UC Patients (uc + patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Takashi Hisabe
Background and Aim:, Ulcerative colitis (UC) is not only characterized by pathological lesions localized to colonic mucosa, but also to various complications involving other organs, including postoperative pouchitis. Among these complications, diffuse gastroduodenitis with lesions resembling colonic lesions has been reported, albeit rarely. The aim of the present study was to attempt to characterize the lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract occurring as a complication of UC, and to assess the frequency and clinical course of these lesions. Methods:, A total of 322 UC patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed the frequency of endoscopic findings, including diffuse gastroduodenal lesions resembling colonic lesions. Ulcerative gastroduodenal lesion (UGDL) associated with UC was diagnosed if lesions satisfied the following criteria: (i) improvement of the lesions with treatment of UC; and/or (ii) resemblance to UC in pathological findings. Results:, UGDL satisfying the aforementioned criteria was found in 15 (4.7%) of 322 patients. All the 15 patients had UGDL accompanied by pancolitis or after proctocolectomy. Frequency in 146 patients with pancolitis was 6.2% (nine patients) and that in 81 patients who had undergone proctocolectomy was 7.4% (six patients). Four patients with diffuse ulcerative upper-gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation (DUMI) had pouchitis. In all patients except one, the lesions resolved easily with medical treatment. Conclusions:, In more than half of the post-proctocolectomy patients, UGDL was related to the occurrence of pouchitis. The existence of characteristic UGDL must be taken into account in the diagnosis and treatment of UC, and UGDL is possibly related to the occurrence of pouchitis. [source]


Satoshi Sugano
Background:, Endoscopic observation is the most effective method for the evaluation of staging in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, in cases with very mild inflammatory activity, histopathological diagnosis may also be required. Unfortunately, biopsy-related accidents are not uncommon. As an alternative, we have used a magnifying colonoscope commonly used for tumor diagnosis to examine in detail the colon mucosa of UC patients in clinical remission, and then compared these findings relative to conventional endoscopy using histopathological diagnosis. Subjects and Methods:, Among UC cases examined by colonoscopy between April 2000 and April 2005, 27 cases without hematochezia for at least 1 month were enrolled in this study. Following observations of inflammatory changes using conventional colonoscopy, magnifying observation and biopsies at a total of 144 sites were evaluated. Using histopathological standards, acute-phase inflammation was indicated by the presence of neutrophil infiltration, whereas chronic-phase inflammation was indicated by infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Results:, Indicators of significant inflammation by conventional observation was erosion. Under magnification, inflammation appears as superficial defects in mucosa and small whitish spots. When the presence of infiltrating neutrophils was used as a positive histological marker for inflammation, there was no difference in the accuracy of diagnosis by conventional observation (95.1%) versus magnifying observation (97.2%). In contrast, when lymphocyte infiltration was used as a marker, the accuracy of diagnosis increased significantly (88.2%) using magnifying observation relative to conventional observation (61.1%). Conclusions:, Magnifying endoscopy can be used effectively in the evaluation of minute mucosal changes in cases of UC remission. [source]

Evaluation of gastroduodenal mucosal lesions in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

Kazuhiro Maeda
Background:, Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are reported to suffer from upper gastroduodenal lesions with varying frequency, although concurrent Helicobacter pylori infection is reported to be low. Methods:, A prospective study was carried out on patients diagnosed with CD or ulcerative colitis (UC) in order to evaluate the degree of upper gastroduodenal tract involvement and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Results:, Gastroduodenal lesions were found in 18 (78%) of 23 CD patients, the location being the stomach in 18 (78%), the duodenal bulb in 16 (70%) and the descending duodenum in 16 (70%). Bamboo joint-like lesions were found in four cases (17%) in gastric body and cardia. In contrast, gastroduodenal lesions were found in 10 (53%) of 19 UC patients, the location being the stomach in nine (47%), the duodenal bulb in six (32%), and the descending duodenum in three (16%). The H. pylori -positive rate in patients with CD and UC was 0%, and 11%, respectively. Conclusion:, Minute upper gastroduodenal lesions are much more common in CD than in UC patients, especially in the descending duodenum. Accordingly, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy would seem to be a useful means with which to obtain a definitive diagnosis in all suspected IBD cases. [source]

Potential role of soluble angiopoietin-2 and Tie-2 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

I. E. Koutroubakis
Abstract Background, Angiogenesis has been suggested to play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum markers of angiogenesis angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and soluble angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Materials and methods, Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 serum levels were measured in 160 IBD patients (79 UC and 81 CD) and in 80 matched healthy controls using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels were correlated with the disease activity, as well as the type, localization and treatment of the disease. Results, Median serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels were significantly higher in both the UC patients and the CD patients compared with the healthy controls (P < 005 and P < 0001, respectively). The IBD patients with early disease (diagnosis < 2 years) had significantly higher (P = 004) median serum Ang-2 levels but significantly lower (P = 002) median serum Tie-2 levels as compared with IBD patients with late disease (diagnosis > 2 years). The CD patients with active disease had significantly higher levels of Ang-2 compared with non-active disease (P = 002). Serum levels of both Ang-2 and Tie-2 were not correlated with laboratory markers such as ESR, CRP, white blood cell count, platelet count and albumin. Conclusions, Serum Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels are elevated in patients with IBD. These markers may mediate angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the mucosa of patients with IBD. [source]

Preserved Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 expression and localization, but decreased NHE3 function indicate regulatory sodium transport defect in ulcerative colitis,

Sunil Yeruva PhD
Abstract Background: A major causative factor of diarrhea in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is the loss of Na+ absorptive capacity of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Potential contributing mechanisms include reduced driving force for active transport, and impaired expression, mislocalization, or defective transport function of Na+ absorptive proteins. We therefore studied the expression, brush border membrane (BBM) localization, and transport capacity of the major intestinal Na+ absorptive protein, the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in biopsies from UC patients. Methods: In UC and control biopsies, inflammation was graded histologically, NHE3, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-,), villin, as well as other housekeeping genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), BBM localization of NHE3 determined by immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Na+ absorptive capacity was assessed by 22Na+ isotope fluxes and NHE3 transport activity measured microfluorometrically in BCECF-loaded surface colonocytes within isolated crypts. Results: In mildly, moderately, and severely inflamed sigmoid colon of UC patients, neither NHE3 mRNA expression nor the abundance of NHE3 in the BBM was significantly altered compared to other structural components of the BBM. However, Na+ absorption was strongly reduced by ,80% and acid-activated NHE3 transport activity was significantly decreased in the surface cells of sigmoid colonic crypts even in moderately inflamed mucosa. Conclusions: In the colonic mucosa of patients with active UC, NHE3 transport capacity was found significantly decreased despite correct NHE3 location and abundance in the brush border, independent of current treatment. These findings suggest functional NHE3 transport as a novel factor for inflammatory diarrhea in UC patients. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) [source]

Distribution of peroxisome proliferator,activated receptor,gamma polymorphisms in Chinese and Dutch patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Umid Kumar Shrestha
Abstract Background: As peroxisome proliferator,activated receptor,gamma (PPAR-,) is frequently expressed in colon, its genetic polymorphism may play a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of the present study were to determine the distribution of PPAR-, polymorphisms Pro12Ala and C161T and to explore the association between the PPAR-, genotypes and phenotypes of IBD patients. Methods: A total of 244 IBD patients [212 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 32 Crohn's disease (CD)] and 220 controls in the Chinese population and 603 IBD patients (302 UC and 301 CD) and 180 controls in the white Dutch population were enrolled in the study. The phenotypes of Chinese IBD patients were grouped according to disease location. The PPAR-, polymorphisms Pro12Ala and C161T were genotyped by PCR-based methods. Results: In the Chinese population, T carriers of the PPAR-, C161T polymorphism were more common in UC patients than in the controls [37.7% vs. 25.5%, odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.18,2.68, P = 0.007], whereas Ala carriers of the Pro12Ala polymorphism showed no significant association in UC patients, but there was a significant association of Ala carriers with more extensive disease among the UC patients (P = 0.002); Pro12Ala and C161T genotypes did not show any associations with CD patients. No associations were found for the PPAR-, C161T SNP studied in the Dutch IBD population. Conclusions: Our study showed the potential association between the PPAR-, C161T polymorphism and UC patients in the central Chinese population. This finding was not replicated in the Dutch population. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional implication of the PPAR-, C161T polymorphism in Chinese UC patients. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009;) [source]

Low bone mineral density in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based study from Western Sweden

Susanne Schmidt MD
Abstract Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been recognized as a potential problem in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study was to investigate BMD in Swedish children and adolescents with IBD and to evaluate possible factors affecting BMD. Methods: To evaluate BMD, all patients (n = 144) underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the whole body and the spine. BMD values were expressed as Z-scores using normative pediatric data from Lunar (GE Medical Systems). Results: In this population-based study, the lowest BMD values were found in the lumbar spine. The entire IBD group showed significantly lower BMD Z-scores of the lumbar spine (L2,L4) in comparison to healthy references (,0.8 standard deviation [SD], range ,5.9 to 3.7 SD, P < 0.001). Decreased BMD with a Z-score < ,1 SD occurred in 46.7% of the individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) and in 47.0% of those with ulcerative colitis (UC). Low BMD with a Z-score , ,2 SD was present in 26.7% of the patients with CD and in 24.1% of the UC patients. In a multiple regression model with BMD lumbar spine as the depending variable, possible factors associated with lower BMD were male gender, low body mass index (BMI), and treatment with azathioprine. Conclusions: Low BMD is prevalent in Swedish pediatric patients with IBD. Possible risk factors for lower BMD are male gender, low BMI, and treatment with azathioprine, as a probable marker of disease course severity. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

Ulcerative colitis: Correlation of the Rachmilewitz endoscopic activity index with fecal calprotectin, clinical activity, C-reactive protein, and blood leukocytes

Alain M. Schoepfer MD
Abstract Background: The accuracy of noninvasive markers for the detection of endoscopically active ulcerative colitis (UC) according the Rachmilewitz Score is so far unknown. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between endoscopic disease activity and fecal calprotectin, Clinical Activity Index, C-reactive protein (CRP), and blood leukocytes. Methods: UC patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled and scored independently according the endoscopic and clinical part of the Rachmilewitz Index. Patients and controls provided fecal and blood samples for measuring calprotectin, CRP, and leukocytes. Results: Values in UC patients (n = 134) compared to controls (n = 48): calprotectin: 396 351 versus 18.1 5 ,g/g, CRP 16 13 versus 3 2 mg/L, blood leukocytes 9.9 3.5 versus 5.4 1.9 g/L (all P < 0.001). Endoscopic disease activity correlated closest with calprotectin (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.834), followed by Clinical Activity Index (r = 0.672), CRP (r = 0.503), and leukocytes (r = 0.461). Calprotectin levels were significantly lower in UC patients with inactive disease (endoscopic score 0,3, calprotectin 42 38 ,g/g), compared to patients with mild (score 4,6, calprotectin 210 121 ,g/g, P < 0.001), moderate (score 7,9, calprotectin 392 246 ,g/g, P = 0.002), and severe disease (score 10,12, calprotectin 730 291 ,g/g, P < 0.001). The overall accuracy for the detection of endoscopically active disease (score ,4) was 89% for calprotectin, 73% for Clinical Activity Index, 62% for elevated CRP, and 60% for leukocytosis. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin correlated closest with endoscopic disease activity, followed by Clinical Activity Index, CRP, and blood leukocytes. Furthermore, fecal calprotectin was the only marker that reliably discriminated inactive from mild, moderate, and highly active disease, which emphasizes its usefulness for activity monitoring. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009 [source]

Low counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in colitis microbiota

H. Sokol MD
Abstract Background: The intestinal microbiota is suspected to play a role in colitis and particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. The aim was to compare the fecal microbiota composition of patients with colitis to that of healthy subjects (HS). Methods: fecal samples from 22 active Crohn's disease (A-CD) patients, 10 CD patients in remission (R-CD), 13 active ulcerative colitis (A-UC) patients, 4 UC patients in remission (R-UC), 8 infectious colitis (IC) patients, and 27 HS were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial counts were transformed to logarithms (Log10 CFU) for statistical analysis. Results: Bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes (Clostridium leptum and Clostridium coccoides groups) were less represented in A-IBD patients (9.7; P = 0.004) and IC (9.4; P = 0.02), compared to HS (10.8). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii species (a major representative of the C. leptum group) had lower counts in A-IBD and IC patients compared to HS (8.8 and 8.3 versus 10.4; P = 0.0004 and P = 0.003). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was lower in A-IBD (1.3; P = 0.0001) and IC patients (0.4; P = 0.002). Compared to HS, Bifidobacteria were less represented in A-IBD and IC (7.9 and 7.7 versus 9.2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.01). Conclusions: The fecal microbiota of patients with IBD differs from that of HS. The phylum Firmicutes and particularly the species F. prausnitzii, are underrepresented in A-IBD patients as well as in IC patients. These bacteria could be crucial to gut homeostasis since lower counts of F. prausnitzii are consistently associated with a reduced protection of the gut mucosa. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

Inflammatory bowel disease patients who leave hospital against medical advice: Predictors and temporal trends

Gilaad G. Kaplan MD
Abstract Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) may have consequences with respect to health-related outcomes; however, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have been inadequately studied. Thus, we determined the prevalence of self-discharge, assessed predictors of AMA status, and evaluated time trends. Methods: We analyzed the 1995,2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify 93,678 discharges with a primary diagnosis of IBD admitted to the hospital emergently and did not undergo surgery. We described the proportion of IBD patients who left AMA. Predictors of AMA status were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model and temporal trend analyses were performed with Poisson regression models. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 1.31% of IBD patients left hospitals AMA. Crohn's disease (CD) patients were more likely to leave AMA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.53; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.30,1.79). Characteristics associated with leaving AMA included: ages 18,34 (aOR, 7.77, 95% CI: 4.34,13.89); male (aOR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.55,1.99); Medicaid (aOR, 4.55; 95% CI: 3.81,5.43) compared to private insurance; African Americans (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09,1.64) compared to white; substance abuse (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14,3.54); and psychosis (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.13,2.14). The incidence rates of self-discharge for CD patients were stable (P > 0.05) between 1995 and 1999, while they significantly (P < 0.0001) increased after 1999. In contrast, AMA rates for UC patients remained stable during the study period. Conclusions: Approximately 1 in 76 IBD patients admitted emergently for medical management leave the hospital AMA. These were primarily disenfranchised patients who may lack adequate outpatient follow-up. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

Quantitive cytokine mRNA expression profiles in the colonic mucosa of patients with steroid nave ulcerative colitis during active and quiescent disease

Reikei Matsuda MD
Abstract Background: Cytokines have validated roles in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was to investigate the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNAs in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) during active and quiescent UC. Methods: At colonoscopy, biopsies were taken from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of patients with steroid-naive UC (n = 15), non-IBD inflammatory colitis controls (ICC, n = 6), and non-colitis controls (NCC, n = 14). The presence of extensive mononuclear cells and neutrophils infiltrate in the lamina propria, cryptitis, and epithelial damage defined an inflammatory lesion in the mucosa. Quantitative cytokine mRNA expressions in biopsies were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Of 15 UC patients, 3 remitted with 5-aminosalicylate and 11 received granulocytapheresis; of these, 10 remitted. At baseline, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-,, and IL-10 mRNAs were high in inflamed mucosa compared with NCC (P < 0.01). In active UC, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNAs were high compared with non-inflamed mucosa (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P < 0.05, respectively). Both TNF-, mRNA (P = 0.03) and IL-6 mRNA (P = 0.04) were higher in UC compared with ICC. Even in non-inflamed mucosa, IL-8 and TNF-, mRNA expressions were high compared with NCC. Both IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs decreased to normal levels after granulocytapheresis. Conclusions: During active UC, all 4 cytokine mRNA levels were high; only IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs decreased to normal levels during remission. IL-8 mRNA was high even at sites of endoscopically quiescent UC during active disease. Steroid nave patients respond well to granulocytapheresis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Runt-related transcription factor 3 is associated with ulcerative colitis and shows epistasis with solute carrier family 22, members 4 and 5

Rinse K. Weersma MD
Abstract Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are intestinal inflammatory disorders with a complex genetic background. Mice deficient for the runt-domain-transcription-factor3 (Runx3) develop spontaneous colitis. Human RUNX3 resides in an IBD-susceptibility locus. We studied the association of RUNX3 in a cohort of IBD patients and analyzed the interaction with SLC22A4/5. RUNX3 and OCTN1 mRNA expression was assessed in inflamed and noninflamed mucosa from patients and controls. Methods: 543 IBD patients (309 CD / 234 UC) and 296 controls were included. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 4 microsatellite markers were studied for RUNX3. Five SNPs (including SNP-207G,C and SNP1672C,T) were analyzed for SLC22A4/5. RUNX3, and OCTN1 expression in mucosal tissue from 30 patients (14 UC / 16 CD) and 6 controls were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: A significant association between RUNX3 -SNP rs2236851 and UC (OR 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11,2.32, P = 0.020) was found. Carriership is associated with pancolitis (odds ratio [OR] 1.86; 95% CI 1.08,3.21). SLC22A4/5 -SNPs rs272893 and rs273900 are associated with CD (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.21,3.59 and OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.43,4.05). We found epistasis for carriership of a risk-associated allele in RUNX3 and SLC22A4/5 for UC patients versus CD patients (OR 3.83; 95% CI 1.26,11.67). RUNX3 mRNA expression is increased (P = 0.01) in inflamed colonic mucosa of UC patients compared to noninflamed mucosa and controls. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the genetic association of RUNX3 with UC and for CD with the IBD5 locus including SLC22A4/5. An epistatic effect of RUNX3 and SLC22A4 was associated with an increased risk for UC. Our data suggest a role for RUNX3 in UC susceptibility. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Nationwide prevalence and prognostic significance of clinically diagnosable protein-calorie malnutrition in hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients

Geoffrey C. Nguyen MD
Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at increased risk of protein-calorie malnutrition. We sought to determine the prevalence of clinically diagnosable malnutrition among those hospitalized for IBD throughout the United States and whether this malnutrition influenced health outcomes. Methods We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 1998 and 2004 to identify admissions for Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) and a representative sample of non-IBD discharges. We assessed the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition and its association with in-hospital mortality and resource utilization. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was greater in CD and UC patients than in non-IBD patients (6.1% and 7.2% versus 1.8%, P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio for malnutrition among IBD admissions compared with non-IBD admissions was 5.57 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.29,5.86]. More IBD discharges than non-IBD discharges with malnutrition received parenteral nutrition (26% versus 6%, P < 0.0001). There was increased likelihood of malnutrition among those with fistulizing CD (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.50,1.82) and among those who had undergone bowel resection (OR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.27,1.48). Malnutrition was associated with increased in-hospital mortality 3.49 (95% CI: 2.89,4.23), length of stay (11.9 days versus 5.8 days, P < 0.00001), and total charges ($45,188 versus $20,295, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Clinically apparent malnutrition is more frequent among IBD admissions than among non-IBD admissions. Its association with greater mortality and resource utilization may reflect more severe underlying disease that can lead to both malnutrition and worse outcomes. Nonetheless, diagnosable malnutrition may serve as a clinical marker of poor IBD prognosis in hospitalized patients. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Inflammatory bowel disease and African Americans: A systematic review

Suhal S. Mahid MRCS
Abstract Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). There are conflicting reports on whether African Americans have a more severe disease course, presentation, and more frequent extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). We examined the precise nature of this relationship by conducting a systematic review. Methods: Using predefined inclusion criteria we searched multiple healthcare databases and Grey literature. Eight reports met the inclusion criteria. Using the parameters as defined in the Montreal classification and the presence or absence of EIM, we compared IBD in African Americans and Caucasians. Results: Over 2000 IBD cases were pooled from 8 reports with African Americans comprising 17%. African Americans and Caucasians had similar distribution of types of IBD, with CD being more common than UC in both groups (CD 76% versus 68% and UC 24% versus 32%, respectively). With respect to CD, both groups presented with nonstricturing and nonpenetrating disease behavior (55% versus 41%) more frequently and had similar rates of ileocolonic disease location (42% versus 38%), and presence of perianal disease (26% versus 29%). In UC patients, proctitis was the most frequent initial presentation in both races. Joint complications were the most frequent EIM in both African Americans (52%) and Caucasians (60%). Conclusions: This study dispels the commonly held views that African Americans with IBD generally have more colonic disease, more severe disease behavior, and more perianal disease than Caucasians. African Americans also have similar variety and frequency of EIMs as compared to Caucasians. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in refractory ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: A single-center experience

Aaron Benson MD
Abstract Background: The published experience regarding the use of tacrolimus in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to more commonly used medical therapy has been fairly limited. Our objective was to describe our experience with its use in a cohort of patients which, to our knowledge, represents the largest North American cohort described to date. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center chart analysis. Patients were identified by compiling all hospital discharges with principle diagnoses of ICD-9 codes for 555.0-555.9 (regional enteritis) and 556.0-556.9 (ulcerative colitis) from January 1, 2000, to October 31, 2005, and then cross-referencing the electronic charts for tacrolimus serum concentrations ordered during this time period. Additional patients were identified through verbal communication with participating clinicians. Information abstracted included proportion with clinical response and remission (using a modified disease activity index), ability to wean from steroids, need for surgery / time to surgery, and side-effect profile. Results: In all, 32 UC patients and 15 CD patients were identified. The mean disease duration was: UC 81 months (range, 1 month to 37 years), CD 100 months (range, 1 month to 35 years). The disease distribution for UC was: pancolitis 12 (37.5%), extensive colitis 6 (18.8%), left-sided 11 (34.4%), and proctitis 3(9.4%). For CD this was: TI 2 (13.3%), small bowel 2 (13.3%), colonic 3 (20.7%), ileocolonic 7(46.7%), and perianal 1 (6.7%). The duration of tacrolimus treatment for UC was mean, 29 weeks. For CD it was mean, 9.9 weeks. In all, 30/32 UC and 7/15 CD patients were on steroids; 4/30 UC and 0/7 CD patients were able to subsequently wean off steroids. In all, 12/32 UC patients proceeded to colectomy. Mean time to colectomy was 28 weeks and 6/15 CD patients proceeded to a resective surgery. The mean time to surgery was 22 weeks. In all, 22/32 UC patients achieved a clinical response; 3/32 achieved remission and 8/15 CD patients achieved a clinical response; 1/15 achieved remission. Adverse reactions were generally mild. In 6 patients the drug had to be discontinued because of an adverse reaction. There were no opportunistic infections identified, no cases of renal insufficiency related to drug administration, and no deaths while on the medicine. Conclusions: Our experience with tacrolimus in UC and CD indicates that it is safe and relatively well tolerated, although its clinical efficacy is quite variable. More prospective studies assessing its use are necessary. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Contribution of the novel inflammatory bowel disease gene IL23R to disease susceptibility and phenotype

J.R. Fraser Cummings MRCP(UK)
Abstract Background: A North American genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study identified IL23R as a novel inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility gene. Association was reported with multiple risk variants in the centromeric portion of IL23R in 3 large independent cohorts. The aims of this study were to replicate the association of IL23R with Crohn's disease (CD), examine subphenotype relationships, and look for evidence of epistasis with the known CD susceptibility gene CARD15 and susceptibility haplotype IBD5 in a large collection of CD patients. We further investigated the relationship between IL23R and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: In all, 604 CD and 647 UC patients who had been rigorously phenotyped and who had been recruited from a single UK center were used in this study. Controls were either spouses of patients (141) or were recruited from well-person clinics (993). Eight SNPs were genotyped using MassArray (Sequenom). All 8 SNPs genotyped were significantly associated with CD. Results: The association with the nonsynonymous SNP rs11209026 was confirmed (P = 6.65 10,6, odds ratio [OR], 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.64). The most significant SNP in our study was rs7517847 (P = 4.9 10,9, OR 0.65, 0.56,0.75), which is statistically independent of rs11209026. Preliminary evidence suggests an epistatic interaction with the IBD5 risk haplotype. The effects of mutations in this IL23R appear weaker in UC (P = 0.008, OR 0.63, 0.45,0.89 and 0.005 OR, 0.81, 0.71,0.94, respectively). No subphenotype associations were identified. Conclusions: We confirmed the findings that IL23R is a susceptibility gene for IBD with suggestive epistasis with the IBD5 locus in the CD population. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Association of DLG5 variants with inflammatory bowel disease in the New Zealand caucasian population and meta-analysis of the DLG5 R30Q variant,

Brian L. Browning PhD
Abstract Background: Variants in the DLG5 gene have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in samples from some, but not all populations. In particular, 2 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), R30Q (rs1248696) and P1371Q (rs2289310), have been associated with an increased risk of IBD, and a common haplotype (called haplotype "A") has been associated with reduced risk. Methods: We genotyped R30Q, P1371Q, and a haplotype A tagging SNP (rs2289311) in a New Zealand Caucasian cohort of 389 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, 406 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 416 population controls. Each SNP was tested for association with disease susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. We also performed a meta-analysis of R30Q data from published association studies. Results: The haplotype A tagging SNP was associated with reduced risk of IBD at the 0.05 significance level (P = 0.036) with an allelic odds ratio of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69,0.99). Association with haplotype A was strongest (odds ratio ,0.57) in UC patients with familial IBD or extraintestinal manifestations. The R30Q and P1371Q polymorphisms were not significantly associated with UC, CD, or IBD. Analysis of male and female data did not find any gender-specific associations. Meta-analysis gave no evidence of association of R30Q with IBD. Conclusions: Meta-analysis demonstrates that the minor allele of R30Q is not a risk factor for IBD across populations. This study provides some evidence that DLG5 haplotype A is associated with reduced risk of IBD in the New Zealand Caucasian population, but this association will need to be replicated in an independent sample. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease

S. Ardizzone MD
Abstract Background: Several studies have evaluated the role of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) polymorphism, which encodes the membrane-bound efflux transporter P-glycoprotein 170, in determining susceptibility to and disease behavior in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but with conflicting results. Methods: A total of 211 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 97 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 212 control subjects were investigated for the presence of MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms. Genotype frequencies of CD and UC patients were compared to those observed in a control population. Genotype,phenotype correlations with major clinical features were also established and estimated risks (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) for the mutations were calculated by a logistic regression analysis and multiple correspondent analysis. Results: No significant difference was observed for genotype frequencies for both MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms on overall disease susceptibility for either CD or UC patients compared with control subjects. A significant association was found between the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and patients with ileo-colonic CD (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.34,8.27). Interestingly, a negative association was found between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism in patients with a positive family history for IBD (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20,0.95) and articular manifestations (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13,0.68). Both susceptible and protective effects were identified. No significant association between G2677T/A polymorphism and any specific subphenotypes was found, nor was there any association with subphenotypic categories of UC and both single nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that MDR1 gene polymorphism could have a role in determining susceptibility to IBD. The variability of this possible effect in the several studies reported so far may be the indirect expression of the complex role played by the MDR1 gene and its product, P-glycoprotein 170, in the regulation of host,bacteria interactions and in the pathogenesis of IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Predictors of early response to infliximab in patients with ulcerative colitis

Marc Ferrante MD
Abstract Background: Our objective is to report the outcome of infliximab (IFX) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients from a single center and to identify predictors of early clinical response. Methods: The first 100 UC patients (45 female; median age, 37.9 years) who received IFX at a single center were included. Eighty-four patients received 5 mg/kg IFX, and 37 patients received a 3-dose IFX induction at weeks 0, 2, and 6. The Mayo endoscopic subscore, assessed by sigmoidoscopy before inclusion, was 1, 2, and 3 in 5%, 52%, and 43% of patients, respectively. Sixty percent had pancolitis, 63% were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy, 9% were active smokers, 64% had C-reactive protein ,5 mg/dL, and 44% were pANCA+/ASCA,. Five patients received IFX because of severe acute colitis refractory to intravenous corticosteroids. Results: Early complete and partial clinical responses were observed in 41% and 24% of patients. Patients with early clinical response were significantly younger than nonresponders (median age, 35.7 versus 41.6 years, P = 0.041). Patients who were pANCA+/ASCA, had a significantly lower early clinical response (55% versus 76%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.40 (0.16,0.99), P = 0.049). Concomitant immunosuppressive therapy and the use of an IFX induction scheme did not influence early clinical response. Only 1 of 5 patients who received IFX for acute steroid-refractory colitis required colectomy within 2 months. Conclusions: IFX is an efficient therapy in UC, as shown by 65% early clinical response. A pANCA+/ASCA, serotype and an older age at first IFX infusion are associated with a suboptimal early clinical response. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006) [source]

Medium-term results of oral tacrolimus treatment in refractory inflammatory bowel disease

Siew C. Ng MRCP
Abstract Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral tacrolimus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refractory to conventional therapy, including azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and infliximab. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with IBD treated with oral tacrolimus was undertaken. Tacrolimus was administered at an initial dose of 0.05 mg/kg twice daily, aiming for serum trough levels of 5,10 ng/mL. We evaluated clinical response, a retrospective estimated Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) for Crohn's disease (CD), modified Truelove-Witts index for ulcerative colitis (UC), and modified pouch disease activity index (mPDAI) for pouchitis. Patients had been monitored clinically for benefit and side effects and by whole blood tacrolimus level approximately every 4 weeks for the duration of treatment. Clinical remission was defined as an estimated CDAI <150 (CD), an inactive disease score on the Truelove-Witts index (UC), and mPDAI <5 (pouchitis). Results: Twelve patients with CD, six with UC, and one with pouchitis, all resistant to previous therapies, were treated for a median of 5 months. After 4 weeks 10 CD (83%), four UC (67%) patients, and one pouchitis patient had a clinical response. There was a median reduction of the estimated CDAI of 108 points (range 35,203; P = 0.002) and stool frequency of three per day at week 4. Remission was achieved in 42% (5/12) of CD and 50% (3/6) of UC patients at the end of follow-up. Side effects included temporary elevated creatinine (n = 1), tremor (n = 3), arthralgia (n = 1), insomnia (n = 1), and malaise (n = 1). Four patients discontinued treatment due to side effects. Conclusion: Oral tacrolimus is well tolerated and effective in patients with refractory IBD in the short- to medium-term. Further controlled, long-term evaluation is warranted. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Medical management of left-sided ulcerative colitis and ulcerative proctitis: Critical evaluation of therapeutic trials

Miguel Regueiro MD
Abstract Background: The goal of this work was to critically evaluate the published studies on the treatment of ulcerative proctitis (UP) and left-sided ulcerative colitis (L-UC). The results of this review provided the content for the accompanying treatment guidelines, Clinical Guidelines for the Medical Management of Left-sided Ulcerative Colitis and Ulcerative Proctitis: Summary Statement. Methods: All English language articles published between 1995 and September 2005 were identified through a comprehensive literature search using OVID and PubMed. The quality of the data supporting or rejecting the use of specific therapies was categorized by a data quality grading scale. An "A+" grade was assigned to treatment supported by multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials with consistent results, whereas a "D" grade was given to therapy supported only by expert opinion. The therapeutic efficacy of a treatment was defined by its success in treating UP and L-UC compared with placebo. A medication was ranked as "excellent" if it was specifically studied for UP and L-UC and had consistently positive results compared with placebo or another agent. Quality and efficacy scores were agreed on by author consensus. Results: For the acute treatment of UP or L-UC, the rectally administered corticosteroids and mesalazine (5-ASA), either alone or in combination with oral 5-ASAs, are the most effective therapy: evidence quality, A+; efficacy, excellent. Only rectally administered 5-ASA received an A+/excellent rating for maintenance of remission. Infliximab received an A+ grade for induction and maintenance of remission but only a "good" rating because the studies were performed in all UC, not specifically UP or L-UC. Conclusions: This critical evaluation of treatment provides a "report card" on medications available for the management of patients with UP and L-UC. The guidelines should provide a useful reference and supplement for physicians treating UC patients. [source]

Detection of elafin as a candidate biomarker for ulcerative colitis by whole-genome microarray screening

Carl-Fredrik Flach PhD
Abstract The cause of ulcerative colitis (UC) is largely unknown. Microarray studies are an efficient way of investigating the various genes involved. Here, we have used whole-genome microarrays to clarify the clinical picture and to identify new biomarkers for improved diagnosis. Rectal biopsies were taken from five UC patients and five matched controls, and RNA transcripts were prepared. After labeling, each sample was individually applied to the microarray chips. All transcripts that were more than 10-fold up-regulated in all five patients were analyzed further in seven additional patients and seven controls using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Of 47,000 transcripts examined, 4 were highly up-regulated in all patients: those encoding elafin, a secreted protease inhibitor, the ion and amino acid transporter B0,+ (SLC6A14), and the metabolic enzyme aldolase B, as well as a recently identified transcript named similar to numb-interacting homolog. The up-regulation of these transcripts appears to follow the progression of the disease because elevated expression was detected in the proximal part of the colon in patients with total colitis but not in patients with left-sided colitis. Immunohistologic examination showed very distinct differences in the expression of elafin. Extensive expression was detected in enterocytes and goblet cells of the affected mucosa, whereas there was no detectable expression in unaffected mucosa and in healthy controls. The results implicate four transcripts and proteins of special interest as possible targets for pharmacologic interference and as biomarkers in UC. Of these, elafin may be of special interest because it is a secreted protein that may be measured in body fluids. [source]

Correlation of C-reactive protein with clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and radiographic activity in inflammatory bowel disease

Craig A Solem MD
Abstract Introduction: We sought to examine the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and radiographic activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: All IBD patients at our institution between January 2002 and August 2003 who had a CRP, colonoscopy, and either small bowel follow-through (SBFT) or CT enterography (CTE) performed within 14 days were identified. Clinical activity was assessed retrospectively through review of the medical record. Logistic regression was used in Crohn's disease (CD) patients to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals for an elevated CRP. Associations were assessed using Fisher exact test in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients due to small sample size. Results: One-hundred four CD patients (46% males) and 43 UC and indeterminate colitis patients (44% males) were identified. In CD patients, moderate-severe clinical activity (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1-18.3), active disease at colonoscopy (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.4-8.9), and histologically severe inflammation (OR, 10.6; 95% CI; 1.1-104) were all significantly associated with CRP elevation. Abnormal small bowel radiographic imaging was not significantly associated with CRP elevation. In UC patients, CRP elevation was significantly associated with severe clinical activity, elevation in sedimentation rate, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and active disease at ileocolonoscopy, but not with histologic inflammation. Conclusions: CRP elevation in IBD patients is associated with clinical disease activity, endoscopic inflammation, severely active histologic inflammation (in CD patients), and several other biomarkers of inflammation, but not with radiographic activity. [source]

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling pathway.

An Essential Mediator of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Other Forms of Intestinal Inflammation
Abstract Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two major forms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are characterized by mucosal immune cell activation that is driven by a cytokine imbalance. Several cytokines involved in IBD act through the activation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family. We investigated the activation of STAT3 in the mucosa of CD and UC patients, and evaluated whether this event is specific for IBD patients. Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, total and phosphorylated STAT3 levels were assessed in biopsy specimens, isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with CD, UC, other forms of intestinal inflammation, and control subjects. Immunoblotting revealed phosphorylated STAT3 in mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with CD, UC, celiac disease, and acute self-limited colitis, but not in the normal mucosa of control subjects. In IBD patients, STAT3 activation was confined to actively inflamed areas. Accordingly, activated STAT3 was detected in isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from inflamed IBD tissues, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from control subjects or IBD patients. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that the sources of activated STAT3 were macrophages and T lymphocytes, but not neutrophils. STAT3 activation also was detected in T cells infiltrating the duodenal mucosa of celiac disease patients. We conclude that STAT3 signaling occurs in both CD and UC, where it is strictly confined to areas of active inflammation and is limited to infiltrating macrophages and T cells. The occurrence of STAT3 signaling in other acute and chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions suggests that, rather than a specific feature of IBD, it represents a fundamental signaling pathway that is shared by multiple forms of gut inflammation. [source]

Susceptibility to refractory ulcerative colitis is associated with polymorphism in the hMLH1 mismatch repair gene

Siro Bagnoli MD
Abstract The hMLH1 gene lies in the linkage susceptibility region to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on 3p21. A single nucleotide polymorphism, 655A>G, in exon 8 of the gene causes an I219V change in the MLH1 protein. To test whether hMLH1 may confer susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC), we investigated an association between the 655A>G polymorphism and the disease. DNA-based technologies were used to analyze the 655A>G polymorphism in 201 UC patients and 126 healthy ethnically matched controls. The comparison of the allelic frequencies of the 655A>G polymorphism in UC patients and healthy controls did not show significant differences. However, genotype frequencies at the hMLH1 655 position were found to be significantly different when patients with and without refractory UC were compared. This was mainly attributable to a higher level of homozygosity for the G allele in refractory UC patients. Almost 5 times as many (4.9 times) refractory UC patients carried the GG genotype compared with nonrefractory patients (P < 0.0001). The present study provides evidence that the hMLH1 gene is involved in genetic susceptibility to refractory UC. If confirmed by other studies, the GG genotype at position 655 of the hMLH1 gene may represent a useful predictive factor for the clinical management of UC patients. [source]

The role of quality of care in health-related quality of life in patients with IBD

Ingrid van der Eijk PhD
Abstract In the literature there are indications of associations between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in inflammatory bowel disease and disease activity, psychological status, coping, stressful life events, and social support. The aim of this study was to examine whether a relation exists between quality of health care and HRQoL, taking possible confounding variables into account. For this purpose, one single questionnaire was compiled from existing validated questionnaires. A population-based inception cohort of 1056 patients with inflammatory bowel disease in eight countries, diagnosed 6 to 8 years prior to the study, was approached to participate. In total, 824 patients responded (78%), and 517 could be included in statistical analyses. It was shown that in inflammatory bowel disease HRQoL was indeed influenced by quality of care (particularly with regard to the parameters of "providing information," "costs," and "courtesy"), as well as by disease activity, psychological status, type of hospital, social support, stressful life events, and way of administration of the questionnaire. Patients with active disease had lower psychological status and HRQoL scores at the time of the survey than patients without active disease. However, quality of care scores did not differ between these groups. The care aspect "costs" was scored worse by CD compared with UC patients, probably caused by a potentially more expensive treatment. In conclusion, it is shown in a large exploratory study, for the first time, that in inflammatory bowel disease, quality of care has a significant role in determining health-related quality of life. [source]

The combination of polymorphisms within MCP-1 and IL-1, associated with ulcerative colitis

K.-S. Li
Summary Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Raised level of MCP-1 has been widely demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), suggesting an important role of MCP-1 in the pathogenesis of UC. The ,2518A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of MCP-1 gene affecting its transcriptional activation has been reported recently. In order to assess the potential role of this polymorphism in UC, we examined its distribution in 162 unrelated UC patients and 203 healthy controls. In addition, considering the gene regulatory association between interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and MCP-1, we further examined whether the gene polymorphisms between MCP-1 and IL-1, exert synergetic effects on risk of UC. Our results show that the distribution of MCP-1 genotype or allele frequencies between UC patients and controls was not significantly different; however, the association between the polymorphism of MCP-1 ,2518 GG and the polymorphism of IL-1,,511 T in UC patients is significant (OR 2.062, 95% CI 1.034,4.113, P = 0.038). This is the first report describing the association between MCP-1 polymorphism and UC, and our data suggest that the MCP-1 ,2518 polymorphism itself does not represent an independent genetic risk factor for UC. In contrast, the combination polymorphisms between MCP-1 and IL-1, can increase UC risk significantly, which might help us understand the molecular mechanism underlying the development of UC. [source]

Rebamipide enema therapy as a treatment for patients with active distal ulcerative colitis

Ryuichi Furuta
Background:, The clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) is well-established. However, prolonged usage of these drugs can result in serious complications. Rebamipide {2-(4-chlorobenzoylamino)-3[2-(1H)-quinolinon-4-yl] propionic acid}, a cytoprotective agent, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity and to repair mucosal injury in animal colitis models. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of a novel Rebamipide enema therapy in UC patients. Methods:, Twenty patients with the active distal type of UC in whom corticosteroid treatment had been unsuccessful were treated with rectal administration of Rebamipide twice a day for 3 weeks, during which corticosteroid dosage was kept constant. The efficacy of treatment was assessed from clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The anti-inflammatory effect of Rebamipide was also examined by monitoring changes in the intensity of histological inflammation and levels of cytokine activity in the rectal mucosa. Results:, At 3 weeks after the initiation of Rebamipide enema therapy, 11 patients (55%) achieved clinical remission. Sixteen (80%) were colonoscopically judged to be responders, with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1, but not of IL-8, and an increased ratio of IL-1 receptor antagonist/IL-1, in organ cultures of mucosal tissues. The change in the number of infiltrating neutrophils was not significantly correlated with the clinical response to this therapy. No side-effects were noted in any patients. Conclusion:, Rebamipide enema therapy proved to be safe and useful in corticosteroid-refractory patients with the active distal type of UC. [source]

Differential expression of CCR5 and CRTH2 on infiltrated cells in colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis

Abstract Background and Aim:, The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear, but abnormal infiltration of T lymphocytes in the colonic mucosa has been implicated in the mucosal tissue damage. The abnormal cytokine production because of a T helper (h)1/Th2 imbalance may play an important role in continuing inflammation in the colonic mucosa. In the present study, the expression of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) as a Th1 marker and a chemoattractant receptor-homologs molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) were investigated in order to analyze impaired Th1/Th2 responses in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. Methods:, Tissue samples were obtained by colonic biopsies from patients with UC or colonic polyps, with informed consent. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on periodate, lysine-paraformaldehyde-fixed serial cryostat sections using the labeled streptavidin biotin method. Monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CCR5 or CRTH2 were used as primary antibodies. The number of cells expressing CD4, CCR5 or CRTH2 per unit area was calculated by using an image analyzer. Results:, In the patients with UC, the numbers of CD4- and CCR5-positive cells were significantly increased in inflamed mucosa, and appeared to be correlated with the disease activity. The infiltration of CRTH2-positive cells was predominantly observed in the mildly inflamed or the margin of inflamed mucosa of UC patients. Conclusion:, There is a possibility that Th1 responses significantly occur in colonic mucosa with severe inflammation, while Th2 responses mainly occur with mild inflammation in UC patients. The Th1/Th2 imbalance in colonic mucosa may be related to the disease progression of UC. [source]

Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction,enzyme immunoassay in intestinal mucosal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and controls

Wangxue Chen
Abstract Background and Aim : It has been suggested that Chlamydia is an organism that may have the potential to cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in susceptible individuals. Chlamydia pneumoniae has emerged as an important human pathogen in the last decade. The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency of the presence of C. pneumoniae DNA in intestinal biopsies from patients with IBD and from non-IBD controls. Methods : The DNA was extracted from 222 colonoscopic biopsies, which were obtained from 11 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 18 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and from 37 non-IBD control patients. The presence of the C. pneumoniae omp1 gene and C. trachomatis 16S rRNA gene was determined using a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA). Results : The C. pneumoniae -specific DNA was detected in 32 (14.4%) of 222 endoscopic biopsies. Among them, C. pneumoniae DNA were found in nine of 42 (21.4%) biopsies from patients with CD, nine of 59 (15.3%) biopsies from patients with UC, and 14 out of 122 (11.4%) biopsies from non-IBD control patients, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of patients with at least one biopsy positive for C. pneumoniae was higher, although not statistically significant, in CD (36.4%) and UC patients (38.9%) compared to non-IBD controls (16.2%). In contrast, C. trachomatis DNA was detected in only two of 222 (0.9%) biopsy samples. Conclusion : The C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in the intestine of both patients with IBD and in non-IBD control patients, probably reflecting the high prevalence of this organism in the environment. The moderate yield of positive biopsies in our IBD patients and the fact that the detection rate of C. pneumoniae DNA was similar in endoscopic biopsies from IBD patients and non-IBD controls does not support a direct role for this organism in the pathogenesis of IBD. 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]