Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tuna

  • atlantic bluefin tuna
  • bigeye tuna
  • bluefin tuna
  • pacific bluefin tuna
  • skipjack tuna
  • southern bluefin tuna
  • yellowfin tuna

  • Terms modified by Tuna

  • tuna oil
  • tuna species

  • Selected Abstracts

    Long-term results of three different minimally invasive therapies for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: Comparison at a single institute

    Takashi Ohigashi
    Objective: We analyzed the efficacy and durability of three different minimally invasive therapies (MIT) for lower urinary symptoms performed at a single institution based on a 5-year prospective cohort study. Methods: The pre- and postoperative evaluation was made in 103 patients with the following three MIT options: (i) transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT, n = 34); (ii) transurethral needle ablation (TUNA, n = 29); and (iii) transrectal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, n = 40). Results: All three treatments significantly improved the symptom scores up to 2 years after treatment. However, no statistical difference was observed in the efficacy between MIT. The percentage of men requiring the secondary treatment also showed no statistical differences. Cox's proportional hazards multivariate regression model revealed the baseline peak flow rate (Qmax) and total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) but the types of MIT are independent significant factors for determining the long-term clinical results of MIT. Conclusion: Our data showed no statistical differences in either the efficacy or in the durability between the three MIT. The baseline Qmax and total IPSS are the significant factors for determining the long-term results of MIT. [source]

    Near real-time spatial management based on habitat predictions for a longline bycatch species

    A. J. HOBDAY
    Abstract, Southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau), is a quota-managed species that makes annual winter migrations to the Tasman Sea off south-eastern Australia. During this period it interacts with a year-round tropical tuna longline fishery (Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery, ETBF). ETBF managers seek to minimise the bycatch of SBT by commercial ETBF longline fishers with limited or no SBT quota through spatial restrictions. Access to areas where SBT are believed to be present is restricted to fishers holding SBT quota. A temperature-based SBT habitat model was developed to provide managers with an estimate of tuna distribution upon which to base their decisions about placement of management boundaries. Adult SBT temperature preferences were determined using pop-up satellite archival tags. The near real-time predicted location of SBT was determined by matching temperature preferences to satellite sea surface temperature data and vertical temperature data from an oceanographic model. Regular reports detailing the location of temperature-based SBT habitat were produced during the period of the ETBF fishing season when interactions with SBT occur. The SBT habitat model included: (i) predictions based on the current vertical structure of the ocean; (ii) seasonally adjusted temperature preference data for the 60 calendar days centred on the prediction date; and (iii) development of a temperature-based SBT habitat climatology that allowed visualisation of the expected change in the distribution of the SBT habitat zones throughout the season. At the conclusion of the fishing season an automated method for placing management boundaries was compared with the subjective approach used by managers. Applying this automated procedure to the habitat predictions enabled an investigation of the effects of setting management boundaries using old data and updating management boundaries infrequently. Direct comparison with the management boundaries allowed an evaluation of the efficiency and biases produced by this aspect of the fishery management process. Near real-time fishery management continues to be a realistic prospect that new scientific approaches using novel tools can support and advance. [source]

    Development of Biogenic Amines in Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares): Effect of Storage and Correlation with Decarboxylase-Positive Bacterial Flora

    W.-X. Du
    ABSTRACT: The effects of storage at 0,4,10, and 22C for 0,1,3,5, and 9 d on the quality of yellowfin tuna fillets as determined by microbiological assessment, development of some biogenic amines, and sensory analysis were studied. Tuna fillets stored at 22 C for 3 d, 10 C for 5 d, and 4 C for 9 d were rated unacceptable for consumption. Those stored at 22 C for 3 d had total aerobic bacterial count of > 8 log10 CFU/g, a histamine-producing bacterial population of 7 log10 CFU/g, and 832 ppm of histamine, 35.8 ppm of putrescine, and 147 ppm of cadaverine. A comparison of the capillary electrophoresis, AOAC fluorometric method, and gas chromatography showed a very good correlation (r2 > 0.99) among these 3 methods for histamine quantitation in tuna samples. Morganella morganii, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter intermedium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteins vulgaris, and Serratia liquefaciens were the decarboxylase-positive bacterial species isolated by using the Niven's medium and identified during storage, which were responsible for histamine production in test tuna fillets. [source]

    Further evidence and characterization of Artemia franciscana (Kellogg, 1906) populations in Argentina

    Francisco Amat
    Abstract Aim, This paper reports the presence of Artemia franciscana (Kellogg, 1906) in Mar Chiquita (CHI) salt lake and in Las Tunas (TUN) lagoon, as well as at a shallow lake in Salinas Grandes (Province of Crdoba) in Argentina. To date, this species has been considered absent from Argentina. This study also provides further data on the characterization of the A. franciscana populations from this area. Location, Province of Crdoba (Argentina). Methods, The cyst samples collected at the three hypersaline environments were measured to assess its mean diameter with a dissecting microscope. The length of the nauplii hatched from the cysts was also determined with the microscope. The adults raised from these nauplii under strictly controlled conditions were analysed for 12 morphological parameters and compared through multivariate discriminant analysis with other American populations. Fatty acids from the total lipids were analysed by gas chromatography. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated from single-pair intraspecific and interspecific crosses of adult specimens. Results, The results endorse the morphometric assimilation of the Artemia populations of this area to other American populations of the A. franciscana,super-species', together with its morphometric differentiation from the species A. persimilis (Piccinelli & Prosdocimi, 1968). The more conspicuous population from CHI shows cross-fertility with A. franciscana original from San Francisco Bay (California, USA). Both populations from CHI and TUN show cross-fertility between them and reproductive isolation with A. persimilis from Hidalgo (Province of La Pampa), which to date is considered to be endemic or exclusive of hypersaline ecosystems in Argentina. The reproductive characteristics displayed by the population from TUN lagoon suggest the existence of an occasional hybridization between A. franciscana and A. persimilis (Papeschi et al., 2000). Artemia cysts from CHI and TUN show a fatty acid profile rich in eicosapentaenoic acid differing markedly from the fatty acid profiles found in A. persimilis cysts. Main conclusions:,Artemia franciscana is present in Argentina at 36 S and north of this latitude. Artemia persimilis is confined to the south of latitude 3710, S. There are different pieces of evidence that point to a certain level of hybridization of the two species taking place in the land belt between these parallels. [source]

    Gill morphometrics in relation to gas transfer and ram ventilation in high-energy demand teleosts: Scombrids and billfishes

    Nicholas C. Wegner
    Abstract This comparative study of the gill morphometrics in scombrids (tunas, bonitos, and mackerels) and billfishes (marlins, swordfish) examines features of gill design related to high rates of gas transfer and the high-pressure branchial flow associated with fast, continuous swimming. Tunas have the largest relative gill surface areas of any fish group, and although the gill areas of non-tuna scombrids and billfishes are smaller than those of tunas, they are also disproportionally larger than those of most other teleosts. The morphometric features contributing to the large gill surface areas of these high-energy demand teleosts include: 1) a relative increase in the number and length of gill filaments that have, 2) a high lamellar frequency (i.e., the number of lamellae per length of filament), and 3) lamellae that are long and low in profile (height), which allows a greater number of filaments to be tightly packed into the branchial cavity. Augmentation of gill area through these morphometric changes represents a departure from the general mechanism of area enhancement utilized by most teleosts, which lengthen filaments and increase the size of the lamellae. The gill design of scombrids and billfishes reflects the combined requirements for ram ventilation and elevated energetic demands. The high lamellar frequencies and long lamellae increase branchial resistance to water flow which slows and streamlines the ram ventilatory stream. In general, scombrid and billfish gill surface areas correlate with metabolic requirements and this character may serve to predict the energetic demands of fish species for which direct measurement is not possible. The branching of the gill filaments documented for the swordfish in this study appears to increase its gill surface area above that of other billfishes and may allow it to penetrate oxygen-poor waters at depth. J. Morphol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Acute CO2 tolerance during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts

    T. Kikkawa
    Abstract Ocean sequestration of CO2 is proposed as a possible measure to mitigate climate changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of the gas, but its impact on the marine ecosystem is unknown. We investigated the acute lethal effect of CO2 during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts: red sea bream (Pagrus major), Japanese whiting (Sillago japonica), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and eastern little tuna (Euthynnus affinis). The percentages of larvae that hatched and survived were not affected by exposure to water with a PCO2 of 1.0 kPa (= 7.5 mmHg) within 24 h. Median lethal PCO2 values for a 360-min exposure were 1.4 kPa (cleavage), 5.1 kPa (embryo), 7.3 kPa (preflexion), 4.2 kPa (flexion), 4.6 kPa (postflexion), and 2.5 kPa (juvenile) for red sea bream; 2.4 kPa (cleavage), 4.9 kPa (embryo), 5.9 kPa (preflexion), 6.1 kPa (flexion), 4.1 kPa (postflexion), and 2.7 kPa (juvenile) for Japanese whiting; 2.8 kPa (cleavage) and > 7.0 kPa (young) for Japanese flounder; and 11.8 kPa (cleavage) for eastern little tuna. Red sea bream and Japanese whiting of all ontogenetic stages had similar susceptibilities to CO2: the most susceptible stages were cleavage and juvenile, whereas the most tolerant stages were preflexion and flexion. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 375,382, 2003 [source]

    Mercury in canned tuna: The importance of selenium

    Nicholas V.C. Ralston
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Integrating physiology and life history to improve fisheries management and conservation

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2006
    Jeffery L. Young
    Abstract Knowledge of life-history traits is increasingly recognized as an important criterion for effective management and conservation. Understanding the link between physiology and life history is an important component of this knowledge and in our view is particularly relevant to understanding marine and freshwater fishes. Such linkages (i.e. the life-history/physiology nexus) have been recently advocated for avian systems and here we explore this concept for fish. This paper highlights the gap in fisheries literature with regard to understanding the relationship between physiology and life history, and proposes ways in which this integration could improve fisheries management and conservation. We use three case studies on different fishes (i.e. the Pacific salmon, the grouper complex and tuna) to explore these issues. The physiological structure and function of fish plays a central role in determining stock response to exploitation and changes in the environment. Physiological measures can provide simple indicators necessary for cost-effective monitoring in the evaluation of fisheries sustainability. The declining state of world fisheries and the need to develop and implement restoration strategies, such as hatchery production or protected areas, provides strong incentive to better understand the influence of physiology on population and reproductive dynamics and early life history. Physiology influences key population-level processes, particularly those dealing with reproduction, which must be incorporated into the design and successful implementation of specific and broadscale initiatives (e.g. aquatic protected areas and bycatch reduction). Suggestions are made for how to encourage wider application of the physiology/life-history link, in fisheries management and conservation, as well as more broadly in education and research. [source]

    Broadbill swordfish: status of established fisheries and lessons for developing fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2000
    P. Ward
    Guidelines for the assessment and management of developing swordfish fisheries are derived through an examination of five swordfish fisheries. As they develop, swordfish fisheries may be inclined to local depletion around underwater features, such as seamounts and banks. Few nations have applied the precautionary approach in managing their developing swordfish fisheries. Without controls, swordfish fisheries expand geographically and fishing effort increases, often overshooting optimum levels. However, it is difficult to distinguish clear evidence of fishery collapse; modern longliners harvest widely distributed tuna and swordfish and they are able to relocate to distant areas or switch between target species in response to fluctuations in species abundance and price. Furthermore, the wide distribution of swordfish combined with year-round spawning and high growth rates amongst juveniles probably contribute to the apparent resilience of swordfish stocks to intensive harvesting. Over half the world's swordfish catch is taken as an incidental catch of longliners fishing for tuna. In several areas, such as the North Atlantic, catch quotas have sometimes caused tuna longline fishers to discard swordfish. Minimum size limits have also resulted in discarding of swordfish in tuna fisheries and in dedicated swordfish fisheries. In addition to weakening the effectiveness of those management measures, bycatch and discarding add to the complexities of managing swordfish fisheries and to uncertainties in assessing the stocks. Longliners that target swordfish often fish at high latitudes where interactions with marine wildlife, such as seabird, are generally more frequent than at low latitudes. Concern over incidental catches of marine wildlife and other species is becoming a driving force in the management of several swordfish fisheries. Fishery management organisations will need to implement management measures to protect non-target species and gather reliable data and information on the situation by placing observers on boats fishing for swordfish. [source]

    Near real-time spatial management based on habitat predictions for a longline bycatch species

    A. J. HOBDAY
    Abstract, Southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau), is a quota-managed species that makes annual winter migrations to the Tasman Sea off south-eastern Australia. During this period it interacts with a year-round tropical tuna longline fishery (Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery, ETBF). ETBF managers seek to minimise the bycatch of SBT by commercial ETBF longline fishers with limited or no SBT quota through spatial restrictions. Access to areas where SBT are believed to be present is restricted to fishers holding SBT quota. A temperature-based SBT habitat model was developed to provide managers with an estimate of tuna distribution upon which to base their decisions about placement of management boundaries. Adult SBT temperature preferences were determined using pop-up satellite archival tags. The near real-time predicted location of SBT was determined by matching temperature preferences to satellite sea surface temperature data and vertical temperature data from an oceanographic model. Regular reports detailing the location of temperature-based SBT habitat were produced during the period of the ETBF fishing season when interactions with SBT occur. The SBT habitat model included: (i) predictions based on the current vertical structure of the ocean; (ii) seasonally adjusted temperature preference data for the 60 calendar days centred on the prediction date; and (iii) development of a temperature-based SBT habitat climatology that allowed visualisation of the expected change in the distribution of the SBT habitat zones throughout the season. At the conclusion of the fishing season an automated method for placing management boundaries was compared with the subjective approach used by managers. Applying this automated procedure to the habitat predictions enabled an investigation of the effects of setting management boundaries using old data and updating management boundaries infrequently. Direct comparison with the management boundaries allowed an evaluation of the efficiency and biases produced by this aspect of the fishery management process. Near real-time fishery management continues to be a realistic prospect that new scientific approaches using novel tools can support and advance. [source]

    Plasticity in vertical behaviour of migrating juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in relation to oceanography of the south Indian Ocean

    Abstract Electronic tagging provides unprecedented information on the habitat use and behaviour of highly migratory marine predators, but few analyses have developed quantitative links between animal behaviour and their oceanographic context. In this paper we use archival tag data from juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, SBT) to (i) develop a novel approach characterising the oceanographic habitats used throughout an annual migration cycle on the basis of water column structure (i.e., temperature-at-depth data from tags), and (ii) model how the vertical behaviour of SBT altered in relation to habitat type and other factors. Using this approach, we identified eight habitat types occupied by juvenile SBT between the southern margin of the subtropical gyre and the northern edge of the Subantarctic Front in the south Indian Ocean. Although a high degree of variability was evident both within and between fish, mixed-effect models identified consistent behavioural responses to habitat, lunar phase, migration status and diel period. Our results indicate SBT do not act to maintain preferred depth or temperature ranges, but rather show highly plastic behaviours in response to changes in their environment. This plasticity is discussed in terms of the potential proximate causes (physiological, ecological) and with reference to the challenges posed for habitat-based standardisation of fishery data used in stock assessments. [source]

    Movement and behaviour of large southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the Australian region determined using pop-up satellite archival tags

    Abstract Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on 52 large (156,200 cm length to caudal fork) southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the western Tasman Sea during the austral winters of 2001,2005. Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) were resident in the Tasman Sea for up to 6 months with movements away from the tagging area occurring at highly variable rates. The data indicated a general tendency for SBT to move south from the tagging area in the Western Tasman Sea. Four individuals migrated west along the southern continental margin of Australia and into the Indian Ocean. Three individuals moved east into the central Tasman Sea, with one individual reaching New Zealand. We also describe the first observed migration of an SBT from the Tasman Sea to the Indian Ocean spawning grounds south of Indonesia. Individuals spent most of their time relatively close to the Australian coast, with an estimated 84% of time spent in the Australian Fishing Zone. SBT favored temperatures between 19 and 21C, adjusting their depth to the vertical temperature distribution. Distinct diurnal diving patterns were observed and adjustment of depth to maintain constant ambient light levels over a 24-h period. The findings of this study are a significant advance toward greater understanding of the spatial dynamics of large SBT and understanding the connectivity between distant regions of their distribution. [source]

    Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) vertical movements in the Azores Islands determined with pop-up satellite archival tags

    Abstract Movement patterns of 17 bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) near the Azores Islands were analyzed between April and May 2001 and 2002 using pop-up satellite archival tags. Despite short attachment durations (1 to 21 days, 8.2 days on average), their vertical movements revealed much shallower distribution of bigeye tuna in comparison with previous studies in the tropical Pacific and tropical Atlantic. Depth and temperature histograms were unimodal, although overall depth distribution during the day was deeper than during the night due to daily incursions in deeper waters. Although generalized additive models showed significant non-linear relationships with weight of the fish and sea level anomaly (as a proxy for variability of thermocline depth), the effect of these variables on bigeye depth appeared minor, suggesting that vertical movements of bigeye in the Azores during the spring migration may be influenced by food availability in upper water layers. [source]

    Horizontal and vertical movements of juvenile bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) in relation to seasons and oceanographic conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Abstract Electronically tagged juvenile Pacific bluefin, Thunnus orientalis, were released off Baja California in the summer of 2002. Time-series data were analyzed for 18 fish that provided a record of 380 120 days (mean SD) of ambient water and peritoneal cavity temperatures at 120 s intervals. Geolocations of tagged fish were estimated based on light-based longitude and sea surface temperature-based latitude algorithms. The horizontal and vertical movement patterns of Pacific bluefin were examined in relation to oceanographic conditions and the occurrence of feeding events inferred from thermal fluctuations in the peritoneal cavity. In summer, fish were located primarily in the Southern California Bight and over the continental shelf of Baja California, where juvenile Pacific bluefin use the top of the water column, undertaking occasional, brief forays to depths below the thermocline. In autumn, bluefin migrated north to the waters off the Central California coast when thermal fronts form as the result of weakened equatorward wind stress. An examination of ambient and peritoneal temperatures revealed that bluefin tuna fed during this period along the frontal boundaries. In mid-winter, the bluefin returned to the Southern California Bight possibly because of strong downwelling and depletion of prey species off the Central California waters. The elevation of the mean peritoneal cavity temperature above the mean ambient water temperature increased as ambient water temperature decreased. The ability of juvenile bluefin tuna to maintain a thermal excess of 10C occurred at ambient temperatures of 11,14C when the fish were off the Central California coast. This suggests that the bluefin maintain peritoneal temperature by increasing heat conservation and possibly by increasing internal heat production when in cooler waters. For all of the Pacific bluefin tuna, there was a significant correlation between their mean nighttime depth and the visible disk area of the moon. [source]

    Carrying capacity and survival strategy for the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, in the Western Pacific

    Abstract The carrying capacity for the Pacific bluefin tuna at each life stage is estimated and its survival strategy is examined numerically, using a new method to define the hypothetical capacity, the standard population, and the search volumes that are necessary and are feasible for the tuna. The carrying capacity for the adult is estimated at 1,2 106 individuals, which corresponds with 5,10% of the hypothetical capacity and is comparable with the maximum levels of the southern and the Atlantic bluefin tuna populations. It is hypothesized semiquantitatively that the migration at each life stage and the remarkable decrement of growth at 120 days and about 40 cm occur as an evolutionary response to population excess over the carrying capacity. It is also hypothesized semiquantitatively that the early larvae have minimal food available in the Subtropical Water and develop the predatory morphology, high growth rate, and high mobility, however, at the expense of a high mortality as an evolutionary response to the tuna spawning in the Subtropical Water. This method may be an available tool to not only investigate the carrying capacity and survival strategy of a specific fish species, but also predict when and in how much abundance the fish species occurs in a specific area of its habitat. [source]

    Diving behavior of immature, feeding Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) in relation to season and area: the East China Sea and the Kuroshio,Oyashio transition region

    Takashi Kitagawa
    Abstract Twenty-four archival tags were recovered from Pacific bluefin tuna previously released off Tsushima Island in the East China Sea. By analysis of the time-series data of the pressure and the ambient and internal temperature from the 24 tags, we examined the relationship between the tuna's pattern of diving and the thermocline depth. In the East China Sea, diving and feeding events occurred throughout almost the entire day in both winter and summer, suggesting that the purpose of diving is for feeding. In summer, the feeding frequency was greater than that in winter, which corresponds to the fact that growth is more rapid in summer than in winter. During summer in the Kuroshio,Oyashio transition region, on the other hand, feeding events were much more frequent than those in the East China Sea, in spite of a lower diving frequency. The mean horizontal distance traveled was also significantly higher and it seems that in this area they may move horizontally to feed on prey accumulated at the surface. We conclude that, in addition to the ambient temperature structure, the vertical and horizontal distribution of prey species plays an important role in the feeding behavior of Pacific bluefin tuna. One bluefin tuna migrated to the Oyashio frontal area, where both the horizontal and the vertical thermal gradients are much steeper. The fish spent most of the time on the warmer side of the front and often traveled horizontally to the colder side during the day, perhaps to feed. This implies that there is a thermal barrier effect, in this case from the Oyashio front, on their behavior. The frequency of feeding events was low, although all the monitored fish dived every dawn and dusk, irrespective of the seasons or location. It is possible that these twice-daily diving patterns occurred in response to the change in ambient light at sunrise and sunset. [source]

    Potential changes in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) habitat from a global warming scenario: modelling approach and preliminary results

    Harilaos Loukos
    Abstract Recent studies suggest a reduction of primary production in the tropical oceans because of changes in oceanic circulation under global warming conditions caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This might affect the productivity of medium and higher trophic levels with potential consequences on marine resources such as tropical tuna. Here we combine the projections of up-to-date climate and ocean biogeochemical models with recent concepts of representation of fish habitat based on prey abundance and ambient temperature to gain some insight into the impact of climate change on skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), the species that dominates present-day tuna catch. For a world with doubled atmospheric CO2 concentration, our results suggest significant large-scale changes of skipjack habitat in the equatorial Pacific. East of the date line, conditions could be improved by an extension of the present favourable habitat zones of the western equatorial Pacific, a feature reminiscent of warming conditions associated with El Nio events. Despite its simplicity and the associated underlying hypothesis, this first simulation is used to stress future research directions and key issues for modelling developments associated to global change. [source]

    Vertical movements of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) associated with islands, buoys, and seamounts near the main Hawaiian Islands from archival tagging data

    Michael K. Musyl
    Abstract To learn more about the movement patterns of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), we deployed archival tags on 87 fish ranging in fork length from 50 to 154 cm. Thirteen fish were recaptured, from which 11 archival tags were returned, representing in aggregate 943 days-at-liberty. We successfully retrieved data from 10 tags, representing 474 days in aggregate. The largest fish recaptured was 44.5 kg [131 cm fork length (FL)] and the smallest 2.8 kg (52 cm). The deepest descent recorded was 817 m, the coldest temperature visited 4.7C, and minimum oxygen level reached ,1 mL L,1. Fish spent little time at depths where water temperatures were below 7C and oxygen levels less than ,2 mL L,1. Five fish were recaptured near the offshore weather buoy where they were tagged. Based on vertical movement patterns, it appeared that all stayed immediately associated with the buoy for up to 34 days. During this time they remained primarily in the uniform temperature surface layer (i.e. above 100 m). In contrast, fish not associated with a floating object showed the W-shaped vertical movement patterns during the day characteristic of bigeye tuna (i.e. descending to ,300,500 m and then returning regularly to the surface layer). Four fish were tagged and subsequently recaptured near Cross Seamount up to 76 days later. These fish exhibited vertical movement patterns similar to, but less regular than, those of fish not associated with any structure. Bigeye tuna appear to follow the diel vertical movements of the deep sound scattering layer (SSL) organisms and thus to exploit them effectively as a prey resource. Average night-time depth was correlated with lunar illumination, a behaviour which mimics movements of the SSL. [source]

    Identification of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) stocks from putative nurseries using otolith chemistry

    Jay R. Rooker
    Abstract Chemical signatures in the otoliths of teleost fishes represent natural tags that may reflect differences in the chemical and physical characteristics of an individuals' environment. Otolith chemistry of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was quantified to assess the feasibility of using these natural tags to discriminate juveniles (age 0 and age 1) from putative nurseries. A suite of six elements (Li, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr and Ba) was measured in whole otoliths using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Otolith chemistry of age-1 T. thynnus collected from the two primary nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea and western Atlantic Ocean differed significantly, with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85%. Spatial and temporal variation in otolith chemistry was evaluated for age-0 T. thynnus collected from three nurseries within the Mediterranean Sea: Alboran Sea (Spain), Ligurian Sea (northern Italy), and Tyrrhenian Sea (southern Italy). Distinct differences in otolith chemistry were detected among Mediterranean nurseries and classification accuracies ranged from 62 to 80%. Interannual trends in otolith chemistry were observed between year classes of age-0 T. thynnus in the Alboran Sea; however, no differences were detected between year classes in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Age-0 and age-1 T. thynnus collected from the same region (Ligurian Sea) were also compared and distinct differences in otolith chemistry were observed, indicating ontogenetic shifts in habitat or elemental discrimination. Findings suggest that otolith chemistry of juvenile T. thynnus from different nurseries are distinct and chemical signatures show some degree of temporal persistence, indicating the technique has considerable potential for use in future assessments of population connectivity and stock structure of T. thynnus. [source]

    The relationship between the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery and seasonal temperature variability in the south-western Atlantic

    H. A. Andrade
    Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of tuna fishing effort has been related to oceanographic circulation and features in several seas of the world. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and fishery resource dynamics is important for management decisions and to improve fishery yields. The relationship between sea temperature variability and the pole-and-line skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery in the south-western Atlantic Ocean was investigated in this work. Data from logbooks, satellite images (sea surface temperature), and oceanographic surveys were used in the analyses. Skipjack are caught in warm tropical waters of the Brazil Current (BC). The north,south displacement of fishing effort was strongly associated to seasonal variation of the surface temperature, which was coupled to the tropical BC flow. Oceanographic fronts from autumn to spring and a shallow thermocline in summer probably induces the aggregation of skipjack schools over the shelfbreak, favouring fishing operations. Hypotheses are proposed to explain the relationship between peaks of fishing events and the presence of topographic peculiarities of the shelfbreak. [source]

    Application of a habitat-based model to estimate effective longline fishing effort and relative abundance of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)

    Keith A. Bigelow
    A new habitat-based model is developed to improve estimates of relative abundance of Pacific bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus). The model provides estimates of `effective' longline effort and therefore better estimates of catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) by incorporating information on the variation in longline fishing depth and depth of bigeye tuna preferred habitat. The essential elements in the model are: (1) estimation of the depth distribution of the longline gear, using information on gear configuration and ocean currents; (2) estimation of the depth distribution of bigeye tuna, based on habitat preference and oceanographic data; (3) estimation of effective longline effort, using fine-scale Japanese longline fishery data; and (4) aggregation of catch and effective effort over appropriate spatial zones to produce revised time series of CPUE. Model results indicate that effective effort has increased in both the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) and eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). In the WCPO, effective effort increased by 43% from the late 1960s to the late 1980s due primarily to the increased effectiveness of effort (deeper longline sets) rather than to increased nominal effort. Over the same period, effective effort increased 250% in the EPO due primarily to increased nominal effort. Nominal and standardized CPUE indices in the EPO show similar trends , a decline during the 1960s, a period of stability in the 1970s, high values during 1985,1986 and a decline thereafter. In the WCPO, nominal CPUE is stable over the time-series; however, standardized CPUE has declined by ,50%. If estimates of standardized CPUE accurately reflect relative abundance, then we have documented substantial reductions of bigeye tuna abundance for some regions in the Pacific Ocean. A decline in standardized CPUE in the subtropical gyres concurrent with stability in equatorial areas may represent a contraction in the range of the population resulting from a decline in population abundance. The sensitivity of the results to the habitat (temperature and oxygen) assumptions was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. [source]

    Schooling and migration of large pelagic fishes relative to environmental cues

    Robert Humston
    A kinesis model driven by high-resolution sea surface temperature maps is used to simulate Atlantic bluefin tuna movements in the Gulf of Maine during summer months. Simulations showed that individuals concentrated in areas of thermal preference. Results are compared to empirical distribution maps of bluefin tuna schools determined from aerial overflights of the stock during the same time periods. Simulations and empirical observations showed similar bluefin tuna distributions along fronts, although interannual variations in temperature ranges occupied suggest that additional foraging factors are involved. Performance of the model is further tested by simulating the relatively large-scale annual north,south migrations of bluefin tuna that followed a preferred thermal regime. Despite the model's relatively simple structure, results suggest that kinesis is an effective mechanism for describing movements of large pelagic fish in the expansive ocean environment. [source]

    Detrimental effects of recent ocean surface warming on growth condition of Atlantic salmon

    Abstract Ocean climate impacts on survivorship and growth of Atlantic salmon are complex, but still poorly understood. Stock abundances have declined over the past three decades and 1992,2006 has seen widespread sea surface temperature (SST) warming of the NE Atlantic, including the foraging areas exploited by salmon of southern European origin. Salmon cease feeding on return migration, and here we express the final growth condition of year-classes of one-sea winter adults at, or just before, freshwater re-entry as the predicted weight at standard length. Two independent 14-year time series for a single river stock and for mixed, multiple stocks revealed almost identical temporal patterns in growth condition variation, and an overall trend decrease of 11,14% over the past decade. Growth condition has fallen as SST anomaly has risen, and for each year-class the midwinter (January) SST anomalies they experienced at sea correlated negatively with their final condition on migratory return during the subsequent summer months. Stored lipids are crucial for survival and for the prespawning provisioning of eggs in freshwater, and we show that under-weight individuals have disproportionately low reserves. The poorest condition fish (,30% under-weight) returned with lipid stores reduced by ,80%. This study concurs with previous analyses of other North Atlantic top consumers (e.g. somatic condition of tuna, reproductive failure of seabirds) showing evidence of major, recent climate-driven changes in the eastern North Atlantic pelagic ecosystem, and the likely importance of bottom-up control processes. Because salmon abundances presently remain at historical lows, fecundity of recent year-classes will have been increasingly compromised. Measures of year-class growth condition should therefore be incorporated in the analysis and setting of numerical spawning escapements for threatened stocks, and conservation limits should be revised upwards conservatively during periods of excessive ocean climate warming. [source]

    Characterisation of the volatiles of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) during storage by solid phase microextraction and GC,MS and their relationship to fish quality parameters

    Ranjith K.B. Edirisinghe
    Summary Investigations were carried out to extract the volatile compounds of fish using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in order to develop a new rapid indicator for determining the quality of fish. Changes in the aroma composition of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) was studied at 30 C and in ice, using SPME GC,MS, and their relationship with the fish quality parameters , total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory analysis , was determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Hexanal (30.9%) and 2-nonanone (28.4%) were recorded in relatively high amounts in fresh fish, whereas 3-methyl-1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone increased with storage time. PCA clearly differentiated the volatile profile of each sampling stage (P < 0.05) throughout storage treatments. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between the fish quality and the levels of 3-methyl-1-butanol and pentadecane. The findings highlight the possibility of developing a rapid quality evaluation method for fish using SPME GC,MS. [source]

    Feeding ecology of wild migratory tunas revealed by archival tag records of visceral warming

    Sophie Bestley
    Summary 1Seasonal long-distance migrations are often expected to be related to resource distribution, and foraging theory predicts that animals should spend more time in areas with relatively richer resources. Yet for highly migratory marine species, data on feeding success are difficult to obtain. We analysed the temporal feeding patterns of wild juvenile southern bluefin tuna from visceral warming patterns recorded by archival tags implanted within the body cavity. 2Data collected during 1998,2000 totalled 6221 days, with individual time series (n = 19) varying from 141 to 496 days. These data span an annual migration circuit including a coastal summer residency within Australian waters and subsequent migration into the temperate south Indian Ocean. 3Individual fish recommenced feeding between 5 and 38 days after tagging, and feeding events (n = 5194) were subsequently identified on 763 58% of days giving a mean estimated daily intake of 075 005 kg. 4The number of feeding events varied significantly with time of day with the greatest number occurring around dawn (582 80%). Night feeding, although rare (57 13%), was linked to the full moon quarter. Southern bluefin tuna foraged in ambient water temperatures ranging from 49 C to 229 C and depths ranging from the surface to 672 m, with different targeting strategies evident between seasons. 5No clear relationship was found between feeding success and time spent within an area. This was primarily due to high individual variability, with both positive and negative relationships observed at all spatial scales examined (grid ranges of 2 2 to 10 10). Assuming feeding success is proportional to forage density, our data do not support the hypothesis that these predators concentrate their activity in areas of higher resource availability. 6Multiple-day fasting periods were recorded by most individuals. The majority of these (878%) occurred during periods of apparent residency within warmer waters (sea surface temperature > 15 C) at the northern edge of the observed migratory range. These previously undocumented nonfeeding periods may indicate alternative motivations for residency. 7Our results demonstrate the importance of obtaining information on feeding when interpreting habitat utilization from individual animal tracks. [source]

    Type and ultrastructure of Didymocystis wedli and Koellikerioides intestinalis (Digenea, Didymozoidae) cysts in captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1758)

    I. Mladineo
    Summary Tissue encapsulation, one of the most common tissue reactions to invading parasites, is the hallmark sign of didymozoid (Digenea, Didymozoidae) infections in fish. Investigated were the types of intermediate filaments and ultrastructure of the connective tissue capsule elicited by the presence of didymozoids in the gills and intestine of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1758). The evaluation was done performing TEM microscopy of two tissue-embedded didymozoid species, along with monoclonal antibodies labeling (anti-fish collagen type I, anti-human cytokeratin, anti-vimentin antibodies). Ultrastructure of Didymocystis wedli (Ariola, 1902) (prevalence = 61.75%, abundance = 28.91) encapsulated in gill filaments and Koellikerioides intestinalis (Yamaguti, 1970) (prevalence = 54.65%, abundance = 10.96) in the intestinal submucosa showed that the thin parasitic hindbody tegumentum was directly embedded in layers of connective tissue bands. Only a few cellular elements (lymphocytes, fibroblasts and fibrocytes) infiltrated the connective tissue capsule, which differed between the two didymozoid species in thickness, not in the type of filaments expressed. Cysts showed positive reaction to extracellular collagen as well as appearing positive for the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments vimentin and cytokeratin. [source]

    Feeding habits and trophic levels of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus of different size classes in the Mediterranean Sea

    G. Sar
    Summary Possible changes in diet and trophic levels in relation to size of Mediterranean bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, were investigated using labelled carbon (,13C) and nitrogen (,15N) stable isotopes. Samples were obtained from two locations in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea) in May and October 2004. The ,13C and ,15N analyses revealed at least three significant isotopic groups [small juveniles (0.7,2.2 kg), sub-adults (15,50 kg) and adults (70 to 225 kg)]. ,13C was negatively dependent on weight, while ,15N was positively dependent on weight [TW = 8.2 (0.16) + 0.03 ( 0.0) *,15N (n = 49; r = 0.91; P < 0.001)]. Different prey contribution to the diet was highlighted for each class. The diet of juveniles comprised zooplankton, small pelagic fish and some coastal fish; sub-adults relied on medium pelagic fish, shrimps and cephalopods, and adults relied mainly on cephalopods and larger fish. The trophic level (TL) of tunas belonging to each size class was closely correlated to weight, starting from ca 3.0 TL for Group I and reaching 4.4,4.8 TL for the giants. Bluefin tuna, from small juveniles to giants, showed a shift in feeding preferences due to different use of habitats and food items as a function of the life stage. [source]

    Further evidence of spawning of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L., 1758) and the tuna species (Auxis rochei Ris., 1810, Euthynnus alletteratus Raf., 1810) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: preliminary results of TUNALEV larval survey in 2004

    I. K. Oray
    Summary A tuna larval survey (TUNALEV) in the Northern Levantine Basin (Cilician Basin) was conducted onboard a trawler from 5 to 18 June 2004. To determine the spatial distribution and abundance of tuna larvae, Bongo 60 and Bongo 90 nets were used. Ichtyoplankton samples from 104 stations were taken. In total, 121 bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), 94 bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) and 22 Atlantic black skipjack (Euthynnus alletteratus) larvae were collected. In comparison with the other tuna larvae, the concentration of bluefin tuna larvae was highest in the Bay of Mersin. The collected larvae in this area were composed mainly of 5,9 mm size specimens. [source]

    Diet of young-of-the-year bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean) Sea

    M. Sinopoli
    Summary The diet of juvenile bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught 2 to 8 miles off NE Sicily was investigated in order to improve knowledge of the species' early life history. From 1998 to 2000, 107 specimens ranging from 63 to 495 mm (total length) were fished between July and November. Fishes were caught by trolling line or purse seine in a Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) area 2 to 8 miles offshore and as by-catch of the purse-seine sardine fishery 2 to 4 miles offshore. Most frequently found items in the T. thynnus stomachs were fishes (84.5%), crustaceans (54.6%) and cephalopods (50.5%). The largest contribution in weight was provided by cephalopods (47.3%) and fishes (46.5%), while the most abundant items were fishes (51%), cephalopods (27.2%) and crustaceans (21.1%). These results suggest that young-of-the-year tuna have an essentially piscivorous diet, although invertebrate prey provide a substantial contribution to the food array. Prey show little relationship with FADs, although one prey species (blue runner, Caranx crysos) is associated with FADs in the Mediterranean. [source]

    Structure of the inner ear of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus

    J. Song
    The ears of five large bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gross structure of the ear is similar to that in other fishes. The ears, however, appear to be held more rigidly in place than in other species through the presence of an extensive connective tissue between the membranous ear and the surrounding bone. Moreover, unlike other fishes, the semicircular canals and otolithic end organs have thick cartilaginous walls and there is a dense matrix surrounding the otoliths rather than a more watery fluid found in other species. SEM revealed that the saccular epithelium has a ,standard' hair cell orientation pattern. The hair cell orientation patterns in the lagena and utricle resemble those found in most other fishes. Ciliary bundle density and length vary in different epithelial regions and each ear had >2 106 sensory cells. The morphological results support the hypothesis that bluefin tuna probably do not detect sounds to much over 1000 Hz (if that high) and that only very loud anthropogenic sounds have the potential to affect hearing in this species. [source]