Twin Women (twin + woman)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Peer substance involvement modifies genetic influences on regular substance involvement in young women

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
Arpana Agrawal
ABSTRACT Aims Peer substance involvement (PSI) is a robust correlate of adolescent substance use. A small number of genetically informative studies suggest that shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association. We examine mechanisms by which PSI influences the etiology of regular substance involvement (RSI), particularly in women. Design Population-based cohort study of twin women from the US Midwest. Participants 2176 twin women. Measurements To examine the relationship between self-reported PSI during adolescence and a composite RSI representing regular tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during young adulthood, using genetically informative correlation, moderation and joint correlation-moderation models. Findings There was evidence for a significant additive genetic X environment interaction. PSI was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.25). Genetic, shared and non-shared influences on RSI overlapped with influences on PSI (genetic correlation of 0.43). Even after controlling for these shared genetic influences, RSI was more heritable in those reporting greater PSI. Conclusions While young women may select peers based on certain dispositional traits (e.g. permissiveness towards substance use), the social milieu constructed by PSI does modify the architecture of increased RSI in those individuals with increasing levels of PSI being associated with stronger expression of heritable influences. [source]

Personality and marital satisfaction: a behavioural genetic analysis

Erica L. Spotts
Previous research has found that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence marital quality (Spotts et al., 2004). The current study explored personality as a source for these genetic and environmental individual differences. A sample of 752 Swedish twin women and their spouses were used. Genetic and environmental influences were found for self-report measures of marital quality, but only environmental factors contributed to the variance of observational measures of marital quality. Wives' personality characteristics accounted for genetic and nonshared environmental variance in the wives' own marital satisfaction, their husbands' marital satisfaction, and the agreement between the spouses on the quality of their marriage. Genetic influences on the correlation between wives' genetically influenced personality characteristics and their husbands' marital satisfaction indicate a gene,environment correlation. Contrary to expectations, husbands' personality did not explain large portions of wives' marital satisfaction beyond that explained by wives' personality. This study emphasizes the importance of spousal personality to the well-being of marriages, and results are discussed within the context of three different theories regarding associations between personality and marital quality. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A comparison of early family life events amongst monozygotic twin women with lifetime anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or major depression

Tracey D Wade PhD
Abstract Objectives: To investigate the differential profile of early family life events associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and major depression (MD). Method: Only data from the monozygotic twins (n = 622) were examined from a community sample of female twins who had participated in three waves of data collection. Eating disorder and MD diagnoses were ascertained from the Eating Disorder Examination at Wave 3 and interview at Wave 2 respectively. Early family events were ascertained from self-report measures at Waves 1 and 3. Two case control designs were used, including a comparison of women: (1) who had lifetime AN, BN, MD, and controls, and (2) twin pairs discordant for either AN, BN, or MD (where the unaffected cotwin formed the control group). Results: Across the two types of designs, compared to controls, both AN and BN were associated with more comments from the family about weight and shape when growing up. AN was uniquely associated with higher levels of paternal protection while BN was associated with higher levels of parental expectations. Conclusion: While some overlap among early life events was indicated, especially related to parental conflict and criticism, there was evidence to support some degree of nonoverlap among life events associated with AN, BN, and MD. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]

Temperament and character associated with depressive symptoms in women: analysis of two genetically informative samples,

Jongil Yuh
Abstract Although previous research has explored associations between personality and depressive symptoms, a limited number of studies have assessed the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association. This study investigated how temperament and character were associated with depressive symptoms in 131 pairs of twin and sibling women in early adulthood, as well as 326 pairs of twin women in middle adulthood. Results indicated that genetic influences accounted for a moderate to substantial percentage of the association between these personality features and depressive symptoms, emphasizing the role of genetic influences. Nonshared environmental influences made important contributions to the association between character and depressive symptoms, particularly in the sample of middle-aged twin women. These findings suggest that unique social experiences and relationships with a partner in adulthood may play an important role in these associations between character and depressive symptoms. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,19, 2009. [source]