Umbilical Cord Blood (umbilical + cord_blood)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Umbilical Cord Blood

  • human umbilical cord blood


  • Selected Abstracts


    Influence of obstetric factors on the yield of mononuclear cells, CD34+ cell count and volume of placental/umbilical cord blood

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
    Atsuko Omori
    Abstract Aim:, Placental/umbilical cord blood (CB) has been used increasingly not only for transplantations, but also in the field of life science research. However, little information is available on the biological characteristics of CB units collected in rural areas because no medical facilities are affiliated with CB banks. Little attention has been paid to the collection of CB units in rural areas compared to CB collected in metropolitan areas. CB is a precious source for life science research due to the recent low birth rate in Japan. Therefore, to efficiently utilize CB units, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the optimum obstetric factors associated with a higher yield of mononuclear/CD34+ cells per CB unit. Methods:, CB units were collected at a single hospital (Hirosaki National Hospital). A total of 126 CB units from 105 vaginal deliveries and 21 cesarean section deliveries were available for cell separation within 24 h. Mononuclear low-density (LD) cells were separated using Ficoll-Paque and then processed for CD34+ cell enrichment using magnetic cell sorting. Associations between the maternal/neonatal factors and the yield of LD/CD34+ cells were analyzed. Results:, Despite the larger net weight of CB collected from cesarean section deliveries, the total number of LD cells collected from vaginal deliveries was significantly higher than that collected from cesarean section deliveries. The total number of LD cells per CB unit from primigravidae was significantly higher compared with that collected from from multigravidae. Conclusion:, CB units from vaginal deliveries of primigravidae may be more favorable because they contain a higher yield of mononuclear cells. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Isolation of Non-Activated Monocytes from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Erik Normann
    Problem, Methods for monocyte purification are common but few work with umbilical cord monocytes that do not activate the cell for subsequent culture analysis. Methods of study, The collection procedure avoids use of needles and procedures that variably activate blood clotting and uses a purification procedure that involves diluted Ficoll, autologous serum to remove platelets and 42% and 51% Percoll step gradients for the final purification. The resulting monocytes were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and formalin-treated bacteria Escherichia coli and group B streptococci (GBS) to secrete TNF-, and IL-1,, measured by ELISA. Results, The purification procedure results in non-active but stimulation-competent monocytes with high yields (2.3,9 × 107 cells) and purity (from 70% to 98%). Conclusion, We describe a procedure that is easy, uses common reagents and provides a uniformly high yield and purity of non-activated fetal monocytes for studies of innate defense responses. [source]


    Sustained and stable hematopoietic donor-recipient mixed chimerism after unrelated cord blood transplantation for adult patients with severe aplastic anemia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    P. Mao
    Abstract:, We evaluated the engraftment of donor cells from unrelated cord blood into adult patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and the outcome of allo-CBSCT (cord blood stem cell transplantation). Nine patients were conditioned with decreased dosage of immunosuppressive agents of CTX (60 mg/kg) and ALG (120 mg/kg). The prophylaxis of GVHD consisted of standard CsA and MTX. Patients have a media age of 25.3 yr (range: 15,37), and a median weight of 57.2 kg (range: 52.5,60) at the time of transplantation. Cord blood searches were all conducted at Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank. The engraftment state of the donor cells into recipients was confirmed by microsatellite DNA fingerprinting and fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis. Engrafted evidence has been found in seven patients involved by biomolecular analyses showing donor-recipient mixed chimerism post-transplant which was stable and persistent. After a median follow up of 32.2 months (range: 4,69), seven patients were alive and disease free. This study shows that durable donor-recipient stable mixed chimerism can be achieved by unrelated CBSCT in patients with SAA. Umbilical cord blood could be employed as a source of hematopoietic stem cell for adult transplantation. [source]


    Clinical and experimental uses of umbilical cord blood

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2002
    I. D. Lewis
    Abstract Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been used successfully as an alternative source of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of acquired and genetic diseases. Advantages of using UCB include: (i) no risk to the donor, (ii) no donor attrition, (iii) minimal risk of viral transmission and (iv) immediate availability. Early results have highlighted differences in engraftment rates and toxicity between UCB and other sources of HSC. These differences relate to the low cell dose in UCB and also to the intrinsic properties of UCB. In this article, the clinical outcome of UCB transplantation (UCBT) will be reviewed with a discussion of the biological characteristics of UCB that may account for some of the clinical outcomes. To overcome the limitations of low cell dose, novel approaches such as ex vivo expansion of HSC are being actively explored, and this will be summarized in the present study. Finally, the success of UCBT has led to the establishment of dedicated UCB banks worldwide and the regulatory issues surrounding this will be briefly discussed. (Intern Med J 2002; 32: 601,609) [source]


    Early transplantation of unrelated cord blood in a two-month-old infant with Wiskott,Aldrich syndrome

    PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2007
    Tang-Her Jaing
    Abstract:, This report exemplified a success of unrelated CBT in a two-month-old boy with Wiskott,Aldrich Syndrome. Umbilical cord blood was chosen as the stem-cell source because of its immediate availability and reduced tendency to cause GVHD. The conditioning regimen was cyclophosphamide, busulfan, and antithymocyte globulin. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporin and methylprednisolone. The patient received an HLA 1-locus-mismatched cord blood unit, and the total number of infused nucleated cells was 11.14 × 107/kg. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved on day +11, and a platelet count greater than 50 × 109/L was achieved on day +71. He is currently alive and doing well at nine months post-transplant and free of any bleeding episodes. This case suggests that unrelated donor CBT may be safe and technically feasible, even in early infancy, when an appropriately matched related or unrelated donor is unavailable. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The Transcriptome of the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Sally A. Madsen-Bouterse
    Problem, The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is considered the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but similarities in their regulatory mechanisms are unclear. This study characterizes the fetal mRNA transcriptome of peripheral leukocytes to identify key biological processes and pathways involved in FIRS. Method of study, Umbilical cord blood from preterm neonates with FIRS (funisitis, plasma IL-6 >11 pg/mL; n = 10) and neonates with no evidence of inflammation (n = 10) was collected at birth. Results, Microarray analysis of leukocyte RNA revealed differential expression of 541 unique genes, changes confirmed by qRT-PCR for 41 or 44 genes tested. Similar to SIRS and sepsis, ontological and pathway analyses yielded significant enrichment of biological processes including antigen processing and presentation, immune response, and processes critical to cellular metabolism. Results are comparable with microarray studies of endotoxin challenge models and pediatric sepsis, identifying 25 genes across all studies. Conclusion, This study is the first to profile genome-wide expression in FIRS, which demonstrates a substantial degree of similarity with SIRS despite differences in fetal and adult immune systems. [source]


    Alternative haematopoietic stem cell sources for transplantation: place of umbilical cord blood

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Angela R. Smith
    Summary Umbilical cord blood has rapidly become a valuable alternative stem cell source for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Extensive research over the last 20 years has established the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation in both children and adults with a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. This research has clearly shown that this stem cell source has several unique characteristics resulting in distinct advantages and disadvantages when compared to transplantation with unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. This article reviews the most recent literature comparing the outcomes after umbilical cord blood transplantation with other alternative stem cell sources. [source]


    Influence of obstetric factors on the yield of mononuclear cells, CD34+ cell count and volume of placental/umbilical cord blood

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
    Atsuko Omori
    Abstract Aim:, Placental/umbilical cord blood (CB) has been used increasingly not only for transplantations, but also in the field of life science research. However, little information is available on the biological characteristics of CB units collected in rural areas because no medical facilities are affiliated with CB banks. Little attention has been paid to the collection of CB units in rural areas compared to CB collected in metropolitan areas. CB is a precious source for life science research due to the recent low birth rate in Japan. Therefore, to efficiently utilize CB units, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the optimum obstetric factors associated with a higher yield of mononuclear/CD34+ cells per CB unit. Methods:, CB units were collected at a single hospital (Hirosaki National Hospital). A total of 126 CB units from 105 vaginal deliveries and 21 cesarean section deliveries were available for cell separation within 24 h. Mononuclear low-density (LD) cells were separated using Ficoll-Paque and then processed for CD34+ cell enrichment using magnetic cell sorting. Associations between the maternal/neonatal factors and the yield of LD/CD34+ cells were analyzed. Results:, Despite the larger net weight of CB collected from cesarean section deliveries, the total number of LD cells collected from vaginal deliveries was significantly higher than that collected from cesarean section deliveries. The total number of LD cells per CB unit from primigravidae was significantly higher compared with that collected from from multigravidae. Conclusion:, CB units from vaginal deliveries of primigravidae may be more favorable because they contain a higher yield of mononuclear cells. [source]


    Prediction of hyperbilirubinaemia in the healthy term newborn

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    X Carbonell
    The aim is to establish the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) and serum bilirubin (TSB) and its predictive value for significant hyperbilirubinaemia ,290 mcmol/L (17mg/dL). We studied a total of 2004 healthy full-term newborns, weight 3.230g ± 491g; 90% received breast milk. The study was performed in two phases. In the first phase (610 newborns), the following tests were carried out: hematocrit and bilirubin in umbilical cord blood; TCB at 24 h, 48 h and between 60 h and 96 h at the forehead and over the sternum; TSB was measured along with this last test. In the second phase (1394 newborns), the predictive value of TCB and TSB was validated. The incidence of bilirubin >290 mcmol/L was 2.95% and 3.2%. The correlation between TSB and TCB is high (n= 996; r = 0.92; y = 5.916 + 0.804x; p < 0.000). There was a better correlation between TCB and TSB with sternal compared to forehead determination (< 24 h: 0.81 vs 0.77; 24,48 h: 0.887 vs 0.83; and >48 h: 0.94 vs 0.83). The study showed the scant sensitivity of umbilical cord blood bilirubin and good predictive value at 24 h of TSB > 102 mcmol/L (6mg/dL) and at 48 h of TSB > 154 mcmol/L (9mg/dL) and TCB > 13 (equivalent to 154 mcmol/L). Conclusion: There is a good correlation between TCB and TSB. In infants with TSB 102 mcmol/L at 24 h or TSB > 154 mcmol/L or transcutaneous readings > 13 h at 48 h, a TSB test must be performed after 48 h of life. [source]


    Successful unrelated cord blood transplantation in a 7-year-old boy with Evans syndrome refractory to immunosuppression and double autologous stem cell transplantation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Christian Urban
    Abstract:, Evans syndrome is an autoimmunopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia with poor response to immunosuppression. A 2-yr-old boy with Evans syndrome showed only short-lasting responses to immunosuppressive treatment including double autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (SCT). Intracranial bleeding required emergency splenectomy and external ventricular drainage. Unrelated umbilical cord blood was given following conditioning with busulfan, thiotepa, etoposide and antithymocyte globulin. One year after SCT the patient shows stable blood counts without immunosuppression. This is the first child reported with Evans syndrome successfully treated by means of unrelated cord blood transplantation. [source]


    Transplantation of umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells: a promising method of therapeutic revascularisation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Lei Zhang
    Abstract:, Therapeutic neovascularisation by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mediated vascular regeneration is becoming a novel option for the treatment of ischaemic diseases. Recently, human umbilical cord blood (CB) has been found to contain a large number of EPCs and transplantation of CB EPCs led to a successful salvage of the ischaemic limbs through improvement in blood perfusion, indicating the feasibility of using CB cells for therapeutic revascularisation. This review will summarise recent studies in therapeutic revascularisation using CB cells and discuss the potential clinical utilisation of CB cells in ischaemic diseases. [source]


    Ex vivo expanded cord blood CD4 T lymphocytes exhibit a distinct expression profile of cytokine-related genes from those of peripheral blood origin

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Yoshitaka Miyagawa
    Summary With an increase in the importance of umbilical cord blood (CB) as an alternative source of haematopoietic progenitors for allogenic transplantation, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) with donor CB-derived activated CD4+ T cells in the unrelated CB transplantation setting is expected to be of increased usefulness as a direct approach for improving post-transplant immune function. To clarify the characteristics of activated CD4+ T cells derived from CB, we investigated their mRNA expression profiles and compared them with those of peripheral blood (PB)-derived activated CD4+ T cells. Based on the results of a DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a relatively high level of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) gene expression and a relatively low level of interleukin (IL)-17 gene expression were revealed to be significant features of the gene expression profile of CB-derived activated CD4+ T cells. Flow cytometric analysis further revealed protein expression of Foxp3 in a portion of CB-derived activated CD4+ T cells. The low level of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor , isoform t (ROR,t) gene expression in CB-derived activated CD4+ T cells was speculated to be responsible for the low level of IL-17 gene expression. Our data indicate a difference in gene expression between CD4+ T cells from CB and those from PB. The findings of Foxp3 expression, a characteristic of regulatory T cells, and a low level of IL-17 gene expression suggest that CB-derived CD4+ T cells may be a more appropriate source for DLI. [source]


    Clinical and experimental uses of umbilical cord blood

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2002
    I. D. Lewis
    Abstract Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been used successfully as an alternative source of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of acquired and genetic diseases. Advantages of using UCB include: (i) no risk to the donor, (ii) no donor attrition, (iii) minimal risk of viral transmission and (iv) immediate availability. Early results have highlighted differences in engraftment rates and toxicity between UCB and other sources of HSC. These differences relate to the low cell dose in UCB and also to the intrinsic properties of UCB. In this article, the clinical outcome of UCB transplantation (UCBT) will be reviewed with a discussion of the biological characteristics of UCB that may account for some of the clinical outcomes. To overcome the limitations of low cell dose, novel approaches such as ex vivo expansion of HSC are being actively explored, and this will be summarized in the present study. Finally, the success of UCBT has led to the establishment of dedicated UCB banks worldwide and the regulatory issues surrounding this will be briefly discussed. (Intern Med J 2002; 32: 601,609) [source]


    Ex vivo differentiation of umbilical cord blood progenitor cells in the presence of placental conditioned medium

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE, Issue 4 2002
    Mihaela Chivu
    Abstract Hematopoetic stem cells (HSC) are the progenitors for the lympho-hematopoietic system, with long lifespan and high proliferation potential. Transplantation of HSC from bone marrow or peripheral blood represents a standard therapy in severe hematological conditions. A possible alternative source of HSC is the umbilical cord blood, prepared by various separation procedures followed by expansion in cultures supplemented with hematopoietic growth factors. In order to check the effects of placental conditioned medium (PCM) from placental cells culture upon viability of HSC, we added plasma, PCM, dimetil sulfoxyde or hemin in HSC cultures. Flow cytometry or direct scoring of solid cultures using CD45+, CD34+, CD71+ and CD14+ fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies evaluated the effects upon cell proliferation and colony forming ability of HSC cultures, versus controls. PCM produced the highest proliferation, followed by plasma, DMSO and hemin. PCM improved the survival time and maintained a higher proportion of immature cells. PCM stimulates the differentiation towards myeloid lineage progenitor cells (>90% being CD45+), increasing the percentage of CD14+, granulocites /monocytes precursors. It is highly suggestive that PCM contains growth factors or cytokines, which regulate the development of HSC. Characterization of these factors is in progress. [source]


    Potential of umbilical cord blood cells for brain repair

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2002
    P. R. Sanberg
    Our laboratory is characterizing the mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) for possible therapeutic value. Studies on HUCB cells demonstrated their ability to respond to growth factors by increased expression of neural markers and down regulation of several genes associated with development of blood lines. HUCB cells were also transplanted into the subventricular zone of the developing rat brain. It was found that some of the HUCB cells responded to external factors and were able to adopt neural fates similar to endogenous stem cells. We also tested whether intravenously infused HUCB cells enter brain, survive, differentiate and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. HUCB cells were injected into the tail vein at least 24 h after stroke or TBI. Behavioral impairments were significantly improved as early as 14 days in both TBI and stroke animals, compared to controls. Injected cells entered brain and migrated into the parenchyma of the injured brain. Some of these expressed neuronal, astrocytic, or endothelial markers. Our data suggest that intravenous administration of HUCB cells can provide neural stem cells, and may be a useful treatment for brain repair. Acknowledgements:, Supported by Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc. and a FL Hi-Tech Corridor Grant. [source]


    Analysis of neural potential of human umbilical cord blood,derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in response to a range of neurogenic stimuli

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 9 2008
    Isabel Zwart
    Abstract We investigated the neurogenic potential of full-term human umbilical cord blood (hUCB),derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to neural induction media or coculture with rat neural cells. Phenotypic and functional changes were assessed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Naive MSCs expressed both mesodermal and ectodermal markers prior to neural induction. Exposure to retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor, or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) did not stimulate neural morphology, whereas exposure to dibutyryl cAMP and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine stimulated a neuron-like morphology but also appeared to be cytotoxic. All protocols stimulated increases in expression of the neural precursor marker nestin, but expression of mature neuronal or glial markers MAP2 and GFAP was not observed. Nestin expression increases were serum level dependent. Electrophysiological properties of MSCs were studied with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The MSCs possessed no ionic currents typical of neurons before or after neural induction protocols. Coculture of hUCB-derived MSCs and rat neural cells induced some MSCs to adopt an astrocyte-like morphology and express GFAP protein and mRNA. Our data suggest hUCB-derived MSCs do not transdifferentiate into mature functioning neurons in response to the above neurogenic protocols; however, coculture with rat neural cells led to a minority adopting an astrocyte-like phenotype. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Comparison of markers for fetal inflammatory response syndrome: Fetal blood interleukin-6 and neonatal urinary ,2 -microglobulin

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2009
    Shigeru Nishimaki
    Abstract Aim:, Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a major component in the morbidity of premature infants suffering from fetal inflammatory response (FIRS). The aim of the present study was to compare the value of measuring neonatal urinary ,2 -microglobulin (,2 -MG) levels with fetal blood interleukin (IL)-6 levels in premature infants at risk of developing CLD. Methods:, Premature infants (gestational age <30 weeks) without CLD (n = 19) and with CLD (n = 10) were enrolled. We measured IL-6 levels in umbilical cord blood and ,2 -MG levels in urine obtained within 48 h after birth. Results:, IL-6 and ,2 -MG levels were significantly higher in infants who developed CLD than in those who did not (median IL-6, 54.7 vs 7.6 pg/mL; P < 0.005; ,2 -MG 17.7 vs 9.3 × 104 µg/gCr; P < 0.05). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of ,2 -MG at the cut-off value at 10.0 × 104 µg/gCr (0.90 and 0.92) were comparable to IL-6 at 16 pg/mL (0.90 and 0.94). Conclusion:, We suggest that measuring urinary ,2 -MG in premature infants soon after birth can monitor FIRS and may provide information on the risk of subsequent CLD development that is as clinically important as information derived from umbilical cord blood IL-6. [source]


    Comparison of maternal and cord blood nucleated red blood cell count between pre-eclamptic and healthy women

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2007
    Bibi Shahnaz Aali
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-eclampsia on the cord and maternal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count. Methods:, Immediately after delivery, 1 mL of maternal venous blood and 1 mL of cord blood from 50 pre-eclamptic and 150 healthy pregnant women were collected separately in tubes containing 1.5 mg ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. Blood smears were prepared and stained using the Giemsa method. The number of NRBC per 100 leukocytes in maternal and cord blood was counted and compared between the two groups using SPSS software package for Windows. Any correlation of the NRBC count in maternal and umbilical cord blood was also evaluated. P -values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results:, The mean (±SD) NRBC per 100 white blood cell (WBC) level in cord blood of newborns in the pre-eclamptic group (18.2 ± 31.8, range 0,142) was significantly greater than in the control group (6.2 ± 8.1, range 0,36). Low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction showed a statistically significant relationship with abnormal NRBC count in pre-eclamptic patients. A significant correlation was found between the maternal and cord blood NRBC count in the pre-eclamptic group. Conclusion:, Fetal response to utero,placental insufficiency in pre-eclampsia leads to elevated NRBC in the cord blood, particularly in the presence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. The positive correlation between maternal and cord blood NRBC counts in pre-eclamptic patients indicates that maybe the hypoperfused placenta plays a role in the correlated alteration of the maternal and fetal NRBC count. [source]


    Phenotype and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue of different species

    JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 11 2009
    María José Martínez-Lorenzo
    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several mesoderm lineages. They have been isolated from different tissues, such as bone marrow, adult peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in proliferation and phenotype of adipose tissue-derived MSCs from three different species, and to evaluate their capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes in vitro. A comparative study of cultured human, rabbit, and sheep mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue was carried out, and the main morphological parameters, proliferative activity, and expression of surface markers were characterized. Proliferation and flow cytometry data showed species-related differences between animal and human MSCs. Histological staining suggested that rabbit and sheep mesenchymal cells were able to differentiate into chondrocytic lineages. Human mesenchymal cells, though they could also differentiate, accomplished it with more difficulty than animal MSCs. These results could help to explain the differences in the chondrogenic capacity of sheep and rabbit MSCs when they are used as animal models compared to human mesenchymal cells in a clinical assay. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:1499,1507, 2009 [source]


    Review of positive direct antiglobulin tests found on cord blood sampling

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 9-10 2005
    Dorothy Dinesh
    Until recently, all babies born in Wellington had umbilical cord blood sampling for direct antiglobulin test (DAT). It is considered to be an important test in identifying babies who are at risk of haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the utility of positive DAT results and ascertain: , How many cases required phototherapy? , Were any babies readmitted for phototherapy? , Did the positive DAT influence the detection and treatment of HDN? Methods: The clinical records of all newborn babies found to have positive DATs by Wellington Hospital Blood Bank, over a 6-month period (January 2001,June 2001) were reviewed. Blood group serological results of all babies that received phototherapy during this period were also reviewed. Results: Ninety-four babies had a positive DAT, of which 22 (23%) received phototherapy. The incidence of a positive cord blood DAT was found to be 5.5%. In total, 1724 cord blood samples were analysed by Blood Bank over the first 6 months in 2001. Overall 145 babies received phototherapy, 117 were DAT-negative and six were not tested. Six of the 22 (27%) DAT-positive babies that received phototherapy were alerted by a positive DAT, leading to measurement of serum bilirubin (SBR). Twelve of the 22 (55%) were initially alerted by clinical jaundice, leading to measurement of SBR. Two DAT-positive cases were diagnosed antenatally, both were due to anti-D. Overall 10 babies were readmitted for phototherapy, two had a positive DAT. One baby received an exchange transfusion in addition to phototherapy. Two babies that received phototherapy had SBRs in the exchange transfusion range. Eighty-six per cent of the DAT-positive cases treated with phototherapy were due to anti-A. There were four cases of DAT-negative ABO HDN. Conclusions: The positive predictive value of a positive DAT for HDN is 23%. The sensitivity was estimated to be 86%. Ten babies required readmission for phototherapy, two of these were DAT-positive. Jaundice, rather than the positive DAT, was the first alert in the majority of cases of HDN requiring phototherapy. Recommendations for testing are discussed but remain controversial in practice. Assessment for hyperbilirubinaemia in all infants early in life is fundamental. [source]


    Induction of umbilical cord blood,derived ,2m,c-Met+ cells into hepatocyte-like cells by coculture with CFSC/HGF cells

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2005
    Yunfang Wang
    Several studies have indicated that adult stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (CB) can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. This ability is important for the treatment of hepatic diseases with BM or CB as a potential approach. However, methods are still being developed for the efficient induction of stem cell differentiation and expansion to get enough cells to be useful. In the present study, we enriched a subset of umbilical cord blood ,2m,c-Met+ cells (UCBCCs) and investigated the combination effect of liver nonparenchymal cells (cirrhotic fat-storing cells [CFSCs]) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the induction of UCBCCs into hepatocyte-like cells. UCBCCs were cocultured with CFSC/HGF feeder layers either directly or separately using insert wells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that most UCBCCs were CD34+/,CD90+/,CD49f+CD29+Alb+AFP+. After cocultured with transgenic feeder layers for 7 days, UCBCCs displayed some morphologic characteristics of hepatocytes. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence cell staining proved that the induced UCBCCs expressed several hepatocyte specific genes including AFP, Alb, CYP1B1 and cytokeratins CK18 and CK19. Furthermore, the induced cells displayed liver specific functions of indocyanine green (ICG) uptake, ammonium metabolism and albumin secretion. Hence, our data have demonstrated that UCBCCs might represent a novel subpopulation of CB-derived stem/progenitor cells capable of successful differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells when incubated with CFSC/HGF cells. In conclusion, not only HGF but also CFSCs and/or the secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to be able to serve as essential microenvironment for hepatocyte differentiation. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:635,643.) [source]


    Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze.

    PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4p2 2010
    Prospective birth cohort study in 4-year olds
    Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Maugeri U, Mrozek-Budzyn D, Mroz E, Klimaszewska-Rembiasz M, Flak E, Edwards S, Spengler J, Jacek R, Sowa A. Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze. Prospective birth cohort study in 4-year olds. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e723,e732. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S The main goal of the study was to determine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured by PAH-DNA adducts in umbilical cord blood and early wheeze. The level of PAH-DNA adducts in the cord blood is assumed to reflect the cumulative dose of PAHs absorbed by the foetus over the prenatal period. The effect of prenatal PAH exposure on respiratory health measured by the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the number of wheezing days in the subsequent 4 yr follow-up was adjusted for potential confounding factors such as personal prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gender of child, maternal characteristics (age, education and atopy), parity and mould/dampness in the home. The study sample includes 339 newborns of non-smoking mothers 18,35 yr of age and free from chronic diseases, who were recruited from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The number of wheezing days during the first 2 yr of life was positively associated with prenatal level of PAH-DNA adducts (IRR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.52,1.88), prenatal particulate matter (PM2.5) level dichotomized by the median (IRR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.25,1.51), maternal atopy (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.29,1.58), mouldy/damp house (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.27,1.61). The level of maternal education and maternal age at delivery was inversely associated with the IRRs for wheeze. The significant association between frequency of wheeze and the level of prenatal environmental hazards (PAHs and PM2.5) was not observed at ages 3 or 4 yrs. Although the frequency of wheezing at ages 3 or 4 was no longer associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs and PM2.5, its occurrence depended on the presence of wheezing in the first 2 yr of life, which nearly tripled the risk of wheezing in later life. In conclusion, the findings may suggest that driving force for early wheezing (<24 months of age) is different to those leading to later onset of wheeze. As we reported no synergistic effects between prenatal PAH (measured by PAH-DNA adducts) and PM2.5 exposures on early wheeze, this suggests the two exposures may exert independent effects via different biological mechanism on wheeze. [source]


    Plasma ADMA concentrations at birth and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants: A prospective pilot study

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Milan C. Richir MD
    Abstract Rationale Nitric oxide (NO) produced in the lung is an important mediator of normal lung development, vascular smooth muscle relaxation, and ventilation perfusion matching. NO is synthesized from arginine by the action of NO-synthase (NOS). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous derivate of arginine, inhibits NOS and is thereby a determinant of NO synthesis. We compared ADMA and arginine levels in preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation with preterm infants who did not require mechanical ventilation and determined the relation between ADMA and the length of mechanical ventilation in these infants. Methods Thirty preterm infants, mean (SD) gestational age 29.3 (1.7) weeks and birth weight 1,340 (350) gram, of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the VU University Medical Center were included. ADMA and arginine were measured in umbilical cord blood and the length of mechanical ventilation (days) was registered. Results Gestational age and birth weight were significantly smaller in infants requiring mechanical ventilation, but were not significantly correlated with plasma ADMA concentration after birth. Plasma ADMA concentrations were significantly higher in infants who required mechanical ventilation than in infants who did not require mechanical ventilation (1.53,±,0.23 and 1.37,±,0.14 µmol/L, respectively; P,=,0.036). ADMA concentration was significantly related to length of mechanical ventilation (B,=,3.4; 95% CI: 1.1,5.6; P,=,0.006), also after adjustment for gestational age (B,=,2.3; 95% CI: 0.4,4.2; P,=,0.024). Conclusions Preterm infants who require mechanical ventilation have increased ADMA levels compared to non-ventilated preterm infants. ADMA levels at birth are related to the length of mechanical ventilation. An increased ADMA concentration could reduce NO synthesis, which could lead to insufficient gas exchange and, consequently, a longer period of mechanical ventilation. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2008; 43:1161,1166. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Unrelated cord blood transplantation in children with severe congenital neutropenia

    PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
    M. Akif Yesilipek
    Abstract:, SCN is an inherited hematological disorder with severe neutropenia and recurrent infections. Although there are some reports that recombinant rhG-CSF improves clinical outcome, allogeneic HSCT appears to be the only curative treatment for these patients. We report here two children with SCN successfully treated by CBT from unrelated donors. They were refractory to rhG-CSF treatment and have no identical family donor. Bu + CY were given as conditioning. Case 1 and Case 2 received 6/6 and 5/6 HLA-matched unrelated umbilical cord blood, respectively. The number of infused nucleated cells was 6, 18 × 107/kg and CD34+ cell number was 3, 74 × 105/kg in Case 1. Those cell numbers were 8, 8 × 107/kg and 5, 34 × 105/kg for Case 2, respectively. Neutrophil/platelet engraftments were 45/49 days in Case 1 and 24/36 days in Case 2. Grade II cutaneous acute GVHD was seen in Case 2 that was treated successfully with prednisolone. Both patients are well with normal hematological findings and full donor chimerism for post-transplant 20 and 24 months, respectively. We conclude that UCB can be considered as a safe source of stem cell in patients with SCN who need urgent HSCT. [source]


    Screening for GALC to make neonatal diagnosis and initial neonatal stem cell treatment with umbilical cord blood

    PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2 2003
    Patricia A. Galvin-Parton MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Uroguanylin level in umbilical cord blood

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2001
    Hirokazu Tsukahara
    Abstract Background: Uroguanylin is a novel natriuretic and diuretic peptide originally isolated from urine. Methods: To determine whether uroguanylin has a physiologic role during the perinatal period, uroguanylin levels in umbilical cord plasma obtained at the time of delivery were measured by radioimmunoassay and compared with cord serum osmolality. Results: Mean (±SD) cord plasma uroguanylin concentrations (8.8±2.1 fmol/mL) were higher compared with normal adult values. The extent of maturity, mode of delivery and gender did not appear to influence cord uroguanylin levels. The uroguanylin concentration had a significant positive correlation with cord serum osmolality. Conclusion: These findings support some regulatory role of this peptide in perinatal renal and cardiovascular adaptation. [source]


    Maternal uniparental isodisomy 10 and mosaicism for an additional marker chromosome derived from the paternal chromosome 10 in a fetus

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 5 2002
    Monika Schlegel
    Abstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Prenatal Diagnosis 22(11) 2002: 1056. We report a case of maternal isodisomy 10 combined with mosaic partial trisomy 10 (p12.31-q11.1). Chromosome examinations from a CVS sample showed a karyotype 47,XY,+mar/46,XY. The additional marker chromosome which was present in 6/25 interphase nuclei was shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to have been derived from a pericentromeric segment of chromosome 10. DNA analysis was performed from umbilical cord blood from the fetus after termination of the pregnancy at 18 weeks. The results showed that the two structurally normal chromosomes 10 were both of maternal origin, whereas the marker chromosome derived from the father. Autopsy of the fetus revealed hypoplasia of heart, liver, kidneys and suprarenal glands, but, apart from a right bifid ureter, no structural organ abnormalities. This fetus represents the second reported instance of a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 10. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Insights into human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells through a systematically proteomic survey coupled with transcriptome

    PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 9 2006
    Feng Liu
    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into different hematopoietic lineages. To gain a comprehensive understanding of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, a systematic proteomic survey of human CD34+ cells collected from human umbilical cord blood was performed, in which the proteins were separated by 1- and 2-DE, as well as by nano-LC, and subsequently identified by MS. A total of 370,distinct proteins identified from those cells provided new insights into the potential of the stem/progenitor cells because the nerve, gonad, and eye-associated proteins were reliably identified. Interestingly, the transcripts of 133 (35.9%) identified proteins were not found by the prevalent transcriptome approaches, although several selected transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR. Moreover, the heterogeneity of 33,proteins identified from 2-DE was attributable primarily to post-translational processes rather than to alternative splicing at transcriptional level. Furthermore, the biosyntheses of 15,proteins identified in this study appears not to be completely interrupted in spite of the fact that corresponding antisense RNAs were found in the existing transcriptome data. The integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analyses employed here provided a unique view of the human stem/progenitor cells. [source]


    Clinical scale ex vivo manufacture of neutrophils from hematopoietic progenitor cells

    BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 4 2009
    Nicholas E. Timmins
    Abstract Dose-intensive chemotherapy results in an obligatory period of severe neutropenia during which patients are at high risk of infection. While patient support with donor neutrophils is possible, this option is restricted due to donor availability and logistic complications. To overcome these problems, we explored the possibility of large scale ex vivo manufacture of neutrophils from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). CD34+ HPC isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) were expanded in serum-free medium supplemented with stem cell factor, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and a thrombopoietin peptide mimetic. After 15 days of cultivation a 5,800-fold expansion in cell number was achieved for UCB, and up to 4,000-fold for mPB, comprising 40% and 60% mature neutrophils respectively. Ex vivo expanded neutrophils exhibited respiratory burst activity similar to that for donor neutrophils, and were capable of killing Candida albicans in vitro. These yields correspond to a more than 10-fold improvement over current methods, and are sufficient for the production of multiple neutrophil transfusion doses per HPC donation. To enable clinical scale manufacture, we adapted our protocol for use in a wave-type bioreactor at a volume of 10,L. This is the first demonstration of a large scale bioprocess suitable for routine manufacture of a mature blood cell product from HPC, and could enable prophylactic neutrophil support for chemotherapy patients. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 832,840 © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Optimization of primary culture condition for mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood with factorial design

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 2 2009
    Xiubo Fan
    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can not only support the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, but also alleviate complications and accelerate recovery of hematopoiesis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it proved challenging to culture MSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) with a success rate of 20,30%. Many cell culture parameters contribute to this outcome and hence optimization of culture conditions is critical to increase the probability of success. In this work, fractional factorial design was applied to study the effect of cell inoculated density, combination and dose of cytokines, and presence of serum and stromal cells. The cultured UCB-MSC-like cells were characterized by flow cytometry and their multilineage differentiation potentials were tested. The optimal protocol was identified achieving above 90% successful outcome: 2 × 106 cells/mL mononuclear cells inoculated in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium supplied with 10% FBS, 15 ng/mL IL-3, and 5 ng/mL Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Moreover, the UCB-MSC-like cells expressed MSC surface markers of CD13, CD29, CD105, CD166, and CD44 positively, and CD34, CD45, and human leukocyte antigens-DR (HLA-DR) negatively. Meanwhile, these cells could differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes similarly to MSCs derived from bone marrow. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient protocol for the primary culture of UCB-MSCs by adding suitable cytokines into the culture system. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]