Type IV (type + iv)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Type IV

  • collagen type iv
  • fitzpatrick skin type iv
  • skin type iv

  • Terms modified by Type IV

  • type iv bone
  • type iv collagen
  • type iv pili
  • type iv secretion
  • type iv secretion system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Nonablative 1450-nm Diode Laser in the Treatment of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars in Type IV to V Asian Skin: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Sze-Hon Chua MRCP (UK)
    Background. There is presently little published data on the clinical effectiveness of nonablative lasers in the treatment of atrophic acne scars and the safety of their use in patients with darker skin types. Objective. This study aims to determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of the nonablative 1450 nm diode laser with cryogen cooling spray in the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars in Type IV-V Asian skin. Methods. This is a prospective non-comparative open study. 4 to 6 laser treatment sessions were performed on patients with atrophic acne scars. Final clinical assessment was performed 6 months after the last treatment. Results. 57 patients were evaluated. Patient's self-assessment of scar improvement as compared with doctor's assessment was as follows: patients who completed 4 treatments (15.7% vs 6.6%), patients who completed 5 treatments (20% vs 7.9%) and patients those who completed 6 treatments (17.3% vs 5.0%). Main side effects were mild to moderate pain during the procedure, transient erythema, and hyperpigmentation which occurred in 39% of treated patients. Conclusion. The nonablative 1450 nm diode laser may be effective in achieving mild to moderate gradual clinical improvement in the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars. The procedure is associated with minimal downtime and is safe for use in darker skin types IV and V. [source]

    Mirizzi syndrome Type IV: A rare entity

    Everson Luiz De Almeida Artifon
    Mirizzi's syndrome, characterized by obstructive jaundice due to an extrinsic compression of common hepatic duct by an impacted gallstone in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder, is a rare complication of gallstone disease. The present case describes Mirizzi's syndrome classified as Type IV in a 50-year-old man with obstructive jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a dilated intrahepatic biliary tree and a tumoral mass at the porta hepatis, suggesting cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also suggested cholangiocarcinoma involving the entire circumference of the common hepatic duct in porta hepatis. The diagnosis of Mirizzi's syndrome Type IV was confirmed during cholecystectomy, withdrawal of gallstone and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. [source]

    A mélange of curves , further dialogue about species,area relationships

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    Samuel M. Scheiner
    ABSTRACT Scheiner (2003) presented a classification of species,area curves into six types based on the pattern of sampling and how the data are combined to form the curves. Gray et al. (2004) contended that five of those types should be termed ,species-accumulation curves', reserving ,species,area curve' for those based on island-type data. Their proposition contradicts 70 years of usage and confounds curves that are area-explicit with those that are area-undefined. In exploring these issues, I highlight additional aspects of species,area and species-accumulation curves, including the assumption of nesting in Type IV (island) curves, how to convert area-unspecified curves into area curves, and the effects of the grain of the analysis on the properties of the curve. Further exploration, theoretical development, and dialogue are needed before we will understand all the biology that species,area curves summarize. [source]

    Mean Reversion and the Distribution of United Kingdom Stock Index Returns

    David Ashton
    Abstract:, Our purpose here is to develop the Pearson Type IV distribution as a candidate for modelling the evolution of short period stock index returns. Here, early work by Praetz (1972 and 1978) and Blattberg and Gonedes (1974) has shown that the scaled ,t' distribution, which is a particular (symmetric) interpretation of the Pearson Type IV, provides a reasonable description of the way stock index returns evolve over time. Our analysis shows this is certainly not the case for the daily stock index returns on which our empirical analysis is based. There is significant skewness in the data and this cannot be captured by symmetric distributions like the scaled ,t' and normal distributions. However, the Pearson Type IV, which is a skewed generalisation of the scaled ,t', is capable of modelling the skewness inherent in our data and in such a way that it satisfies asymptotically efficient goodness of fit criteria. Furthermore, the Pearson Type IV can be derived from a stochastic differential equation with standard Markov properties. This enables one to integrate the distributional and time series properties of the returns process and thereby, facilitates both the interpretation and understanding of the role played by the distribution's parameters in the generation of the underlying stock index returns. [source]

    Types of lymphoscintigraphy and indications for lymphaticovenous anastomosis

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2010
    Jiro Maegawa M.D.
    Several authors have reported the usefulness and benefits of lymphoscintigraphy. However, it is insufficient to indicate microvascular treatment based on lymphedema. Here, we present the relationships between lymphoscintigraphic types and indications for lymphatic microsurgery. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 142 limbs with secondary lymphedema of the lower extremity. The images obtained were classified into five types. Type I: Visible inguinal lymph nodes, lymphatics along the saphenous vein and/or collateral lymphatics. Type II: Dermal backflow in the thigh and stasis of an isotopic material in the lymphatics. Type III: Dermal backflow in the thigh and leg. Type IV: Dermal backflow in the leg. Type V: Radiolabeled colloid remaining in the foot. Lymphaticovenous anastomosis was performed in 35 limbs. The average number of anastomoses per limb was 3.3 in type II, 4.4 in type III, 3.6 in type IV, and 3 in type V. The highest number of anastomosis was performed in type III. In conclusion, type III is suggested to be the best indication for anastomosis compared with types IV and V. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 30:437,442, 2010. [source]

    Type IV pili-mediated secretion modulates Francisella virulence

    Anthony J. Hager
    Summary Francisella tularensis are the causative agent of the zoonotic disease, tularaemia. Among four F. tularensis subspecies, ssp. novicida (F. novicida) is pathogenic only for immunocompromised individuals, while all four subspecies are pathogenic for mice. This study utilized proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to identify seven F. novicida secreted proteins and the corresponding Type IV pilus (T4P) secretion system. The secreted proteins were predicted to encode two chitinases, a chitin binding protein, a protease (PepO), and a ,-glucosidase (BglX). The transcription of F. novicida pepO and bglX was regulated by the virulence regulator MglA. Intradermal infection of mice with F. novicida mutants defective in T4P secretion system or PepO resulted in enhanced F. novicida spread to systemic sites. Infection with F. novicida pepO mutants also resulted in increased neutrophil infiltration into the mouse airways. PepO is a zinc protease that is homologous to mammalian endothelin-converting enzyme ECE-1. Therefore, secretion of PepO likely results in increased production of endothelin and increased vasoconstriction at the infection site in skin that limits the F. novicida spread. Francisella human pathogenic strains contain a mutation in pepO predicted to abolish its secretion. Loss of PepO function may have contributed to evolution of highly virulent Francisellae. [source]

    Distribution of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subjects with various periodontal conditions

    C. G. Missailidis
    Fimbria encoded by the gene fimA is considered one of the main factors in the colonization of the oral cavity by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Allelic variation in fimA led to the classification of strains of P. gingivalis into six genotypes. The occurrence of P. gingivalis was determined by polymerase chain reaction using 16S rRNA primers in 302 subgingival samples obtained from 102 Brazilian subjects exhibiting different periodontal conditions. Distribution of fimA genotypes was assessed in 146 P. gingivalis positive samples by polymerase chain reaction using primers pairs homologous to the different fimA genes. P. gingivalis was detected in 51 of 57 (89.4%) patients with periodontal attachment loss, in six of 20 gingivitis patients (30.0%) and in two of 25 (8.0%) subjects with a healthy periodontium. Variant type II was the only type detected in 53 sites (39.3%), distributed among 19 periodontitis patients (37.3%) and in one patient with no periodontal destruction. Type Ib was the second most prevalent genotype in periodontitis patients (19.6%). Genotype V was not detected in the studied population. Type IV was the most commonly type found among gingivitis patients, either alone or in combination with other genotypes. Multiple genotypes were detected in nine sites (6.1%). A fimA genotype was not identified in 26 sites (17.8%) of 146 sites positive for P. gingivalis, suggesting that other alleles of fimA not yet sequenced may be prevalent in this population. These data demonstrated that P. gingivalis type II strains followed by type Ib are more prevalent in periodontitis patients from a multiracial population in Brazil, suggesting an increased pathogenic potential of these types. [source]

    Mouse Strain and Injection Site are Crucial for Detecting Linked Suppression in Transplant Recipients by Trans-Vivo DTH Assay

    W.J. Burlingham
    Chemokine-driven accumulation of lymphocytes, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear proinflammatory cells in antigenic tissue sites is a key feature of several types of T-cell-dependent autoimmunity and transplant rejection pathology. It is now clear that the immune system expends considerable energy to control this process, exemplified by the sequential layers of regulatory cell input, both innate and adaptive, designed to prevent a classical Type IV or ,delayed-type' hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction from occurring in the visual field of the eye. Yet, despite an abundance of in vitro assays currently available to the human T-cell immunologist, none of them adequately models the human DTH response and its various control features. The theme of this article is that it is relatively easy to model the effector side of the human DTH response with xenogeneic adoptive transfer models. However, we show that in order to detect inhibition of a recall DTH in response to colocalized donor antigen (linked suppression),a characteristic feature of peripheral tolerance to an organ transplant,both the challenge site and the immunocompetence of the mouse adoptive host are critical factors limiting the sensitivity of the trans-vivo DTH test. [source]

    Vero Cell Growth and Differentiation on Poly(l -Lactic Acid) Membranes of Different Pore Diameters

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 1 2001
    Arnaldo R. Santos Jr.
    Abstract: In the last few years, the demand has increased for research on polymeric materials, which can be used as substitutes for injured tissues and organs or to improve their regeneration. In this work, we studied poly(l -lactic acid) (PLLA) membranes, a resorbable biomaterial, which were either dense or had different pore diameters (less than 45 ,m, between 180 and 250 ,m, and between 250 and 350 ,m), in relation to stimulation of cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation in vitro. We used Vero cells, a fibroblastic cell line, as the biological model of investigation. We found that cells attached slowly to all PLLA membranes studied. On the other hand, once the adhesion occurs, the cells are able to grow and differentiate on the different polymers. The cells grew to form a confluent monolayer and were capable of producing collagen Type IV and fibronectin on different PLLA membranes. This behavior indicates that cells try to create a better environment to stimulate their growth. This also indicates that Vero cells alter their differentiation pattern once they are producing extracellular matrix molecules related to epithelial differentiation. [source]

    Isolated invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis: a clinical study of 19 cases

    N. Wu
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 689,695 Abstract Isolated invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (iIATB) is an uncommon clinical form of invasive Aspergillosis in which Aspergillus infection is limited entirely or predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 19 patients who had histological documented iIATB in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Changhai Hospital between October 2000 and February 2008. Malignancy was the most common underlying disease, which existed in 14 patients (73.7%) in our series. Most patients had impaired airway structures or defence functions, whereas the systemic immune status was relatively normal. Only three patients (15.8%) had neutropenia. The clinical manifestations and chest radiograph were nonspecific. We classified iIATB into four different forms according to the bronchoscopic features of intraluminal lesions: superficial infiltration type (Type I, n = 4), full-layer involvement type (Type II, n = 2), occlusion type (Type III, n = 6) and mixed type (Type IV, n = 7). Type IV was the largest group in our study, followed by Type III. All patients with iIATB of Type IV had definite airway occlusion. Fourteen patients (73.7%) had a good response to antifungal treatments and five (26.3%) died as a result of the progression of Aspergillosis, all of whom had full-layer invasion of the involved bronchi. In conclusion, we found that iIATB could occur in moderately or non-immunocompromised patients with impaired airway structures or defence functions and may be an early period of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. Most of the iIATB patients had a favourable prognosis with early diagnosis and effective antifungal treatment. The morphological features of intraluminal lesions might be of prognostic value. [source]

    Minimally Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars in Asian Skin: A Pilot Study

    BACKGROUND Atrophic scars are dermal depressions caused by collagen damage most commonly occurring after inflammatory acne vulgaris. There are little published data regarding the effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive lasers in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in darker skin types. OBJECTIVE The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-fluence 2,940-nm erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in Asian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine patients aged 19 to 45 years with mild to moderate atrophic facial scars and Skin Types IV and V were treated with topical anesthesia and one to two passes with an erbium:YAG laser two times at 1-month intervals. Treatment parameters were 6-mm spot size, fluence of 400 mJ, pulse duration of 300 ,s, and repetition rate of 2 Hz. RESULTS At 2 months after the last treatment, mild to moderate clinical improvement was noted in all patients compared to baseline. Treatment was well tolerated. Side effects consisted of posttreatment erythema, peeling, and crusting, which resolved within 1 to 2 weeks. There was no postinflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, blistering, or hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSION Low-fluence erbium:YAG facial resurfacing was effective and safe in patients with mild to moderately severe atrophic acne scarring. [source]

    Post-cholecystectomy biliary strictures: Not always benign

    Ajay Sharma
    Abstract Background:, Post-cholecystectomy malignant biliary obstruction masquerading as benign biliary stricture (BBS) has not been reported in the literature; it presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Methods:, Of the 349 post-cholecystectomy BBS managed at a tertiary care hospital in northern India between 1989 and 2004, 11 patients were found to have biliary malignancy. Records of these 11 patients were analyzed retrospectively for the purpose of this study. Results:, Mean age of patients with malignant biliary strictures was significantly higher (52 vs 38 years, P = 0.000); they were more likely to have jaundice (100% vs 78%, P = 0.008) and pruritus (82% vs 48%, P = 0.03). Unlike most patients with BBS referred from elsewhere to us, they had had a smooth postoperative course uncomplicated by bile leak, had a longer cholecystectomy-presentation interval, and were more likely to have high strictures ((Bismuth type III/IV) 91% vs 49%, P = 0.008). Conclusions:, Post-cholecystectomy biliary obstruction is not always benign. High bilirubin levels and hilar strictures, especially after an uneventful cholecystectomy, in a middle-aged patient should raise a suspicion of underlying missed malignancy. [source]

    Use of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) in the management of pulmonary complications of an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Gustavo Nino MD
    Abstract Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal collagen formation and short stature. These patients present with frequent vertebral, rib, and long bone fractures. There are many respiratory complications associated with OI including pneumonia, the most common cause of mortality in the severe forms of the disease. We present a case of an infant with OI (type III/IV) and significant tracheobronchomalacia who had required multiple hospitalizations for recurrent atelectasis and respiratory failure in the setting of acute respiratory infections. External chest percussion and vibration were avoided because of the risk of rib fractures. intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) was initiated during an acute illness with good effect, and continued successfully after discharge from hospital. We conclude that IPV represents a safe and effective alternative to airway clearance in infants with OI. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:1151,1154. ©2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lactic Acid Chemical Peels as a New Therapeutic Modality in Melasma in Comparison to Jessner's Solution Chemical Peels

    BACKGROUND Many chemicals have been used in the skin peeling for melasma such as Jessner's solution and glycolic acid. Lactic acid is an ,-hydroxy acid that has not been used before in chemical peeling of melasma. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lactic acid in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to Jessner's solution chemical peels. METHODS This study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Baghdad Hospital, in the period between April 2001 and August 2002. Thirty patients with melasma were included in this study. They were mostly of skin type IV according to Fitzpatrick's classification, 26 (86.67%) were women, and 4 (13.33%) were men, with an age range from 18 and 50 years (mean±SD, 33.53±6.96 years). Full clinical examination was done to all patients including Wood's light. The severity of melasma was assessed by MASI (Melasma Area Severity Index). Pure lactic acid full strength (92%, pH 3.5) was used as a new peeling agent on the left side of the face while Jessner's solution was applied to the right side of the face. The chemical peeling sessions were done every 3 weeks until the desired response was achieved. Follow-up was carried out for 6 months after the last session. RESULTS Six patients were defaulted from the study after the first session for unknown reasons. Twenty-four patients completed the study. Twenty (83.33%) were women and four were men (16.67%). Wood's light examination showed increased contrast in all patients of mostly epidermal melasma. The number of sessions ranged from 2 to 5. All patients showed marked improvement as calculated by MASI score before and after treatment, and the response was highly statistically significant. No side effect was recorded in all treated patients. CONCLUSION Lactic acid was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma, and it was as effective as Jessner's solution. [source]

    The archaeal flagellum: a different kind of prokaryotic motility structure

    Nikhil A Thomas
    Abstract The archaeal flagellum is a unique motility apparatus distinct in composition and likely in assembly from the bacterial flagellum. Gene families comprised of multiple flagellin genes co-transcribed with a number of conserved, archaeal-specific accessory genes have been identified in several archaea. However, no homologues of any bacterial genes involved in flagella structure have yet been identified in any archaeon, including those archaea in which the complete genome sequence has been published. Archaeal flagellins possess a highly conserved hydrophobic N-terminal sequence that is similar to that of type IV pilins and clearly unlike that of bacterial flagellins. Also unlike bacterial flagellins but similar to type IV pilins, archaeal flagellins are initially synthesized with a short leader peptide that is cleaved by a membrane-located peptidase. With recent advances in genetic transfer systems in archaea, knockouts have been reported in several genes involved in flagellation in different archaea. In addition, techniques to isolate flagella with attached hook and anchoring structures have been developed. Analysis of these preparations is under way to identify minor structural components of archaeal flagella. This and the continued isolation and characterization of flagella mutants should lead to significant advances in our knowledge of the composition and assembly of archaeal flagella. [source]

    Zygomaticomaxillary buttress reconstruction of midface defects with the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap

    Patricio Andrades MD
    Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate morbidity, functional, and aesthetic outcomes in midface zygomaticomaxillary buttress reconstruction using the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OCRFFF). Methods. A retrospective review of 24 consecutive patients that underwent midface reconstruction using the OCRFFF was performed. All patients had variable extension of maxillectomy defects that requires restoration of the zygmatico-maxillary buttress. After harvest, the OCRFFF was fixed transversely with miniplates connecting the remaining zygoma to the anterior maxilla. The orbital support was given by titanium mesh when needed that was fixed to the radial forearm bone anteriorly and placed on the remaining orbital floor posteriorly. The skin paddle was used for intraoral lining, external skin coverage, or both. The main outcome measures were flap success, donor-site morbidity, orbital, and oral complications. Facial contour, speech understandability, swallowing, oronasal separation, and socialization were also analyzed. Results. There were 6 women and 18 men, with an average age of 66 years old (range, 34,87). The resulting defects after maxillectomy were (according to the Cordeiro classification; Disa et al, Ann Plast Surg 2001;47:612,619; Santamaria and Cordeiro, J Surg Oncol 2006;94:522,531): type I (8.3%), type II (33.3%), type III (45.8%), and type IV (12.5%). There were no flap losses. Donor-site complications included partial loss of the split thickness skin graft (25%) and 1 radial bone fracture. The most significant recipient-site complications were severe ectropion (24%), dystopia (8%), and oronasal fistula (12%). All the complications occurred in patients with defects that required orbital floor reconstruction and/or cheek skin coverage. The average follow-up was 11.5 months, and over 80% of the patients had adequate swallowing, speech, and reincorporation to normal daily activities. Conclusions. The OCRFFF is an excellent alternative for midface reconstruction of the zygomaticomaxillary buttress. Complications were more common in patients who underwent resection of the orbital rim and floor (type III and IV defects) or external cheek skin. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008 [source]

    Root canal morphology of mandibular permanent molars at different ages

    H. R. D. Peiris
    Abstract Aim, To investigate differences in the root canal morphology of permanent mandibular molar teeth at various ages. Methodology, Four hundred and eighty permanent mandibular first and second molars were examined. First and second molars were divided into six and five groups, respectively, according to the age of the patient at the time of extraction. Root canal morphology was studied using a clearing technique. The canal morphology of the mesial root was classified into three stages depending on its developmental pattern. When the root canal system was completely differentiated, the canal classification and the number of lateral canals and inter-canal communications were recorded. Vertucci's classification was taken as the main reference. Canal morphology was compared amongst age groups. Results, In both first and second molars, developmental stages of canal morphology amongst age groups were significantly different (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of inter-canal communications was highly significantly different in the first (P < 0.0001) and less significant in the second molar (P < 0.05). After completion of the canal differentiation, the mesial roots of first molars had type IV and II canal forms. The majority of the mesial roots of second molars had type I and III canals. C-shaped canals were found in 3% of second molars. Conclusions, Mesial roots of first and second molars mostly had one large canal until 11 and 15 years of age, respectively. In both molars, the canal system was completely defined at 30,40 years. The prevalence of inter-canal communications was low at young and old ages but high at intermediate ages. [source]

    Root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular molars in a Sudanese population

    H. A. Ahmed
    Abstract Aim, To investigate variations in the root canal systems of first and second permanent mandibular molar teeth in a Sudanese population using a clearing technique. Methodology, Two hundred extracted first and second permanent mandibular molars from three cities in the state of Khartoum were studied. Access cavities were prepared and pulp tissue was removed by immersion in 5% sodium hypochlorite under ultrasonication; Indian ink was then injected into the root canal systems assisted by a vacuum applied apically. The teeth were rendered clear by demineralization and immersion in methyl salicylate before evaluation. The following observations were made (i) number of roots and their morphology; (ii) number of root canals per tooth; (iii) number of root canals per root and (iv) root canal configuration. Results, Overall 59% of mandibular first molars had four canals with 3% having a third distolingual root. Seventy-eight per cent of second mandibular molars had two separate flat roots, whilst 10% were C-shaped. The most common canal system configurations were type IV (73%) and type II (14%). Inter-canal communications were more common in the mesial roots. The prevalence of inter-canal communications was 65% in first molars and 49% in second molars. Conclusions, In this sample of Sudanese teeth, 59% of the mandibular first permanent molars had four root canals whilst 10% of the mandibular second molars had C-shaped roots/canals. [source]

    Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits peritoneal metastasis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Hiroki Kuniyasu
    Abstract The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on peritoneal metastasis was examined by in vitro treatment of cancer cells and mouse peritoneal metastasis models. First, cell growth of MKN28 human gastric cancer cells and Colo320 human colon cancer cells was suppressed by CLA in a dose-dependent manner with an increment in apoptosis. CLA significantly inhibited invasion into type IV collagen-coated membrane of MKN28 and Colo320 cells (p < 0.05). CLA-induced growth inhibition was recovered by the exposure to antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, in both cell lines. BALB/c nu-nu mice were inoculated with MKN28 and Colo320 cells into their peritoneal cavity, and administrated with CLA intraperitoneally (weekly, 4 times). CLA treatment did not affect food intake or weight gain of mice. CLA treatment significantly decreased metastatic foci of both cells in the peritoneal cavity (p < 0.005). Survival rate in mice inoculated with MKN28 or Colo320 cells was significantly recovered by CLA treatment (p = 0.0025 and 0.0052, respectively). Protein production in MKN28 and Colo320 cells treated with CLA showed a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-, and an increase in Bax. These findings suggest that CLA inhibits metastasis of human gastric and colon cancer cells. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Xeroderma pigmentosum with limited involvement of the UV-exposed areas: a case report

    Mostafa Mirshams-Shahshahani MD
    A 21-year-old woman with skin type IV, who had developed photophobia and brown, spotty, hyperpigmented lesions on her face from early childhood, presented to our center for treatment of her facial lesions. Examination on admission revealed numerous, freckle-like, hyperpigmented macules and actinic keratoses over the central part of the face, with sparing of the forehead, chin, and peripheral area (Fig. 1). The area involved was approximated to be around 2% of the total body surface. The dorsal parts of the hands showed no lesions (Fig. 2), but guttate hypomelanotic lesions were apparent on both forearms. Figure 1. Limitation of xeroderma pigmentosum lesions to the center of the face Figure 2. Hands are devoid of any lesions Histologic examination of biopsies from four different facial lesions revealed them to be keratoacanthoma (1.5 × 2.5 cm ulcerative nodule on the right cheek), sclerosing basal cell epithelioma (nasal lesion), lentigo simplex, and hypertrophic actinic keratosis. Corneal clouding, conjunctival injection, loss of lashes, and atrophy of the lids were apparent on ophthalmologic examination. Other parts of the physical examination, including examination of the oral cavity, were nonsignificant. In addition, except for the presence of mild eczema in a sibling, the patient's family history regarding the presence of any similar problem and also any other important dermatologic or general disorder was negative. [source]

    Pulsed erbium:YAG laser-assisted autologous epidermal punch grafting in vitiligo

    Mukta Sachdev MD
    Background A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed erbium:YAG laser ablation of autologous minipunch grafted sites for the treatment of refractory or stable vitiligo. Methods Thirteen patients, seven men and six women, aged between 19 and 58 years, with Fitzpatrick skin types ranging from type IV to VI, were grafted. The pulsed erbium: YAG laser was used to create recipient graft sites. Results Repigmentation was observed in 12 out of 13 patients. Failure of grafts to repigment ranged from 3% to 100%. No untoward side-effects of surgery were noted. Conclusions Using an erbium:YAG laser to create graft recipient sites permits the survival of punch harvested grafts and the spread of pigmentation to the surrounding skin. [source]

    From collagen chemistry towards cell therapy , a personal journey

    Michael E. Grant
    Summary The Fell,Muir Award requires the recipient to deliver a lecture and a review manuscript which provides a personal overview of significant scientific developments in the field of matrix biology over the period of the recipient's career. In this context, this review considers the collagen family of structural proteins and the advances in biochemical, molecular biological and genetic techniques which led to the elucidation of the structure, synthesis and function of this important group of extracellular matrix constituents. Particular attention is focussed on early research on the identification and assembly of the soluble precursors of collagen types I and II, and the identification of the precursor of basement membrane collagen type IV. In subsequent studies investigating the maintenance of the chick chondrocyte phenotype in culture, the influence of the extracellular milieu was found to influence markedly both cell morphology and collagen gene expression. These studies led to the discovery of collagen type X whose expression is restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification. Such research provided a prelude to investigations of mammalian endochondral ossification which is known to be aberrant in a variety of human chondrodysplasias and is reactivated in bone fracture repair and in osteoarthritis. The cloning of bovine and then human collagen type X genes facilitated studies in relevant human diseases and contributed to the discovery of mutations in the COL10A1 gene in families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid. Clustering of mutations in the C-terminal domain of the type X collagen molecule has now been widely documented and investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms in animal models are beginning to suggest the prospect of novel treatment strategies. [source]

    Foreskin development before adolescence in 2149 schoolboys

    Background:, We examined the external genitalia of 2149 elementary schoolboys in the suburban area of Taichung in Taiwan for an understanding of foreskin development before adolescence. Methods:, The study's subjects comprised 692 first-grade boys, 725 fourth-grade boys, and 732 seventh-grade boys. The foreskin's condition was classified as: type I (normal prepuce), type II (adhesion of prepuce), type III (partial phimosis), type IV (phimosis) and type V (circumcised foreskin). Other abnormalities of the genitalia also were recorded. All of the examinations were performed by the same urologist. Results:, The incidence of type I foreskin was 8.2% in first-grade boys, 21.0% in fourth-grade boys, and 58.1% in seventh-grade boys. The incidence of type IV foreskin was 17.1% in first-grade boys, 9.7% in fourth-grade boys, and 1.2% in seventh-grade boys. Only one boy had balanoposthitis. Other abnormalities included inguinal hernia (n = 2), hydrocele (n = 12), cryptorchitism (n = 8), varicocele (n = 22), and subcoronal-type hypospadia (n = 1). Conclusions:, Physiological phimosis declines with age. Most boys with phimosis in this study did not require treatment. [source]

    Developmental patterns of the hermaphroditic gonad in dicyemid mesozoans (Phylum Dicyemida)

    Hidetaka Furuya
    Abstract. The development of the hermaphroditic gonad, the infusorigen, was studied in fixed specimens of 16 species belonging to four genera (Conocyema, Dicyema, Dicyemennea, and Pseudicyema) of dicyemid mesozoans. In addition, the literature on the cell lineages of infusorigens of eight other species was reviewed. After an agamete (axoblast) undergoes an unequal first division, excluding a small cell (the paranucleus), the resulting large cell divides to form the infusorigen. Five infursorigen cell lineage patterns can be identified: type I, both the first oogonium and the first spermatogonium are produced at the third division; type II, the first spermatogonium is produced at the second division and the first oogonium is produced at the third division; type III, the first spermatogonium is produced at the second division and the first oogonium is produced at the fourth division; type IV, the first oogonium is produced at the second division and the first spermatogonium is produced at the third division; and type V, the first oogonium is produced at the second division and the first spermatogonium is produced at the fourth division. Later development is similar in members of all genera. Mature infusorigens are similarly organized in all species examined. Sizes of agametes and infusorigen axial cells, the number of infusorigens, and the type of reproductive strategy were not correlated with infusorigen developmental patterns or cell lineage patterns. [source]

    Type V Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A New Form of Brittle Bone Disease,

    Francis H. Glorieux
    Abstract Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is commonly subdivided into four clinical types. Among these, OI type IV clearly represents a heterogeneous group of disorders. Here we describe 7 OI patients (3 girls), who would typically be classified as having OI type IV but who can be distinguished from other type IV patients. We propose to call this disease entity OI type V. These children had a history of moderate to severe increased fragility of long bones and vertebral bodies. Four patients had experienced at least one episode of hyperplastic callus formation. The family history was positive for OI in 3 patients, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. All type V patients had limitations in the range of pronation/supination in one or both forearms, associated with a radiologically apparent calcification of the interosseous membrane. Three patients had anterior dislocation of the radial head. A radiodense metaphyseal band immediately adjacent to the growth plate was a constant feature in growing patients. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was low and similar to age-matched patients with OI type IV. None of the type V patients presented blue sclerae or dentinogenesis imperfecta, but ligamentous laxity was similar to that in patients with OI type IV. Levels of biochemical markers of bone metabolism generally were within the reference range, but serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary collagen type I N-telopeptide excretion increased markedly during periods of active hyperplastic callus formation. Qualitative histology of iliac biopsy specimens showed that lamellae were arranged in an irregular fashion or had a meshlike appearance. Quantitative histomorphometry revealed decreased amounts of cortical and cancellous bone, like in OI type IV. However, in contrast to OI type IV, parameters that reflect remodeling activation on cancellous bone were mostly normal in OI type V, while parameters reflecting bone formation processes in individual remodeling sites were clearly decreased. Mutation screening of the coding regions and exon/intron boundaries of both collagen type I genes did not reveal any mutations affecting glycine codons or splice sites. In conclusion, OI type V is a new form of autosomal dominant OI, which does not appear to be associated with collagen type I mutations. The genetic defect underlying this disease remains to be elucidated. [source]

    Deep Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest in the Surgical Management of Renal Tumors with Cavoatrial Extension

    Panagiotis Dedeilias M.D.
    Their intraluminar extension to the cardiac cavities occurs with a tumor-thrombus formation at a percentage of 1%. The aim of this study is to present the principles of "radical" management that should be targeted to excision of the kidney together with the cavoatrial tumor-thrombus. Material: From 2003 through 2008, we treated six patients with renal-cell carcinoma involving the IVC and/or the right cardiac chambers. The main symptoms leading to the diagnosis were hematuria, dyspnea, or lower limb edema. The extension of the tumor was type IV in three cases, type III in two, and type II in one case. Method: Extracorporeal circulation combined with a short period of hypothermic circulatory arrest was the method used. Radical nephrectomy combined with cavotomy and atriotomy was performed to an "en-block" extirpation of the tumor-thrombus and allowed oncologic surgical clearance of the disease. Results: There was no operative death. The mean postoperative course duration was 11 days, apart from one obese patient who presented postoperative pancreatitis and died on the 44th postoperative day due to respiratory failure. During the cumulative postoperative follow-up of 171 months the patients remain free of recurrence. Conclusions: The use of extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest provides a good method for radical excision of renal carcinomas involving the IVC with satisfactory morbidity and long-term survival results. Cooperation of urologists and cardiac surgeons is necessary for this type of operation. [source]

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is a target gene of the Wnt/,-catenin signaling pathway,

    Macarena S. Arrázola
    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) plays a key role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression. The expression of CaMKIV and the activation of CREB regulated genes are involved in memory and neuronal survival. We report here that: (a) a bioinformatic analysis of 15,476 promoters of the human genome predicted several Wnt target genes, being CaMKIV a very interesting candidate; (b) CaMKIV promoter contains TCF/LEF transcription motifs similar to those present in Wnt target genes; (c) biochemical studies indicate that lithium and the canonical ligand Wnt-3a induce CaMKIV mRNA and protein expression levels in rat hippocampal neurons as well as CaMKIV promoter activity; (d) treatment of hippocampal neurons with Wnt-3a increases the binding of ,-catenin to the CaMKIV promoter: (e) In vivo activation of the Wnt signaling improve spatial memory impairment and restores the expression of CaMKIV in a mice double transgenic model for Alzheimer's disease which shows decreased levels of the kinase. We conclude that CaMKIV is regulated by the Wnt signaling pathway and that its expression could play a role in the neuroprotective function of the Wnt signaling against the Alzheimer's amyloid peptide. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 658,667, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Decorin transfection in human mesangial cells downregulates genes playing a role in the progression of fibrosis

    Antonia Costacurta
    Abstract The proteoglycan decorin inhibits TGF-,; therefore, it could antagonize progression of fibrotic diseases associated with activation of TGF-,1. The effect of decorin transfection in human mesangial cells (HMCs) on the expression of genes related to kidney fibrosis was investigated. HMCs, isolated from glomeruli of healthy portions of human kidneys removed due to carcinoma, were histochemically typed. Decorin cDNA cloned in a eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into HMCs. Gene expression of fibrogenetic cytokines and fibrotic proteins TGF-,1, PDGF-,, ,1 collagen type IV, ,1 collagen type I, fibronectin, and tenascin was analyzed, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 24 hr after transfection. Immunoblotting analysis of protein extracts using anti-decorin IgG, revealed a positive signal of about 52 MDa, corresponding to the molecular weight of decorin, in cultures transfected with the decorin gene. Decorin mRNA increased about 12 times in cultures transfected with the construct pCR3.1-Deco. Cells with increased decorin synthesis showed a 61% decrease of TGF-,1 mRNA, a 71% reduction of ,1 collagen type IV mRNA, and a 29% reduction of fibronectin mRNA. This study is the first to investigate decorin transfection into human mesangial cells, and supports the use of the decorin gene to control the progression of glomerular and interstitial fibrosis in kidney diseases. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Proliferation and differentation markers in snuff-induced oral mucosal lesions

    Marina Merne
    Abstract Background: Regular use of snuff is known to cause whitish oral mucosal lesions of variable severity at the usual quid placement site. The main aim of this study was to elucidate cellular mechanisms involved in snuff-induced epithelial changes. Methods: Expression patterns for markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67), cell cycle regulation (p53, p21), keratin changes (pankeratin, CK18, CK19), cell stress (HSP 70) and collagen type IV in 14 snuff-induced oral mucosal lesions and 12 control samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: On light microscopy, all snuff-induced lesions were characterized by a hyperkeratinized and thickened epithelium. Some vacuolized cells, markers of cell degeneration, were frequently seen (in 9/14 of the samples) in the superficial layers in epithelia. Expression of PCNA and Ki-67 was found in a statistically significantly fewer cells in snuff-induced lesions (P < 0.001) than in the controls. This indicates that epithelia in snuff-induced lesions are not thickened as a result of increased cellular proliferation, but by protracted turnover of differentiating cells. Of cell cycle markers, p21 was found be up-regulated in 4/14 snuff-induced lesions, probably by p53-independent pathways. Only two snuff-induced lesions showed p53 positivity. However, the number of stained cells with p53 and p21 was not statistically different from that in controls. Expression of CK18, but not any alterations in CK19 expression, was seen in 5 of 14 snuff-induced lesions. Snuff also seems to stimulate the expression of collagen type IV, possibly by basal cells, as indicated by the thickened staining of the basal lamina. Conclusions: The findings of this study showing suppressed cellular proliferation and infrequent p53 dysfunction in snuff lesions may partly explain why dysplastic changes are seldom seen in mucosal lesions induced by the Scandinavian type of snuff. [source]

    Synthesis of heterotrimeric collagen peptides containing the ,1,1 integrin recognition site of collagen type IV

    Barbara Saccá
    Abstract Collagen type IV provides a biomechanically stable scaffold into which the other constituents of basement membranes are incorporated, but it also plays an important role in cell adhesion. This occurs with collagen type IV mainly via the ,1,1 integrin, and the proposed epitope involved in this type of collagen/integrin interaction corresponds to a non-sequential R/Xaa/D motif, where the arginine and aspartate residues are provided by the ,2 and ,1 chains of the collagen molecule, respectively. Since the stagger of the three , chains in native collagen type IV is still unknown and different alignments of the chains lead to different spatial epitopes, two heterotrimeric collagen peptides containing the natural 457,469 sequences of the cell adhesion site were synthesized in which the single chains were assembled via disulfide bonds into the two most plausible ,1,2,1, and ,2,1,1, registers. The differentiated triple-helical stabilities of the two heterotrimers suggest a significant structural role of the chain register in collagen, although the binding to ,1,1 integrin is apparently less affected as indicated by preliminary experiments. Copyright © 2002 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]