Results: While there were no significant differences between the negative control and EMD groups in the proliferation assay, EMD treatment did exhibit a significantly greater dose-dependent chemotactic effect on HUVEC than control group treatments. The tissue culture in fibrin gel showed new blood vessel outgrowths in the EMD groups, but none in the negative control group. In the animal studies, significantly more endothelial cells were detected in the EMD group of mice. Conclusions: Our findings show that EMD does exhibit some angiogenic effects. However, the underlying molecules and mechanisms are still unidentified. We discuss several possibilities. Zusammenfassung Ziele: Die Angiogenese gehört zu den kritischsten Ereignissen bei der Wundheilung. Eine Erhöhung der Angiogenese könnte zu einer rascheren und kompletteren Wundheilung führen. Kürzlich zeigte eine Studie, dass Schmelzmatrixderivate (EMD) die frühe parodontale Wundheilung beschleunigen könnte. Wir wollten klären, ob EMD einen angiogenetischen Effekt verursacht und dies möglicherweise die Wundheilung verbessert. Methoden: Wir führten in vitro Proliferations- und Chemotaxis-Assays an menschlichen Umbilicalvenen-Endothelzellen (HUVEC)Kulturen durch und studierten eine Gewebekultur unter Nutzung von Blutgefäßfragmenten in Fibringel. Kollagenmembranen mit EMD getränkt wurden subkutan in Mäuse implantiert, um den angiogenetischen Effekt in vivo zu testen. Ergebnisse: Während es keine signifikanten Differenzen zwischen den negativen Kontrollen und den EMD Gruppen in dem Proliferationsassay gab, zeigte die EMD Behandlung einen signifikant größeren, dosisabhängigen chemotaktischen Effekt auf HUVEC verglichen mit den Kontrollen. Die Gewebekultur im Fibringel zeigte neue Blutgefäßbildungen in den EMD-Gruppen, aber keine bei den Negativkontrollen. Bei den Tierstudien wurden signifikant mehr Endothelzellen in den EMD Mäusegruppen entdeckt. Schlussfolgerungen: Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass EMD einige angiogenetische Effekte zeigt. Jedoch sind die zugrunde liegenden Moleküle und die Mechanismen noch nicht geklärt. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Möglichkeiten. Résumé Objectifs: L'Angiogenèse est un des plus critiques éléments lors du processus de cicatrisation. La moindre augmentation de l'angiogenèse peut entraîner une cicatrisation plus rapide et plus complète. Une récente étude a montré que les dérivés de la matrice amellaire (EMD) pouvait accélérer plus tôt la cicatrisation parodontale. Nous voulions clarifier la possible responsabilité de l'EMD dans l'angiogenèse et si oui, l'amélioration de la cicatrisation. Méthodes: Nous avons réalisé in vitro la prolifération et un essai de chimiotactisme sur des cultures de cellules endothéliales de la veine ombilicale humaine (HUVEC), et un essai de culture tissulaire en utilisant des fragments de vaisseaux sanguins dans un gel de fibrine. Des membranes de collagène gorgées d'EMD furent implantées en sous-cutanée chez des souris pour tester l'effet angiogénique in vivo. Résultats: Bien qu'il n'y eut pas de différences significatives entre le contrôle négatif et le groupe EMD pour le test de prolifération, le traitement par EMD présentait un effet chimiotactique dose- dépendant significativement plus élevé sur les HUVEC. La culture tissulaire sur gel de fibrine présentait une surcroissance de nouveaux vaisseaux sanguins pour le groupe EMD, mais pas dans le groupe contrôle. Plus de cellules endothéliales furent en outre détectées lors de l'étude animale, pour le groupe de souris traitées par EMD. Conclusions: Nos données montrent que l'EMD présente quelques effets angiogéniques. Cependant, les molécules et les mécanismes responsables ne sont toujours pas identifiés. Nous discutons quelques possibilités. [source]

    Epidermal growth factor released from platelet-rich plasma promotes endothelial cell proliferation in vitro

    M.-P. Bertrand-Duchesne
    Bertrand-Duchesne M-P, Grenier D, Gagnon G. Epidermal growth factor released from platelet-rich plasmapromotes endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. J Periodont Res 2009; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2009.01205.x. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard Background and Objective:, The therapeutic benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the promotion of healing and regeneration of periodontal tissues are thought to result from enrichment in growth factors released from platelets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of specific growth factors released from PRP on endothelial cell proliferation. Material and Methods:, The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in supernatants of calcium- and thrombin-activated PRP samples from five donors were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Supernatants were treated with neutralizing antibodies specific to each growth factor, and the effects of these treatments on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro were determined. The effect of removing EGF from PRP supernatants with antibody-coated beads on HUVEC proliferation was also tested. Results:, Average concentrations of VEGF, PDGF-BB, bFGF and EGF in PRP supernatants were 189, 27,190, 39.5 and 513 pg/mL, respectively. The addition of EGF neutralizing antibodies to the PRP supernatants significantly reduced HUVEC proliferation (up to 40%), while such an inhibition was not observed following neutralization of the other growth factors. Removal of EGF from PRP supernatants by treatment with antibody-coated beads also resulted in a significant decrease in HUVEC proliferation. Recombinant EGF increased HUVEC proliferation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:, This study showed that PRP supernatants are highly mitogenic for endothelial cells and provided evidence that this effect may be due, at least in part, to the presence of EGF. In vivo experiments are needed to confirm the roles of specific growth factors released from PRP in the healing of oral surgical and/or periodontal wounds. [source]

    Osteoblasts stimulated with pulsed electromagnetic fields increase HUVEC proliferation via a VEGF-A independent mechanism,

    Richard A. Hopper
    Abstract The clinically beneficial effect of low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on bone healing has been described, but the exact mechanism of action remains unclear. A recent study suggests that there is a direct autocrine mitogenic effect of ELF-PEMF on angiogenesis. The hypothesis of this study is that ELF-PEMF also has an indirect effect on angiogenesis by manipulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A-based paracrine intercellular communication with neighboring osteoblasts. Conditioned media experiments measured fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation using tritiated thymidine uptake. We demonstrate that ELF-PEMF (15 Hz, 1.8 mT, for 8 h) has an indirect effect on the proliferation rate of both endothelial cells and osteoblasts in vitro by altering paracrine mediators. Conditioned media from osteoblast cells stimulated with ELF-PEMF increased endothelial proliferation 54-fold, whereas media from endothelial cells stimulated with ELF-PEMF did not affect osteoblast proliferation. We examined the role of the pro-angiogenic mediator VEGF-A in the mitogenic effect of ELF-PEMF-stimulated osteoblast media on endothelial cells. The production of VEGF-A by FRC as measured by ELISA was not changed by exposure to PEMF, and blocking experiments demonstrated that the ELF-PEMF-induced osteoblast-derived endothelial mitogen observed in these studies was not VEGF-A, but some other soluble angiogenic mediator. Bioelectromagnetics 30:189,197, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Endothelial stimulation by small lymphocytic lymphoma correlates with secreted levels of basic fibroblastic growth factor

    Lisa Rimsza
    Summary. Lymph nodes (LN) involved with small lympho- cytic lymphoma (SLL) reportedly contain increased numbers of microvessels that may constitute a therapeutic target in this disease. We investigated the secretion of the angiogenic growth factor, basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), from primary tissue cultures of 15 LN with SLL and 10 reactive LN. bFGF was detected from the resulting conditioned media (CM) in 13/15 SLL samples (mean 92 ± 30, range 5,420 pg/ml) but was undetectable in CM from all reactive lymph nodes. CM was also used in a 72-h human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation assay. HUVEC proliferation increased in the presence of SLL CM (70 ± 17%, range ,4,194%), proportional to secreted levels of bFGF (R2 = 0·95), and was reversed by depleting bFGF from CM. Previous SLL studies have examined either patient serum samples or paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue sections. This is the first study to examine the secretion of an angiogenic growth factor from primary cultures of lymph node cells. Our results indicate that bFGF is probably the primary mediator responsible for increased angiogenesis in involved nodes. These findings may be pertinent to future investigation into the mechanisms of increased angiogenesis in SLL. [source]

    Antitumor activities of synthetic and natural stilbenes through antiangiogenic action

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2008
    Yoshiyuki Kimura
    We reported that the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of resveratrol might be due to the inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis. To search for anticancer agents with stronger activity than resveratrol, we examined the antiangiogenic effects of 21 synthetic and/or natural stilbenes. Among these 21 stilbenes, 2,3-, 3,4-, and 4,4,-dihydroxystilbene inhibited the pro-matrix metalloproteinase (pro-MMP),9 production in colon 26 cells at 5,25 µM, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration at 10 and 25 µM, and VEGF-induced angiogenesis at 5,50 µM. Resvertarol inhibited the pro-MMP-9 production and VEGF-induced angiogenesis at 25 or 50 µM. Thus, the inhibition of pro-MMP-9 production in colon 26 cells and VEGF-induced angiogenesis by three dihydroxystilbenes were greater than those of resveratrol. The three dihydroxystilbenes (8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) inhibited the tumor-induced neovascularization in colon 26,packed chamber-bearing mice and the tumor growth in colon 26,bearing mice. Furthermore, the three dihydroxystilbenes inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation. On the other hand, the three dihydroxystilbenes had no effect on VEGFR-1 and-2 expression, and VEGF-induced VEGFR-1 phosphorylation in HUVECs. These findings suggest that the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization by these three dihydroxystilbenes may be due to the inhibition of VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and VEGF-induced angiogenesis through the inhibition of VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells and pro-MMP-9 expression in colon 26 cells. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 2083,2096) [source]

    Sonic hedgehog derived from human pancreatic cancer cells augments angiogenic function of endothelial progenitor cells

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Madoka Yamazaki
    Hedgehog signaling is important in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. Several recent observations suggest the involvement of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in postnatal neovascularization. We identified a novel role for SHH in tumor-associated angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that patched homolog 1 (PTCH1), both a receptor for and transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling, was expressed in a small fraction of endothelial cells within pancreatic cancer, but not in normal pancreatic tissue. When endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) isolated from human peripheral blood were cultured with supernatant from SHH-transfected 293 cells or pancreatic cancer cells, mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 and angiopoietin-1 were significantly increased, whereas no such induction was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC). HUVEC tube formation was stimulated when cocultured with EPC, and preconditioning EPC with supernatant from KP-1 N pancreatic cancer cells highly expressing SHH significantly enhanced the effect. The effect was partially attenuated by specific inhibition of SHH with cyclopamine or a neutralizing antibody. These findings suggest that tumor-derived SHH can induce angiogenesis, and this is mediated by its effects on EPC specifically. Targeting SHH would be a novel therapeutic approach that can inhibit not only proliferation of cancer cells but also EPC-mediated angiogenesis. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1131,1138) [source]

    Heterogeneity in lipopolysaccharide responsiveness of endothelial cells identified by gene expression profiling: role of transcription factors

    G. C. Beck
    Summary Interindividual differences of endothelial cells in response to endotoxins might contribute to the diversity in clinical outcome among septic patients. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that endothelial cells (EC) with high and low proinflammatory potential exist and to dissect the molecular basis underlying this phenomenon. Thirty human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lines were stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and screened for interleukin (IL)-8 production. Based on IL-8 production five low and five high producers, tentatively called types I and II responders, respectively, were selected for genome-wide gene expression profiling. From the 74 genes that were modulated by LPS in all type II responders, 33 genes were not influenced in type I responders. Among the 41 genes that were increased in both responders, 17 were expressed significantly stronger in type II responders. Apart from IL-8, significant differences in the expression of proinflammatory related genes between types I and II responders were found for adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), E-selectin)], chemokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP-2)], cytokines (IL-6) and the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-delta (C/EBP-,). Type I responders also displayed a low response towards tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-,. In general, maximal activation of nuclear factor (NF)-,B was achieved in type I responders at higher concentrations of LPS compared to type II responders. In the present study we demonstrate that LPS-mediated gene expression differs quantitatively and qualitatively in types I and II responders. Our results suggest a pivotal role for common transcription factors as a low inflammatory response was also observed after TNF-, stimulation. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevance of these findings in terms of clinical outcome in septic patients. [source]

    Angiotensin II regulates endothelial cell migration through calcium influx via T-type calcium channel in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    A. Martini
    Abstract Aim:, The T-type calcium channel is expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but its role in endothelial cell function is yet to be elucidated. We analysed the endothelial functional role of T-type calcium channel-dependent calcium under angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation. Methods:, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were co-incubated with hormone at 10,7 m and either Efonidipine 10,5 m or Verapamil 10,5 m or Mibefradil 10,5 m or Wortmannin 10,6 m. The contribution of Ang II receptors was evaluated using PD123319 10,7 m and ZD 7155 10,7 m. The calcium ion concentration was observed using Fluo-3 acetossimetil ester. The cells were observed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Results:, The microfluorescence method points out that Ang II induces intracellular calcium modulation in time by distinct mechanisms. AT2 receptor blockade is necessary to observe significant increase in [Ca2+]i levels. Pre-treatment with Mibefradil abolishes Ang II -induced cell migration. Conclusions:, Our data show that Ang II, via AT1 receptor, modulates calcium concentration involving T-type calcium channel and L-type calcium channel but only the calcium influx via T-type calcium channels regulates endothelial cell migration which is essential for angiogenesis. [source]

    Monocilia on chicken embryonic endocardium in low shear stress areas

    Kim Van der Heiden
    Abstract During cardiovascular development, fluid shear stress patterns change dramatically due to extensive remodeling. This biomechanical force has been shown to drive gene expression in endothelial cells and, consequently, is considered to play a role in cardiovascular development. The mechanism by which endothelial cells sense shear stress is still unidentified. In this study, we postulate that primary cilia function as fluid shear stress sensors of endothelial cells. Such a function already has been attributed to primary cilia on epithelial cells of the adult kidney and of Hensen's node in the embryo where they transduce mechanical signals into an intracellular Ca2+ signaling response. Recently, primary cilia were observed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These primary cilia disassembled when subjected to high shear stress levels. Whereas endocardial,endothelial cells have been reported to be more shear responsive than endothelial cells, cilia are not detected, thus far, on endocardial cells. In the present study, we use field emission scanning electron microscopy to show shear stress-related regional differences in cell protrusions within the cardiovasculature of the developing chicken. Furthermore, we identify one of these cell protrusions as a monocilium with monoclonal antibodies against acetylated and detyrosinated alpha-tubulin. The distribution pattern of the monocilia was compared to the chicken embryonic expression pattern of the high shear stress marker Krüppel-like factor-2. We demonstrate the presence of monocilia on endocardial,endothelial cells in areas of low shear stress and postulate that they are immotile primary cilia, which function as fluid shear stress sensors. Developmental Dynamics 235:19,28, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Leptin and endothelin-1 mediated increased extracellular matrix protein production and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in diabetic heart disease

    Pijush Majumdar
    Abstract Background We investigated the role of leptin and its interaction with endothelin 1 (ET-1) in fibronectin (FN) synthesis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, two characteristic features of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods Endothelial cells [human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)] were examined for FN production and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes for hypertrophy, following incubation with glucose, ET-1, leptin and specific blockers. FN, ET-1, leptin and leptin receptors mRNA expression and FN protein were measured. Myocytes were also morphometrically examined. Furthermore, hearts from streptozotocin-diabetic rats were analysed. Results Glucose caused increased FN mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs and cardiomyocytes hypertrophy along with upregulation of ET-1 mRNA, leptin mRNA and protein. Glucosemimetic effects were seen with leptin and ET-1. Leptin receptor antagonist (leptin quadruple mutant) and dual endothelin A endothelin B (ETA/ETB) receptor blocker bosentan normalized such abnormalities. Hearts from the diabetic animals showed hypertrophy and similar mRNA changes. Conclusion These data indicate that in diabetes increased FN production and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be mediated through leptin with its interaction with ET-1. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Development of Live Cell Chips to Monitor Cell Differentiation Processes

    C. Maercker
    Abstract A big demand exists for high-throughput functional in vitro assays which can measure cellular phenotypes by molecular methods and therefore improve the resources of primary cells for cell therapy, tissue engineering and high-content screenings in drug development. This approach focuses on cellular adhesion which is an important differentiation process during homing of stem cells. Moreover, it is a promising method especially for adherent cells which are not accessible by classical cell sorting methods. The chip design includes a housing with electrodes to measure electric field densities and impedance, respectively. Moreover, specific coatings of the wells permit a perfect growth of the selected cell types. In parallel, protein biomarkers can be followed by light microscopy. So far, experiments have been started to discriminate between different cell densities and cell types. In addition, after stimulating human cardiac fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, concentrations of proteins involved in adhesion had been increased, and proteins were translocated within the cells. In ongoing experiments, different human cell lines and fibroblastoid mesenchymal stem cells isolated from fat tissue, umbilical cord, or bone marrow are tested in the chip. To optimize the adhesion conditions, the surfaces within the vials of the chip were specifically activated. Microscopy was adjusted to be able to measure cellular morphology in parallel. This concept allows to identify the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells, which cannot be described so far by standard biomarkers. In addition, simulation of the homing process of the cells within its stem cell niche in an in vitro assay is a promising setup for large-scale gain-of-function or loss-of-function screenings in functional genomics as well as for generating precursor cells relevant for the therapy of various diseases. [source]

    IL-10 inhibits endothelium-dependent T cell costimulation by up-regulation of ILT3/4 in human vascular endothelial cells

    Abstract Effects of IL-10 on endothelium-dependent T cell activation have not been investigated in detail. We confirm expression of the IL-10 receptor and effective signaling via STAT-3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In CD4 T cell cocultures with HUVEC, pretreatment of endothelial cells with IL-10 resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of CD4 T cell proliferation, which also occurred when IL-10 was removed after pretreatment before starting cocultures. Th1/Th2 polarization of proliferated T cells, endothelial nitric oxide (NO), or IL-12 production were unchanged. However, IL-10 stimulation resulted in up-regulation of SOCS-3, a negative regulator of cytokine secretion, and induction of the inhibitory surface molecules immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and 4 (ILT3/ILT4) in EC, potentially involving glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ). Addition of blocking antibodies against ILT3/ILT4 to EC/T cell cocultures resulted in nearly complete reestablishment of T cell proliferation. In contrast, addition of soluble ILT3 or overexpression of ILT3 in cocultures significantly reduced T cell proliferation. No induction of foxp3+ regulatory T cells was seen. In conclusion, the T cell costimulatory potential of human EC is markedly suppressed by IL-10 due to up-regulation of ILT3/ILT4, obviously not involving generation of Treg. This identifies a novel action of IL-10 in EC and a potential therapeutical target for local immunomodulation. [source]

    Insulin/protein kinase B signalling pathway upregulates metastasis-related phenotypes and molecules in H7721 human hepatocarcinoma cell line

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2003
    Hui-Ling Qi
    The effect of insulin on cancer metastatic potential was studied in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, H7721. Cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and laminin as well as chemotactic cell migration and invasion were selected as the indices of metastasis-related phenotypes for assessment of metastatic potential ex vivo. The results indicated that insulin enhanced all of these metastasis-related phenotypes. After the cells were treated with specific inhibitor of PI3K (LY294002) or transfected with antisense cDNA of PKB (AS-PKB), all of the above phenotypes were attenuated, and they could not be significantly stimulated by insulin, indicating that the insulin effect on metastatic potential was mediated by PI3K and PKB. Only the monoclonal antibody to the sialyl Lewis X (SLex), but not antibodies to other Lewis antigens, significantly blocked the cell adhesion to HUVECs, cell migration and invasion, suggesting that SLex played a crucial role in the metastatic potential of H7721 cells. The upregulation of cell surface SLex and ,-1,3-fucosyltransferase-VII (,-1,3 Fuc T-VII, enzyme for SLex synthesis) was also mediated by PI3K and PKB, since LY294002 and AS-PKB also reduced the expressions of SLex and ,-1,3 FucT-VII, and attenuated the response to insulin. Furthermore, the alterations in the expressions of PKB protein and activity were correlated to the changes of metastatic phenotypes and SLex expression. Taken together, the insulin/PKB signalling pathway participated in the enhancement of metastatic potential of H7721 cells, which was mediated by the upregulation of the expression of SLex and ,-1,3 FucT-VII. [source]

    Transfection of the c- erbB2/neu gene upregulates the expression of sialyl Lewis X, ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII, and metastatic potential in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2001
    Fei Liu
    The pCMV4 plasmid containing the cancer-promoting gene, c- erbB2/neu, was cotransfected into the human hepatocarcinoma cell line 7721 with the pcDNA3 vector, which contains the ,neo' selectable marker. Several clones showing stable expression of c- erbB2/neu were established and characterized by determination of c- erbB2/neu mRNA and its encoded protein p185. Expression of Lewis antigens and ,1,3-fucosyltransferases and the biological behavior of 7721 cells after c- erbB2/neu transfection were studied using mock cells transfected with the vectors pCMV4 and pcDNA3 as controls. SLex expression on the surface of mock cells was high, whereas expression of SDLex, Lex and SLea was absent or negligible. This is compatible with the abundant expression of ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII, very low expression of ,fucosyltransferase III/VI, and almost absent expression of ,1,3-fucosyltransferase IV in the mock cells. After transfection of c- erbB2/neu, expression of SLex and ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII were simultaneously elevated, but that of ,fucosyltransferase III/VI was not altered. The expression of both SLex and ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII correlated positively with the expression of c- erbB2/neu in different clones, being highest in clone 13, medium in clone 6, and lowest in clone 7. In addition, the adhesion of 7721 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or P-selectin, as well as cell migration and invasion, were increased in c- erbB2/neu -transfected cells. These increases also correlated positively with the expression intensities of c- erbB2/neu, SLex and ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII in the different clones, whereas cell adhesion to fibronectin correlated negatively with these variables. mAbs to SLex (KM93) and SDLex (FH6) significantly and slightly, respectively, abolished cell adhesion to HUVECs or P-selectin and cell migration and invasion. mAbs to SDLex and SLea did not suppress cell adhesion to HUVECs nor inhibit cell migration and invasion. Transfection of ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII cDNA into 7721 cells showed similar results to transfection of c- erbB2/neu, and the increased adhesion to HUVECs, cell migration, and invasion were also inhibited significantly by KM93 and slightly by FH6. These results indicate that expression of ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII and its specific product, SLex, and their capacity for cell adhesion, migration and invasion are closely related. Therefore, the c- erbB2/neu gene is proposed to be a metastasis-promoting gene, and its effects are at least partially mediated by the increased expression of ,1,3-fucosyltransferase VII and SLex. [source]

    Functionalized, Swellable Hydrogel Layers as a Platform for Cell Studies

    Núria Marí-Buyé
    Abstract This paper reports the design, synthesis and characterization of thin films as a platform for studying the separate influences of physical and chemical cues of a matrix on the adhesion, growth and final phenotype of cells. Independent control of the physical and chemical properties of functionalized, swellable hydrogel thin films is achieved using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). The systematic variation in crosslink density is demonstrated to control the swelling ability of the iCVD hydrogel films based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). At the same time, the incorporation of controllable concentrations of the active ester pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFM) allows easy immobilization of aminated bioactive motifs, such as bioactive peptides. Initial cell culture results with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) indicate that the strategy of using PFM to immobilize a cell-adhesion peptide motif onto the hydrogel layers promotes proper HUVEC growth and enhances their phenotype. [source]

    Liver endothelial cells promote LDL-R expression and the uptake of HCV-like particles in primary rat and human hepatocytes,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Yaakov Nahmias
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important carrier of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides whose concentration is regulated by the liver parenchymal cells. Abnormal LDL regulation is thought to cause atherosclerosis, while viral binding to LDL has been suggested to facilitate hepatitis C infection. Primary hepatocytes quickly lose the ability to clear LDL during in vitro culture. Here we show that the coculture of hepatocytes with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) significantly increases the ability of hepatocytes to uptake LDL in vitro. LDL uptake does not increase when hepatocytes are cocultured with other cell types such as fibroblasts or umbilical vein endothelial cells. We find that LSECs induce the hepatic expression of the LDL receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, while hepatocytes in single culture did not take up hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like particles, the hepatocytes cocultured with LSECs showed a high level of HCV-like particle uptake. We suggest that coculture with LSECs induces the emergence of a sinusoidal surface in primary hepatocytes conducive to the uptake of HCV-like particles. In conclusion, our findings describe a novel model of polarized hepatocytes in vitro that can be used for the study of LDL metabolism and hepatitis C infection. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;43:257,265.) [source]

    Histamine induces Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in endothelial cells and enhances sensitivity to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Jaya Talreja
    Summary Histamine is a major inflammatory molecule released from the mast cell, and is known to activate endothelial cells. However, its ability to modulate endothelial responses to bacterial products has not been evaluated. In this study we determined the ability of histamine to modulate inflammatory responses of endothelial cells to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components and assessed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 in the co-operation between histamine and bacterial pathogens. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or peptidoglycan (PGN) in the presence or absence of histamine, and the expression and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and NF-,B translocation were determined. The effect of histamine on the expression of mRNA and proteins for TLR2 and TLR4 was also evaluated. Incubation of HUVEC with LPS, LTA and PGN resulted in marked enhancement of IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 secretion. Histamine alone markedly enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in HUVEC, but it did not stimulate proportional IL-6 release. When HUVEC were incubated with LPS, LTA, or PGN in the presence of histamine marked amplification of both IL-6 production and mRNA expression was noted. HUVEC constitutively expressed TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and proteins, and these were further enhanced by histamine. The expression of mRNAs encoding MD-2 and MyD88, the accessory molecules associated with TLR signalling, were unchanged by histamine treatment. These results demonstrate that histamine up-regulates the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and amplifies endothelial cell inflammatory responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial components. [source]

    Novel inhibitors targeted to methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) strongly inhibit the growth of cancers in xenografted nude model

    Eunyoung Chun
    Abstract Inhibition of angiogenesis is emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. In our study reported here, the effects of 4 highly potent methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitors, IDR-803, IDR-804, IDR-805 and CKD-732 (designed by structure-based molecular modeling), on angiogenesis and tumor growth were assessed. Concentrations of these inhibitors as low as 2.5 nM were able to inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by as much as 50%, arresting growth in the G1 stage of mitosis. An intracellular accumulation of p21WAF1/Cip1 protein was also observed. Furthermore, at higher concentrations (25 nM) of these 4 MetAP2 inhibitors, a significant induction of apoptosis was apparent in the same HUVEC cultures. As a result of these findings, the possible anticancer effects of these inhibitors were examined, utilizing the SNU-398 hepatoma cell line. Interestingly, pretreatment with these inhibitors led to an increased number of apoptotic cells of up to 60% or more, compared to untreated controls. Moreover, utilizing an in vivo xenografted murine model, these inhibitors suppressed the growth of engrafted tumor. In conclusion, these 4 inhibitory compounds potently exert an antiangiogenic effect to inhibit the growth of cancers in vivo and could potentially be useful for the treatment of a variety of cancers. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Purification and characterization of endocan (endothelial cell-specific molecule-1), a circulating proteoglycan involved in tumour progression and inflammatory diseases

    Stéphane Sarrazin
    Introduction By virtue of the multiplicity of their protein-binding partners (e.g. growth factors, cytokines/chemokines), proteoglycans have been shown to be involved in the regulation of a large number of pathophysiological processes including cancer and inflammatory diseases. We have studied and characterized endocan, also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1), which represents a new group of circulating proteoglycans. Endocan is mainly expressed by endothelial cells but also by epithelial cells from lung, gut and kidney. Structurally, endocan is constituted of a mature polypeptide of 165 amino acids with a single glycosaminoglycan chain covalently linked to the serine at position 137 (Béchard et al. 2001). Methods and results We showed that human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressed endocan specifically with a single chain of dermatan sulfate (DS) as glycosaminoglycan moiety. As shown by surface plasmon resonance, the DS chain directly interacts with cytokines and growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and could be responsible for endocan's biological activities. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells, which have been genetically engineered to overexpress endocan, induce tumour growth when injected subcutaneously in SCID mice. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a and IL-1 have been shown to increase the synthesis and the secretion of endocan from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conclusion These results suggest that circulating levels of endocan may represent a novel marker for cancer and inflammatory diseases. Further studies on its GAG structure could help us to better understand the biological activities of endocan and to design future glycomic-based therapies. [source]

    An in vitro examination of an extracellular matrix scaffold for use in wound healing

    Denis E. Solomon
    Summary. This paper describes evidence that an extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) assembled on gelatin coated plates overlaid by a mixed matrix secreted by human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) and human dermal fibroblasts provides a viable acellular scaffold for use in wound healing. Trypsinized epidermal keratinocytes or colonies from Dispase-digested fresh and cadaver skin tissue adhered and proliferated on either HUVECs ECM/gelatin or mixed matrix overlaid on HUVECs ECM/gelatin. An epithelial,mesenchymal interaction, previously thought to be tissue-specific, was exposed as well as concomitant integrin versatility. Furthermore, heterologous HDMECs and dermal fibroblasts attached and proliferated on the mixed matrix as well as HUVECs ECM. The conditioned medium from HUVECs (HUVECs CM) was found to neutralize the lingering after effects of Dispase, and could be used for the tissue culture of epidermal keratinocytes, HDMECs and dermal fibroblasts, which share related extracellular secretions. Taken together, these results indicate that cultured epithelial autografts can be redesigned to include both epithelial and dermal elements, and advances the acellular ,sandwich' ECM scaffold as a possible structural replacement for the lamina densa and lamina lucida, damaged or completely missing in some wounds and burns. [source]

    The expression of E-selectin and chemokines in the cultured human lymphatic endothelium with lipopolysaccharides

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 5 2008
    Yoshihiko Sawa
    Abstract This study investigated the expression of selectins and chemokines in cultured human lymphatic endothelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. In microarray, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expressions in the lymphatic endothelium with lipopolysaccharides did not change at 0.5 h but increased two- to three-fold at 12 h, whereas E-selectin increased 10-fold at 0.5 h and 68-fold at 12 h compared with untreated cells. The E-selectin mRNA and protein increased in the lymphatic endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharides at more than two-fold levels compared with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Induction of Cys-Cys chemokine ligand 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 20 mRNAs in the lymphatic endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharides was detected in microarray and real-time PCR. The Cys-Cys chemokine ligand 2, 5 and 20 mRNA amounts in cells with high concentration lipopolysaccharides were larger in the lymphatic endothelial cells than in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The Cys-Cys chemokine ligand 3 and 8 mRNAs were not detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Induction of Cys-X-Cys chemokine ligand 1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 mRNAs was detected in the lymphatic endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharides. The Cys-X-Cys chemokine ligand 3, 5 and 8 mRNA amounts in cells with high concentration lipopolysaccharides were larger in the lymphatic endothelial cells than in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the cultured human lymphatic endothelial cells express E-selectin and phagocyte-attractive chemokine genes. [source]

    Electrospun polylactide/silk fibroin,gelatin composite tubular scaffolds for small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessels

    Shudong Wang
    Abstract Many synthetic scaffolds have been used as vascular substitutes for clinical use. However, many of these scaffolds may not show suitable properties when they are exposed to physiologic vascular environments, and they may fail eventually because of some unexpected conditions. Electrospinning technology offers the potential for controlling the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of scaffolds. In this study, a tubular scaffold (inner diameter = 4.5 mm) composed of a polylactide (PLA) fiber outside layer and a silk fibroin (SF),gelatin fiber inner layer (PLA/SF,gelatin) was fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological, biomechanical, and biological properties of the composite scaffold were examined. The PLA/SF,gelatin composite tubular scaffold possessed a porous structure; the porosity of the scaffold reached 82 ± 2%. The composite scaffold achieved the appropriate breaking strength (1.28 ± 0.21 MPa) and adequate pliability (elasticity up to 41.11 ± 2.17% strain) and possessed a fine suture retention strength (1.07 ± 0.07 N). The burst pressure of the composite scaffold was 111.4 ± 2.6 kPa, which was much higher than the native vessels. A mitochondrial metabolic assay and scanning electron microscopy observations indicated that both 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells grew and proliferated well on the composite scaffold in vitro after they were cultured for some days. The PLA/SF,gelatin composite tubular scaffolds presented appropriate characteristics to be considered as candidate scaffolds for blood vessel tissue engineering. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Synthesis and use of pHEMA microbeads with human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells

    Hervé Nyangoga
    Abstract Cancer has become a major problem in public health and the resulting bone metastases a worsening factor. Facing it, different strategies have been proposed and mechanisms involved in tumor angiogenesis are being studied. Enhanced permeability retention (EPR) effect is a key step in designing new anticancer drugs. We have prepared poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA) microbeads to target human endothelial EA.hy 926 cells, a cell line derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Microbeads were synthesized by emulsion precipitation method and carried positive or negative charges. EA.hy 926 cells were cultured in 24-well plates and microbeads were deposited on cells at various times. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction were used to characterize microbeads and their location outside and inside cells. Microbeads were uptaken by endothelial cells with a better internalization for negatively charged microbeads. 3D reconstruction of confocal optical sections clearly evidenced the uptake and internalization of microbeads by endothelial cells. pHEMA microbeads could represent potential drug carrier in tumor model of metastases. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2009 [source]

    Increased VEGFR2 expression during human late endothelial progenitor cells expansion enhances in vitro angiogenesis with up-regulation of integrin ,6

    David M. Smadja
    Abstract In vitro expansion of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might yield a cell therapy product useful for myocardial and leg ischaemia, but the influence of EPC expansion on the angiogenic properties of these cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of in vitro EPC expansion on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor expression. EPCs were obtained from CD34+ cord blood cells and expanded for up to 5 weeks. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that VEGFR2 expression, contrary to VEGFR1 and VEGFR3 expression, was significantly higher on expanded EPCs than on freshly isolated CD34+ cells or on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Quantitative flow cytometry confirmed that VEGFR2 density on EPCs increased during the expansion process and was significantly higher than on HUVECs. The impact of VEGFR2 increase was studied on the three theoretical steps of angiogenesis, i.e., EPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. VEGFR2 up-regulation had no effect on VEGF-induced cell proliferation, but significantly enhanced EPC migration and pseudotubes formation dependent on integrin ,6 subunit overexpression. In vitro expansion of late EPCs increases the expression of VEGFR2, the main VEGF receptor, with possible implications for EPC-based angiogenic therapy. [source]

    Prognostic value of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal cancer patients

    Francisco-Jesus Gonzalez
    Abstract Angiogenesis, resulting from an imbalance between angiogenic activator factors and inhibitors, is required for tumour growth and metastasis. The determination of the circulating concentration of all angiogenic factors (activators and inhibitors) is not feasible at present. We have evaluated diagnostic and prognostic values of the measurement of serum angiogenic activity in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. Serum proliferative activity (PA) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were determined by ELISA in 53 patients with primary CRC, 16 subjects with non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disease (SC) and 34 healthy individuals. Data were compared with clinical outcome of the patients. Although serum from CRC patients significantly increased the PA of HUVEC, compared to culture control (HUVEC in medium + 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS); P < 0.001); our results indicate that serum PA in CRC patients was similar to that of SC or healthy individuals. There was no correlation between serum PA and circulating VEGF concentrations. Surgery produced a decrease of PA at 8 hrs after tumour resection in CRC patients compared to pre-surgery values (186 ± 47 versus 213 ± 41, P < 0.001). However, an increase in serum VEGF values was observed after surgery (280 [176,450] versus 251 [160,357] pg/ml, P = 0.004). Patients with lower PA values after surgery showed a worse outcome that those with higher PA values. Therefore, this study does not support a diagnostic value for serum angiogenic activity measured by proliferative activity on HUVEC but suggests it could have a prognostic value in CRC patients. [source]