Ubiquitin-proteasome Pathway (ubiquitin-proteasome + pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Microarray Analysis of Ethanol-Treated Cortical Neurons Reveals Disruption of Genes Related to the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Protein Synthesis

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2004
Ramana Gutala
Background: Chronic ethanol abuse results in deleterious behavioral responses such as tolerance, dependence, reinforcement, sensitization, and craving. The objective of this research was to identify transcripts that are differentially regulated in ethanol-treated cortical neurons compared with controls by using a pathway-focused complementary DNA microarray. Methods: Cortical neurons were isolated from postconception day 14 C57BL/6 mouse fetuses and cultured according to a standard protocol. The cortical neuronal cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol for five consecutive days with a change of media every day. A homeostatic pathway-focused microarray consisting of 638 sequence-verified genes was used to measure transcripts differentially regulated in four ethanol-treated cortical neuron samples and four control samples. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to verify the mRNA expression levels of genes of interest detected from the microarray experiments. Results: We identified 56 down-regulated and 10 up-regulated genes in ethanol-treated cortical neurons relative to untreated controls at a 5% false-discovery rate. The expression of many genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and protein synthesis was decreased by ethanol, including ubiquitin B, ubiquitin-like 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E3A, 20S proteasome ,- and ,-subunits, and members of the ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of heat shock proteins, myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, and FK506 binding protein rapamycin-associated protein (FKBP) (mTOR) was also decreased in ethanol-treated cortical neurons. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome cascade revealed a down-regulation of these genes, thereby corroborating our microarray results. Conclusions: Our results indicate that chronic ethanol treatment of cortical neurons resulted in decreased mRNA expression of genes involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and ribosomal proteins together with mTOR expression leading to disruption of protein degradation mechanism and impairment of protein synthesis machinery. [source]


The ubiquitin-proteasome system and its role in ethanol-induced disorders

ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Terrence M. Donohue Jr
The levels of these proteins are controlled by their rates of degradation. Similarly, protein catabolism plays a crucial role in prolonging cellular life by destroying damaged proteins that are potentially cytotoxic. A major player in these catabolic reactions is the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a novel proteolytic system that has become the primary proteolytic pathway in eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is now regarded as the major pathway by which most intracellular proteins are destroyed. Equally important, from a toxicological standpoint, is that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is also widely considered to be a cellular defense mechanism, since it is involved in the removal of damaged proteins generated by adduct formation and oxidative stress. This review describes the history and the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, its regulation and its role in pathological states, with the major emphasis on ethanol-induced organ injury. The available literature cited here deals mainly with the effects of ethanol consumption on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the liver. However, since this proteolytic system is an essential pathway in all cells it is an attractive experimental model and therapeutic target in extrahepatic organs such as the brain and heart that are also affected by excessive alcohol consumption. [source]


Proteasomal inhibition by misfolded mutant superoxide dismutase 1 induces selective motor neuron death in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2002
Makoto Urushitani
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal conformation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an essential feature underlying the pathogenesis of mutant SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we investigated the role of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the mutant SOD1-related cell death and the effect of oxidative stress on the misfolding of mutant SOD1. Transient overexpression of ubiquitin with human SOD1 (wild-type, ala4val, gly85arg, gly93ala) in Neuro2A cells decreased the amount of mutant SOD1, but not of wild-type, while only mutants were co-immunoprecipitated with poly-ubiquitin. Proteasome inhibition by lactacystin augmented accumulation of mutant SOD1 in the non-ionic detergent-insoluble fraction. The spinal cord lysates from mutant SOD1 transgenic mice showed multiple carbonylated proteins, including mutant SOD1 with SDS-resistant dimer formation. Furthermore, the treatment of hSOD1-expressing cells with hydrogen peroxide promoted the oligomerization, and detergent-insolubility of mutant SOD1 alone, and the oxidized mutant SOD1 proteins were more heavily poly-ubiquitinated. In Neuro2A cells stably expressing human SOD1 protein, the proteasome function measured by chymotrypsin-like activity, was decreased over time without a quantitative alteration of the 20S proteasomal component. Finally, primary motor neurons from the mouse embryonic spinal cord were more vulnerable to lactacystin than non-motor neurons. These results indicate that the sustained expression of mutant SOD1 leads to proteasomal inhibition and motor neuronal death, which in part explains the pathogenesis of mutant SOD1-linked ALS. [source]


Synphilin-1 degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and effects on cell survival

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2002
Gwang Lee
Abstract Parkinson's disease is characterized by loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. ,-Synuclein and its interacting partner synphilin-1 are among constituent proteins in these aggregates. The presence of ubiquitin and proteasome subunits in these inclusions supports a role for this protein degradation pathway in the processing of proteins involved in this disease. To begin elucidating the kinetics of synphilin-1 in cells, we studied its degradation pathway in HEK293 cells that had been engineered to stably express FLAG-tagged synphilin-1. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that this protein is relatively stable with a half-life of about 16 h. Treatment with proteasome inhibitors resulted in attenuation of degradation and the accumulation of high molecular weight ubiquitinated synphilin-1 in immunoprecipitation/immunoblot experiments. Additionally, proteasome inhibitors stimulated the formation of peri-nuclear inclusions which were immunoreactive for synphilin-1, ubiquitin and ,-synuclein. Cell viability studies revealed increased susceptibility of synphilin-1 over-expressing cells to proteasomal dysfunction. These observations indicate that synphilin-1 is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Accumulation of ubiquitinated synphilin-1 due to impaired clearance results in its aggregation as peri-nuclear inclusions and in poor cell survival. [source]


Microarray Analysis of Ethanol-Treated Cortical Neurons Reveals Disruption of Genes Related to the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Protein Synthesis

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2004
Ramana Gutala
Background: Chronic ethanol abuse results in deleterious behavioral responses such as tolerance, dependence, reinforcement, sensitization, and craving. The objective of this research was to identify transcripts that are differentially regulated in ethanol-treated cortical neurons compared with controls by using a pathway-focused complementary DNA microarray. Methods: Cortical neurons were isolated from postconception day 14 C57BL/6 mouse fetuses and cultured according to a standard protocol. The cortical neuronal cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol for five consecutive days with a change of media every day. A homeostatic pathway-focused microarray consisting of 638 sequence-verified genes was used to measure transcripts differentially regulated in four ethanol-treated cortical neuron samples and four control samples. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to verify the mRNA expression levels of genes of interest detected from the microarray experiments. Results: We identified 56 down-regulated and 10 up-regulated genes in ethanol-treated cortical neurons relative to untreated controls at a 5% false-discovery rate. The expression of many genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and protein synthesis was decreased by ethanol, including ubiquitin B, ubiquitin-like 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E3A, 20S proteasome ,- and ,-subunits, and members of the ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of heat shock proteins, myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, and FK506 binding protein rapamycin-associated protein (FKBP) (mTOR) was also decreased in ethanol-treated cortical neurons. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome cascade revealed a down-regulation of these genes, thereby corroborating our microarray results. Conclusions: Our results indicate that chronic ethanol treatment of cortical neurons resulted in decreased mRNA expression of genes involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and ribosomal proteins together with mTOR expression leading to disruption of protein degradation mechanism and impairment of protein synthesis machinery. [source]


Interferon-inducible protein IFIX, inhibits cell invasion by upregulating the metastasis suppressor maspin,

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 10 2008
Hirohito Yamaguchi
Abstract IFIX,, a member of the interferon-inducible HIN-200 family, has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IFIX,-mediated tumor suppression are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the metastasis suppressor maspin acts as the downstream target of IFIX,. IFIX, suppressed the invasion activity of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, and its inhibitory effect was reversed by the knockdown of maspin. Both Maspin mRNA and protein were upregulated by IFIX,. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, but not DNA methyltransferase inhibitor upregulated maspin, and HDAC1 inhibited the transactivation of maspin promoter. Although the HDAC1 protein was downregulated in IFIX,-expressing cells, IFIX, did not affect HDAC1 mRNA levels. Conversely, a proteasome inhibitor restored the level of HDAC1 protein in IFIX,-expressing cells, and the polyubiqutination of HDAC1 was promoted by IFIX,, suggesting that HDAC1 is regulated by IFIX, through a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Together, these data provide novel insights into the tumor-suppressive function of IFIX,. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Damage control , a possible non-proteolytic role for ubiquitin in limiting neurodegeneration

NEUROPATHOLOGY & APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
D. A. Gray
Ubiquitin can be detected in the neuronal and glial inclusions that are the diagnostic hallmarks of a number of human neurodegenerative diseases. It has been assumed that the presence of ubiquitin signifies the failed attempt of the cell to remove abnormal protein structures, which have been allowed to aggregate. The burden of abnormal protein arising from genetic mutations or cumulative oxidative damage might in the course of time overwhelm the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (whose responsibility it is to eliminate misfolded or damaged proteins). However, ubiquitin may still serve a protective purpose distinct from its role in proteolysis. The physical properties of ubiquitin are such that a surface coating of ubiquitin should preclude further growth of the aggregate, prevent non-productive interactions, and conceal the contents from detection mechanisms that might ultimately kill the cell. This ,nonstick coating' hypothesis makes predictions about the nature of the conjugated ubiquitin and the consequences of removing it. [source]


S-phase kinase protein 2 is an attractive therapeutic target in a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,

THE JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
S Uddin
Abstract S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2), an F-box protein, targets cell-cycle regulators including cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KiP1 via ubiquitin-mediated degradation. SKP2 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells and has been implicated in oncogenesis; however, its role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of SKP2 and its ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in a large series (301) of DLBCL patient samples and a panel of DLBCL cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry, SKP2 was detected in 41.6% of DLBCL tumours and was inversely associated with p27Kip1 protein level. The DLBCL subset with high SKP2 and low p27Kip1 showed a strong correlation with the proliferating index marker Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and also with the germinal centre phenotype (p = 0.0147). Treatment of DLBCL cell lines with bortezomib or expression of SKP2-specific siRNA causes down-regulation of SKP2 and accumulation of p27Kip1, leading to suppression of growth by inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of DLBCL cells with bortezomib causes apoptosis via involving the mitochondrial pathway and activation of caspases. Finally, treatment of DLBCL cells with bortezomib down-regulated the expression of XIAP, cIAP1, and survivin. Altogether, these results suggest that SKP2 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in DLBCL. Copyright 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An F-box gene, CPR30, functions as a negative regulator of the defense response in Arabidopsis

THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
Mingyue Gou
Summary Arabidopsis gain-of-resistance mutants, which show HR-like lesion formation and SAR-like constitutive defense responses, were used well as tools to unravel the plant defense mechanisms. We have identified a novel mutant, designated constitutive expresser of PR genes 30 (cpr30), that exhibited dwarf morphology, constitutive resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the dramatic induction of defense-response gene expression. The cpr30 -conferred growth defect morphology and defense responses are dependent on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4), and NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (NDR1). Further studies demonstrated that salicylic acid (SA) could partially account for the cpr30 -conferred constitutive PR1 gene expression, but not for the growth defect, and that the cpr30 -conferred defense responses were NPR1 independent. We observed a widespread expression of CPR30 throughout the plant, and a localization of CPR30-GFP fusion protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus. As an F-box protein, CPR30 could interact with multiple Arabidopsis-SKP1-like (ASK) proteins in vivo. Co-localization of CPR30 and ASK1 or ASK2 was observed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Based on these results, we conclude that CPR30, a novel negative regulator, regulates both SA-dependent and SA-independent defense signaling, most likely through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in Arabidopsis. [source]


Structure of full-length ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-25K (huntingtin-interacting protein 2)

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION F (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2009
Randall C. Wilson
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-25K has been identified as a huntingtin (the key protein in Huntington's disease) interacting protein and has been shown to play a role in mediating the toxicity of A,, the principal protein involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. E2-25K is a dual-domain protein with an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain as well as a conserved ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) domain which catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between the C-terminal glycine of an ubiquitin molecule and the ,-amine of a lysine residue on the acceptor protein as part of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The crystal structures of E2-25K M172A mutant protein at pH 6.5 and pH 8.5 were determined to 1.9 and 2.2, resolution, respectively. Examination of the structures revealed domain,domain interactions between the UBC and UBA domains which have not previously been reported. [source]