Twin-screw Extruder (twin-screw + extruder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Twin-screw Extruder

  • co-rotating twin-screw extruder
  • corotating twin-screw extruder

  • Selected Abstracts

    Evaluating Energy Consumption and Efficiency of a Twin-Screw Extruder

    M. Liang
    ABSTRACT: Using the results from twin-screw extrusion of corn meal, both energy consumption and extruder efficiency were found to be significantly correlated with screw speed and specific feeding load (SFL). An increase in the SFL decreased the total specific mechanical energy, but increased the extruder efficiency. SFL influenced the extruder efficiency more than the screw speed. Increasing the screw speed from 300 to 450 rpm at a constant SFL level increased the extruder efficiency by 6 to 11%, whereas an increase of SFL from 0.0026 to 0.0038 kg rev 1 raised the extruder efficiency by 30%. Of the mechanical energy consumed per unit mass of extrudate, over 98% were used for shearing or viscous dissipation and less than 1.5% were for pumping during twin-screw extrusion of corn meal. [source]

    Behavior of fully filled regions in a non-intermeshing twin-screw extruder

    Rajath Mudalamane
    Twin-screw extruders are operated with sequential filled and partially filled regions in order to perform the required unit processes. Channel fill length, defined as the length of fully filled regions in an extrusion screw, is gaining importance as a design parameter because of its implications on residence time distribution, distributive and dispersive mixing, and also process stability. A detailed study,experimental and theoretical,of the behavior of fill lengths in response to operating conditions (throughput, screw speed) and screw geometry is presented in this paper. Mean residence times were also measured for each geometry and operating condition. The apparatus consisted of a non-intermeshing counter-rotating twin-screw extruder (NITSE) with a transparent (acrylic) barrel, fed with corn syrup (Newtonian at room temperature). Fill length exhibits a nonlinear relationship with specific throughput (Q/N), with the slope increasing monotonously as the throughput Q increases at a given screw speed N. The mean residence time exhibits a strong linear relationship with inverse specific throughput and inverse fill length. A theoretical model was developed to predict the filled length based on pressure-throughput relationships taken from literature for this system, and the predictions were found to agree very well with experimental observations. [source]

    Effect of extrusion parameters on flavour retention, functional and physical properties of mixtures of starch and d -limonene encapsulated in milk protein

    Sri Yuliani
    Summary The purpose of this research was to investigate the retention of flavour volatiles encapsulated in water-insoluble systems during high temperature,short time extrusion process. A protein precipitation method was used to produce water-insoluble capsules encapsulating limonene, and the capsules were added to the extruder feed material (cornstarch). A twin-screw extruder was used to evaluate the effect of capsule level of addition (0,5%), barrel temperature (125,145 °C) and screw speed (145,175 r.p.m.) on extruder parameters (torque, die pressure, specific mechanical energy, residence time distribution) and extrudate properties [flavour retention, texture, colour, density, expansion, water absorption index, water solubility index (WSI)]. Capsule level had a significant effect on extrusion conditions, flavour retention and extrudate physical properties. Flavour retention increased with the increase in capsule level from 0% to 2.5%, reached a maximum value at capsule level of 2.5% and decreased when the capsule level increased from 2.5% to 5%. The die pressure, torque, expansion ratio, hardness and WSI exhibited the opposite effect with the presence of capsules. [source]

    Rheology and thermal properties of polypropylene modified by reactive extrusion with dicumyl peroxide and trimethylol propane triacrylate

    Feng-Hua Su
    Abstract Trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were used to modify polypropylene (PP) by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder. The effects of TMPTA concentration on oscillatory shear rheology, melt elongational rheology, and thermal properties were comparatively evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the grafting reaction took place and TMPTA had been grafted onto the PP backbone. Differential scanning calorimetric results showed that the crystallization temperatures of modified PPs were higher than those of the initial and degraded PPs. The rheological characteristics such as higher storage modulus (G,) at low frequency, increased degree of shear thinning, a plateau in tan ,,, plot, and upturning at high viscosity in the Cole,Cole plots proved that the long-chain branches have been added to the linear PP molecule. The melt elongational rheology showed that the modified PPs exhibit improved melt strength and increased elongational viscosity in the presence of TMPTA and DCP, which further confirmed the existence of long-chain branching (LCB) in their backbone. According to the analytical results from oscillatory shear rheology and elongational rheology, it can be inferred that the LCB level in modified samples increases with an increase in TMPTA concentration. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:16,25, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.20146 [source]

    Modeling of transport phenomena and melting kinetics of starch in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder,

    Lijun Wang
    A mathematical model was developed to simulate fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting kinetics of starch in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder (TSE). The partial differential equations governing the transport phenomena of the biomaterial in the extruder were solved by a finite element scheme. For validating the model, the predicted product pressure, bulk temperature at the entrance of the die, and minimum residence time of the biomaterial in the extruder were compared with experimental data. Standard errors of product pressure, bulk temperature at the die entrance, and minimum residence time were about 8.8, 2.8, and 17.3%. Simulations were carried out to investigate profiles of product pressure, bulk temperature, and melt fraction within the extruder during extrusion. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 25: 22,40, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.20055 [source]

    Physical characterization of starch extrudates as a function of melting transitions and extrusion conditions

    Stéphanie Blanche
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between starch melt transition characteristics, extrusion conditions, and final product properties. Cornstarch was extruded using a corotating twin-screw extruder at varying moisture content, medium/high screw configuration, and 300/400-rpm screw speeds. Extrudates were evaluated for bulk density, expansion ratio, cell structure, bending strength, thermal and pasting properties. Temperature change (,T) was defined as the temperature difference between the native starch melting temperature and its melt temperature just behind the die during extrusion at a given moisture content. ,T was significantly affected by starch moisture content and mechanical shearing, which controlled the melting behavior of the starch in the barrel. Amylose,lipid complex formation during extrusion increased as ,T increased and leveled off at ,T of about 20°C. Pasting peak viscosity of the starch extrudates decreased as ,T increased and leveled off at ,T of about 15°C. Within the same range of mechanical shearing intensity, extrudate bulk density and bending strength decreased linearly as ,T increased. Extrudate expansion was negatively correlated to bulk density. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 23: 277,290, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.20017 [source]

    Rheological properties of LDPE processed by conventional processing machines

    Masayuki Yamaguchi
    Abstract The impact of applied processing history and the postprocessing annealing on the rheological properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been studied employing various kinds of conventional processing machines. Processing by a corotating twin-screw extruder (Co-TSE) and an internal batch mixer depressed the drawdown force, one of the elastic properties of a melt, to a great extent, even though molecular weight and the polydispersity did not change. On the other hand, the sample processed by a two-roll mill exhibited the drawdown force as high as the original pellets, which is owing to the intermittent stress history instead of the relentless one in the Co-TSE and the internal batch mixer. Furthermore, the effect of screw configuration in the Co-TSE has also been investigated. It was found that the processing by conveying screws depressed the drawdown force and melt fracture more than that by kneading blocks as long as the torque and the residence time are the same. The large, abrupt, and frequent change in flow direction in the Co-TSE with kneading blocks prohibits the molecular orientation, which leads to disentanglement associated with long-chain branches. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 22: 179,187, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.10047 [source]

    Effect of screw element type in degradation of polypropylene upon multiple extrusions

    Sebastiăo V. Canevarolo
    Abstract The screw profile of a twin-screw extruder can be designed to contain kneading and conveying elements inducing different levels of degradation in the polymer melt. In this work, the level of degradation in polypropylene has been measured after multiple extrusions,for various screw profiles,using size exclusion chromatography and IR spectroscopy. The average molecular weight and the polydispersity have been reduced and the carbonyl and unsaturation indexes increase as the number of extrusions and the aggressivity of the screw profile increase. The kneading element with 90° caused the greater level of degradation. On the other hand, the addition of left-hand conveying elements reduces the level of degradation because of the extra volume of molten polymer held in the screw, reducing the viability of oxygen inside the barrel. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 243,249, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.10028 [source]

    Investigation of the gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch

    Roberta C. R. Souza
    Abstract The gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the gelatinization temperature as a function of the water content. Plasticized corn starch was processed in single- and twin-screw extruders to produce thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties of the films obtained in the twin-screw extruder with the addition of different quantities of water were evaluated. Dynamic mechanical analysis applied to thermoplastic starch samples obtained with 33% (w/w) total plasticizers showed two transitions, attributed to the presence of two phases in the starch,glycerol,water system. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 21: 17,24, 2002; DOI 10.1002/adv.10007 [source]

    Distributive mixing profiles for co-rotating twin-screw extruders

    Gifford Shearer
    Distributive mixing was experimentally measured during polymer melt blending along the length of a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. A mixing limited interfacial reaction between two reactive polymer tracers was employed to gain direct evidence of the generation of interfacial area. Model reactions were performed to validate this novel experimental method. In particular, the conversion was a direct indicator of the interfacial area available for the reaction. Specially designed sampling ports were used to obtain polymer samples along the length of the extruder during its continuous operation. The mixing capabilities of conveying sections and kneading blocks were compared over a wide range of operating conditions. In conveying sections, distributive mixing was controlled by the fully filled fraction. The mixing in kneading blocks depended on the combination of the operating conditions and the stagger angle. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 20: 169,190, 2001 [source]

    Reactive grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto polypropylene

    Emma-Louise Burton
    Abstract This work explored the melt-phase grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene on a closely intermeshing corotating twin-screw extruder (16-mm screws, 40 : 1 length/diameter ratio). The modification of the base polypropylene to produce GMA-grafted polypropylene was achieved via peroxide-induced hydrogen abstraction from the polypropylene followed by the grafting of the GMA monomer or by the grafting of styrene followed by copolymerization with the GMA. In this study, both the position and order of the reactant addition were investigated as a route to improving graft yields and reducing side reactions (degradation). For the peroxide,GMA system, adding GMA to the melt before the peroxide resulted in significant improvements in the graft levels because of the improved dispersion of GMA in the melt. The addition of a comonomer (styrene) was explored as a second route to improving the graft yield. Although the addition of the comonomer led to a considerable rise in the level of grafted GMA, altering the order of the reactant addition was not found to contribute to an increase in the grafted GMA levels. However, variable levels of grafted styrene were achieved, and this may play an important role in the development of grafted polymers to suit specific needs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Flammability and mechanical properties of wood flour-filled polypropylene composites

    M. B. Abu Bakar
    Abstract Polypropylene (PP) composites filled with wood flour (WF) were prepared with a twin-screw extruder and an injection-molding machine. Three types of ecologically friendly flame retardants (FRs) based on ammonium polyphosphate were used to improve the FR properties of the composites. The flame retardancy of the PP/WF composites was characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vertical burn testing (UL94-V), and limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurements. The TGA data showed that all three types of FRs could enhance the thermal stability of the PP/WF/FR systems at high temperatures and effectively increase the char residue formation. The FRs could effectively reduce the flammability of the PP/WF/FR composites by achieving V-0 UL94-V classification. The increased LOI also showed that the flammability of the PP/WF/FR composites was reduced with the addition of FRs. The mechanical property study revealed that, with the incorporation of FRs, the tensile strength and flexural strength were decreased, but the tensile and flexural moduli were increased in all cases. The presence of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) resulted in an improvement of the filler,matrix bonding between the WF/intumescent FR and PP, and this consequently enhanced the overall mechanical properties of the composites. Morphological studies carried out with scanning electron microscopy revealed clear evidence that the adhesion at the interfacial region was enhanced with the addition of MAPP to the PP/WF/FR composites. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Mechanical properties and flammability of polycarbonate alloys containing nanosize additives

    Zhiyi Zhang
    Abstract Different organic,inorganic composite particles [montmorillonite/poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), SiO2/PBA/PMMA, and CaCO3/PBA/PMMA] were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Furthermore, polycarbonate (PC) alloys were prepared via the doping of these composite particles into PC with a twin-screw extruder. The structure, mechanical properties, and flammability of the PC alloys were studied in detail. Although the tensile modulus of PC decreased a little, the flexibility and impact resistance were improved by the addition of these composite particles. This result was attributed to the fact that the composite particles were well dispersed in the PC matrix, with a cocontinuous phase formed between the particles and PC. In addition, the combustion behavior of the PC alloys, compared with that of the pure PC, resulted from a ceramic-like char that formed on the surface of the PC alloys during burning. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile,butadiene,styrene)/montmorillonite nanocomposites and degradation studies during extrusion reprocessing

    E.-K. Karahaliou
    Abstract In this study, the preparation of organically modified montmorillonite/poly(acrylonitrile,butadiene,styrene) (ABS) nanocomposites was studied by melt blending in a twin-screw extruder. The composite material was subjected to a series of five extrusion cycles, and the effect of reprocessing on the material's structural properties was investigated. More specifically, chemical changes were studied with attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared analysis, the thermal response was recorded by differential scanning calorimetry experiments, and the thermal stability was detected with thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the rheological properties of these blends were investigated via melt flow index tests as a measure of their processability during melt mixing and molding processes. Furthermore, the mechanical strength of the obtained mixtures was explored, and the observed interactions were interpreted in terms of the influence of each component on the functional properties of the final mixture. This attempt enriched our knowledge about the recycling of ABS, with the additional aspect of the use of collected data from more complex systems, that is, composite materials, where the montmorillonite nanoparticles play a role in the interactions initiated by repeated processing. The experimental results of this study show that the reprocessing of ABS/montmorillonite induced oxidation products, but the rheological, mechanical, and thermal properties and the thermal and color stabilities of the composites remained almost stable. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Studying and increasing light stability of rotomolding grade of polyethylene

    E. Feyz
    Abstract This article covers the state-of-the-art light stabilizer for rotational molding and the influence of synergistic effects between light and thermal stabilizers, which improve physical and mechanical properties. Different formulations of polyethylene (PE) with light stabilizer, thermal stabilizer, and acid scavenger have been produced in twin-screw extruder. To study the light stability, sheets that produced by injection-molding machine have been put in weather-ometer instrument for 1000 h. After and before that, physical and mechanical properties have been evaluated. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Crystallization, orientation morphology, and mechanical properties of biaxially oriented starch/polyvinyl alcohol films

    Jing Wang
    Abstract Biaxially oriented starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared by stretching starch/PVA blend precursor films that were fabricated by extrusion casting via a twin-screw extruder. Investigations on crystallization, orientation morphology, and mechanical properties of extrusion cast and stretched starch/PVA films were carried out by using differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and tensile testing. The fresh extrusion-cast starch/PVA films, which were almost amorphous, can crystallize spontaneously when aged at room condition. A good compatibility between starch and PVA was obtained by extrusion-casting technology. The well-developed molecular orientation, which did not occur along the machine direction during the extruding process, was observed in stretched film samples. Stretching unaged films can induce crystallization and the orientation of crystalline structures during stretching, resulting in the changes in diffraction peaks of WAXD patterns. The effect of stretch ratio and the orientation distribution in the plane of the film on mechanical properties of stretched films was studied, and the equal biaxially oriented films were found to exhibit in-plane isotropy. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Effects of screw configurations on the grafting of maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene in reactive extrusion

    Hui Fang
    Abstract The effects of screw configurations, that is, the staggering angles and disc widths of the kneading blocks, on grafting reactive extrusion for maleic anhydride grafted low-density polyethylene were investigated in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Samples were collected from three positions along the screw and the die exit. The grafting degree (GD) of the specimens was evaluated by titration. It was found that the kneading block configurations had a significant influence on the grafting reactive extrusion. In addition, another three groups of extrusion experiments were performed to explore the intrinsic relationship between the GD, the degree of fill in the screw channel, the residence time distribution (RTD), and the mixing intensity in various screw configurations. The experimental results indicated that the location of the melting endpoint significantly affected the position at which the reaction began; the degree of fill, RTD, and mixing performance of the screw played important roles in the grafting reaction. The reverse kneading blocks with a narrow disc width, which had a high degree of fill and good mixing capacity, enhanced the increase in GD along the screw during the reactive extrusion. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Determination of twin-screw extruder operational conditions for the preparation of thermoplastic vulcanizates on the basis of batch-mixer results

    F. Goharpey
    Abstract In this study, we attempted to prepare a thermoplastic vulcanizate in a twin-screw extruder by determining the screw configuration on the basis of batch-mixer results. In this regard, two sets of information were used: (1) the time length, power consumption, and filling factor of different stages of the reactive blending process in the internal mixer and (2) the mean residence time and power consumption of the twin-screw extruder. Morphological features of the samples taken from the melt-mixing and dynamic vulcanization zones of the extruder with the selected screw configuration were found to be comparable with corresponding samples taken from an internal mixer reported in our previous study. The rheological and mechanical properties could provide valuable information to support the reliability of this study. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Isothermal crystallization of high density polyethylene and nanoscale calcium carbonate composites

    Jiann-Wen HuangArticle first published online: 26 NOV 200
    Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocomposites with maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (manPE) as a compatibilizer were prepared via compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The CaCO3 are well dispersed in the HDPE matrix from the observation of transmission electron microscope. The isothermal crystallization kinetics was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and simulated by Avrami and Tobin models. The nucleation constants and fold surface free energy were estimated from Lauritzen,Hoffman relation. The results indicate that both manPE and well-dispersed CaCO3 particles would act as nuclei to induce heterogeneous nucleation and enhance crystallization rate. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Kinetics of Lysine and Other Amino Acids Loss During Extrusion Cooking of Maize Grits

    S. Ilo
    ABSTRACT: Maize grits were extrusion-cooked in a conical, counter-rotating twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures, feed moistures, and screw speeds. Residence time distribution was measured by a dye tracer technique. Experiments with lysine-fortified maize grits showed a 1st order reaction for lysine loss. A detailed kinetic study has been performed for the losses during extrusion cooking of lysine, cystine, and arginine. The 1st-order rate constants were dependent mainly on product temperature and feed moisture, whereas screw speed had no influence. Activation energy of lysine, arginine, and cystine loss was 127, 68, and 76 kJ/mol, respectively. Shear stress significantly affected the rate constants of amino acids loss in extrusion cooking. [source]

    Phase Behavior of a Meat-Starch Extrudate Illustrated on a State Diagram

    C.I. Moraru
    ABSTRACT: The phase behavior of a meat-starch extruded system was illustrated on a state diagram. A mixture of meat and potato granules (1.48:1) was extruded with a twin-screw extruder. The extrudates were equilibrated at relative humidities between 0 to 88% and their glass transitions were determined. Starch and proteins were phase separated at macromolecular level and retained their own phase transitions. The state diagram of the system showed that proteins dictated the texture of the mixed system, with starch contributing to the high value of the mechanical properties. Water had a plasticizing effect on both biopolymers. At room temperature, the extrudates with aw < 0.32 were glassy, while those with aw > 0.57 were rubbery. [source]

    Wet granulation in a twin-screw extruder: Implications of screw design

    M.R. Thompson
    Abstract Wet granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals. The performance of this machinery is integrally tied to its screw design yet little fundamental knowledge exists in this emerging field for granulation to intelligently create, troubleshoot, and scale-up such processes. This study endeavored to systematically examine the influence of different commercially available screw elements on the flow behavior and granulation mechanics of lactose monohydrate saturated at low concentration (5,12%, w/w) with an aqueous polyvinyl-pyrrolidone binder. The results of the work showed that current screw elements could be successfully incorporated into designs for wet granulation, to tailor the particle size as well as particle shape of an agglomerate product. Conveying elements for cohesive granular flows were shown to perform similar to their use in polymer processing, as effective transport units with low specific mechanical energy input. The conveying zones provided little significant change to the particle size or shape, though the degree of channel fill in these sections had a significant influence on the more energy-intensive mixing elements studied. The standard mixing elements for this machine, kneading blocks and comb mixers, were found to be effective for generating coarser particles, though their mechanisms of granulation differed significantly. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 2090,2103, 2010 [source]

    Spheronization of small extrudates containing ,-carrageenan

    Angelina Yoo
    Abstract Spheronization of extrudates of around 500 µm diameter needs improvement of the Schlueter spheronizer conditions with regard to moisture content of the extrudates. The extrudates were obtained by a twin-screw extruder and contained ,-carrageenan as pelletization aid. The influences of spheronization speed, residence time, temperature of the spheronizer wall and loading on the responses aspect ratio, pellet size and yield, were studied with a central composite circumscribed design. The Schlueter spheronizer was compared with a Nica spheronizer. Further, additional spheronizer process variables such as temperature of the spheronizer wall and inlet air pressure were also investigated. The results were evaluated in a full factorial (mixed) design. The micropellets in general showed a pellet size between 500 and 700 µm. A twisted-rope movement during the spheronization process was not observed and adhesion to the spheronizer wall resulted in suboptimal micropellets. However, at suitable moisture content, less loading in the spheronizer, higher spheronization speed and longer residence time micropellets with an aspect ratio below 1.1 were obtained. In addition the adhesion to the spheronizer wall was reduced. Spheronizer wall temperature and inlet air pressure were negligible variables. Significant differences between the two spheronizers could not be established. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:3776,3787, 2009 [source]

    Melt amination of polypropylenes

    Q.-W. Lu
    Abstract Amine (primary and secondary) functional polypropylenes were prepared by the melt blending of maleated polypropylenes with small diamines, including hexamethylenediamine (primary,primary diamine), p -xylylenediamine (primary,primary diamine), and N -hexylethylenediamine (primary,secondary diamine), at various diamine/anhydride molar ratios in a batch mixer and a twin-screw extruder. The experimental conversion data by Fourier transform infrared nearly agreed with the assumption of a complete reaction between the primary amine and anhydride. Chain extensions of the maleated polypropylenes by the diamines were monitored by the torques during mixing and further evaluated by rheological (dynamic shear rheometry) and mechanical measurements. We show that these amino polypropylenes are very effective adhesion promoters and compatibilizers of thermoplastic polyurethanes with polypropylene. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 4217,4232, 2005 [source]

    Chemical composition and physical properties of extruded snacks containing crab-processing by-product

    Michael G Murphy
    Abstract The crab-processing industries generate millions of pounds of by-product annually, which results in a loss of edible product and presents a considerable waste disposal problem. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of crab-processing by-product (CB) in the development of a calcium-rich expanded snack. The specific objectives were to examine the effects of type of CB (wet or dry), feed composition and screw speed (150 or 250 rpm) on selected properties of extruded snacks. Product formulations consisting of 0,400 g kg,1 CB combined with corn meal and potato flakes were processed in a twin-screw extruder. The resulting extrudates were analysed for proximate and mineral (calcium, sodium) composition, pH, water activity (aw), total plate count, bulk density, expansion ratio and colour. Both CB type and level of incorporation had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the calcium content, expansion ratio, bulk density and pH of the extrudates. Increasing the CB level resulted in increased calcium content (from 5.1 to 52.4 mg g,1) and pH (from 6.1 to 8.8). Screw speed had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on expansion ratio and bulk density. A high processing temperature (157 °C) and low aw resulted in undetectable microbial growth on the extrudates. This research demonstrates that ground crab-processing by-product can be successfully incorporated into an expanded snack product. Further research will evaluate consumer response to this novel value-added product. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Development of a bulgur-like product using extrusion cooking

    Hamit Köksel
    Abstract In this study we (1) developed a new bulgur-like foodstuff using a durum wheat cultivar and an extrusion technique, (2) investigated the physicochemical properties of the extrudates produced and (3) sensorially evaluated the end-product after cooking. Durum wheat was processed in a laboratory-scale co-rotating twin-screw extruder with different levels of moisture content of the feed (367, 417 and 455,g,kg,1), screw speed (150 and 200,rpm) and feed rate (2.4 and 2.9,kg,h,1) to develop the bulgur-like product. The effects of extrusion conditions on system variables (die pressure and specific mechanical energy (SME)), physical properties (die swell and bulk density), pasting properties (peak, trough and final viscosities) and cooking and sensory properties of the bulgur-like products were determined. The results indicated that increased feed moisture content resulted in significant decreases in the die pressure and SME values of the extruded durum wheat products. As the moisture content and screw speed increased, the changes in die swell values were not significant. The lowest die swell and highest bulk density values were obtained at the highest feed moisture content. The extrusion variables also affected the pasting properties of the extrudates. Significant increases in each of the pasting properties occurred when the moisture content of the feed was increased. Some of the sensory properties (bulkiness, firmness, stickiness and taste,aroma) improved significantly as the feed moisture content increased, indicating better quality. Increased feed moisture content significantly improved cooking quality as determined by a decrease in colorimetric test results. Extrusion seems to be promising for the production of dry, relatively inexpensive bulgur-like products with acceptable sensory properties. © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Correlation of morphology, rheology, and performance improvement in gasoline tubes based on PA-6 nanocomposites

    Mehdi Moghri
    PA-6/organo-modified layered silicate nanocompounds were prepared by the melt mixing of PA-6 with different nanoclay loadings in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Gasoline tubes based on these nanocompounds were produced at different silicate loadings. Thermal, mechanical, rheological, and barrier properties of the different samples were investigated and correlated to their morphology. Transmission electron microscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering, and linear melt state viscoelastic measurements were used to characterize the different aspects of nanoclay dispersion in the nanocomposite samples. While tensile modulus, softening point, heat distortion temperature, and gasoline barrier properties of the prepared tubes were improved considerably by increasing the clay content, performance improvement with respect to clay content (after a certain value) decreased with increasing clay loading. It could be attributed to the re-agglomeration of tactoids at higher concentrations. These findings were correlated with the rheological and morphological observations. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 2010. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    PVC modification through polymerization of a monomer absorbed in porous suspension-type PVC particles

    M. Narkis
    In-situ polymerization is the polymerization of one monomer in the presence of another polymer. It can be performed by sequential emulsion polymerization, or by reactions in the melt, in the solid phase, or in solution. The current report describes two methods to obtain poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) modification through polymerization of a monomer absorbed in commercial porous suspension-type PVC particles. The generated modified PVC products differ significantly in their structure and properties. The first approach includes absorption of a monomer/peroxide solution within porous suspension-type PVC particles, followed by polymerization/crosslinking in the solid state at 80°C in an aqueous stabilizer-free dispersion. The monomer/crosslinker pairs selected are styrene/DVB (divinyl benzene), methylmethacrylate/EGDMA (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), butyl acrylate/EGDMA, and ethylhexyl acrylate/EGDMA. The influence of composition and nature of the polymerizing/crosslinking constituents on the modified PVC particle structure was studied by microscopy methods, porosity measurements, and dynamic mechanical behavior (DMTA). The level of molecular grafting between PVC and the modifying polymer was determined by solvent extraction experiments. This work shows that the different monomers used represent distinct courses of monomer transport through the PVC particles. The characteristics of the modified PVC particle indicate that the polymerization/crosslinking process occurs in both the PVC bulk, i.e., within the walls constituting a particle, and in the PVC pores. No indication of chemical intermolecular interaction within the modified PVC particles was found. In the second approach, a solution of monomer, initiator, and a crosslinking agent is absorbed in commercial suspension-type porous PVC particles, thus forming a dry blend. This dry blend is subsequently reactively polymerized in a twin-screw extruder at an elevated temperature, 180°C, in the molten state. The properties of the reactively extruded PVC/PMMA blends are compared with those of physical blends at similar compositions. Owing to the high polymerization temperature, short-chain polymers are formed in the reactive polymerization process. Reactively extruded PVC/PMMA blends are transparent, form single-phase morphology, have a single Tg, and show mechanical properties comparable with those of the neat PVC. The resulting reactively extruded PVC/PMMA blends have high compatibility. J. Vinyl Addit. Technol. 10:109,120, 2004. © 2004 Society of Plastics Engineers. [source]

    Comparative Characterization of PP Nano- and Microcomposites by In-Mold Shrinkage Measurements and Structural Characteristics

    Rodolfo Revilla-Díaz
    Abstract Poly(propylene)-clay nanocomposites and poly(propylene) containing conventional inorganic fillers such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and glass fiber were used in a comparative study focusing on dimensional stability, structure, mechanical and thermal properties. Micro- and nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending in a twin-screw extruder. The relative influence of each filler was observed from dimensional stability measurements and structural analysis by WAXD, TEM, and thermal and mechanical properties. At equal filler loadings, PP/clay nanocomposites exhibit an improvement in dimensional stability and were the only composites capable of reduced shrinkage in both in-flow and cross-flow directions. The flexural modulus of PP increased nearly 20% by compounding with 4% organoclay, as compared to a similar performance obtained by compounding with 10 wt.-% of CaCO3 or approximately 6 wt.-% of glass fiber. The HDT and thermal stability of PP were enhanced by using nanoclay as filler. [source]

    Effect of Sample Configuration on the Morphology of Foamed LDPE/PP Blends Injection Molded by a Gas Counterpressure Process

    Georgi Kotzev
    Abstract Blends of isotactic poly(propylene) and low-density polyethylene with different composition ratios were prepared through direct melt compounding on a twin-screw extruder. The specimens with various geometric configurations were injection-molded using a gas counterpressure process, using blends to which 0.5 wt.-% of a blowing agent was added. The influence of blend composition and specimen geometry on the structure and morphology of the samples was investigated by SEM and WAXS. The thermal behavior of the blends was analyzed by DSC. It was found that the morphology of each region depended on the composition ratio and specimen geometry. [source]