U Concentrations (u + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil

Erik Jautris Joner
Abstract An old mine spoil at a 19th-century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400,800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An ecotoxicity bioassay using incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO2 -citrate was , 120 ,M as compared to 30 ,M in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 ,M UO2-citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bioavailable U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bioavailable U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low. [source]

ESR isochron dating analyses at Bau de l'Aubesier, Provence, France: Clues to U uptake in fossil teeth

Bonnie A.B. Blackwell
At Bau de l'Aubesier, Provence, Mousterian artifacts and human teeth occur in inhomogeneous ("lumpy") sedimentary deposits that include bone and tooth fragments and extensive burnt horizons. Electron spin resonance (ESR) isochron analyses of mammal teeth, which use multiple subsamples with different U concentrations, can measure the external dose rate experienced by the tooth regardless of reworking and sedimentary dose rate changes. Isochron analyses do depend on the U uptake model assumed, but can also identify teeth that have experienced secondary U uptake or leaching. Using 11 teeth from six archaeological layers, the isochrons demonstrate that at least three teeth have experienced secondary uptake. For eight teeth, the U uptake has apparently not followed strictly early (EU), linear (LU), or recent uptake (RU), but more closely approximates LU-RU. Comparing volumetrically averaged sedimentary geochemistry with thermoluminescent dosimetry suggests that fossil tissues in the sediment have also experienced LU-RU uptake. LU-RU uptake can explain standard ESR ages that underestimate the true fossil age. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Mobilization of metals from uranium mine waste: the role of pyoverdines produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Microorganisms produce chelating agents, such as siderophores and other ligands, which allow them to mobilize and scavenge essential elements from the environment when bioavailability is low. To better understand the effects of biologically mediated leaching of metals from mine waste, Pseudomonas fluorescens was cultivated in the presence of processed ore from the former uranium mine in Ranstad, southern Sweden. Light conditions, the concentration of the mineral source and oxygen availability were varied. The presence of ore in the culture flasks enhanced bacterial growth and raised the pH of the culture medium. Increasing the amount of ore or enhancing aeration of the medium further encouraged cell growth and pH rise. Bacteria mobilized Fe, Ni and Co from the ore. Fe-siderophore complexes were detected and estimated to be present at approximately 9 ,m. In the presence of bacteria and light, dissolved Fe and U concentrations were higher compared to dark conditions. Increasing the amount of ore resulted in higher dissolved Ni concentrations but lower dissolved Fe, most likely due to precipitate formation. Data from this study support siderophore production by bacteria that allowed mobilization of essential nutrients from the processed ore. However, the availability of potentially toxic metals like Ni and U may also be enhanced. Microbial-promoted mobilization could contribute to leaching of toxic metals in current and historic mining areas. This process should be considered during design and implementation of remediation projects where trace metals are of environmental concern. [source]

Routine Analyses of Trace Elements in Geological Samples using Flow Injection and Low Pressure On-Line Liquid Chromatography Coupled to ICP-MS: A Study of Geochemical Reference Materials BR, DR-N, UB-N, AN-G and GH

Jean Carignan
géostandards; éléments traces; flow injection; chromatographie liquide; ICP-MS We describe analytical procedures for trace element determinations developed at the CNRS Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) and report results obtained for five geochemical reference materials: basalt BR, diorite DR-N, serpentinite UB-N, anorthosite AN-G and granite GH. Results for rare earth elements, U and Th are also reported for other reference materials including dunite DTS-1, peridotite PCC-1 and basalt BIR-1. All rocks were decomposed using alkali fusion. Analyses were done by flow injection ICP-MS and by on-line low pressure liquid chromatography (LC)-ICP-MS for samples containing very low REE, U and Th concentrations. This latter method yielded limits of determination much lower than data by direct introduction and eliminated possible isobaric interference on these elements. Although results agree with most of the working values, when available, results for some elements differed slightly from the recommended concentrations. In these cases, we propose new values for Co, Y and Zn in basalt BR, Zr in diorite DR-N, Sr and U in granite GH, and Ga and Y in anorthosite AN-G. Furthermore, although the Sb concentration measured in AN-G was very close to our limit of determination, our value (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) is much lower than the reported working value of 1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1. These new values would need to be confirmed by a new inter-laboratory programme to further characterise these reference materials. Results obtained for REE, Th and U concentrations using the on-line low pressure LC-ICP-MS yielded good limits of determination (ng g,1to sub-ng g,1for rocks and ng l,1to sub-ng l,1for natural waters) and accurate results. The efficiency of the matrix separation allowed accurate measurements of Eu without the need to correct the BaO isobaric interference for samples having Ba/Eu ratios as high as 27700. For REE concentrations in PCC-1 and DTS-1, differences with values reported in the literature are interpreted as resulting from possible heterogeneity of the reference materials. Thorium and U values are proposed for these two samples, as well as for AN-G and UB-N. Nous rapportons les procédures d'analyse pour les éléments traces développées au Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) du CNRS et les résultats obtenus pour 5 géostandards: le basalte BR, la diorite DR-N, la serpentinite UB-N, l'anorthosite AN-G et le granite GH. Des résultats obtenus pour les Terres Rares (REE), l'uranium et le thorium sont aussi rapportés pour d'autres matériaux de référence tels que la dunite DTS-1, la péridotite PCC-1 et le basalte BIR-1. Les roches ont été décomposées par fusion alcaline. Les analyses ont été faites par Flow Injection ICP-MS et par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS pour les très faibles teneurs en REE, U et Th. Cette dernière méthode permet d'avoir une meilleure limite de détermination que celle par introduction directe et d'éliminer certaines interférences isobariques sur ces éléments. Bien que, dans la majorité des cas, nous ayons mesuré les valeurs de référence telles que rapportées dans la littérature, certaines concentrations mesurées diffèrent légèrement des valeurs recommandées. Ainsi, nous proposons de nouvelles valeurs de Co, Y et Zn pour le basalte BR, de Zr pour la diorite DR-N, de Sr et U pour le granite GH et de Ga et Y pour l'anorthosite AN-G. De plus, bien que la concentration en Sb mesurée pour AN-G soit très proche de notre limite de détermination, notre valeur (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) est bien inférieure à celle rapportée dans la littérature (1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1). Ces nouvelles valeurs devraient être confirmées par une nouvelle campagne de caractérisation inter laboratoire pour ces géostandards. Les résultats obtenus pour les REE, U et Th par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS sont justes et livrent des limites de détermination faibles au niveau du ng g,1à sub-ng g,1pour les roches et ng l,1à sub-ng l,1pour les eaux naturelles. La séparation de la matrice est efficace et permet une mesure juste de Eu sans correction d'interférence générée par l'oxyde de Ba, et ce même pour des échantillons possédant des rapports Ba/Eu très élevés, de l'ordre de 27700. Les concentrations en REE mesurées pour les échantillons PCC-1 et DTS-1 peuvent être significativement différentes de celle rapportées dans la littérature, probablement à cause d'une hétérogénéité de ces échantillons. Des valeurs de concentrations en U et Th sont proposées pour ces deux échantillons ainsi que pour AN-G et UB-N. [source]