Transfer Task (transfer + task)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Young children have difficulty ascribing true beliefs

Kevin J. Riggs
Using the format of a false belief task (Wimmer & Perner, 1983), we investigated the ability of 88 3- and 4-year-olds to ascribe a previously held true belief to a story protagonist. In an unexpected transfer task, children found true belief ascription as difficult as false belief ascription even though they could answer memory questions about story details. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of theory of mind development that stress the importance of understanding the falsity of belief, and those accounts that stress the importance of information or executive processes. [source]

Individual differences in spatial memory among aged rats are related to hippocampal PKC, immunoreactivity

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2002
Paul J. Colombo
Abstract We reported previously that the extent of spatial memory impairment among aged rats was correlated positively with levels of protein kinase C, in hippocampal homogenates measured by quantitative Western blotting (Colombo et al., 1997). In the current study, immunocytochemistry was used to test whether the relationship between elevated PKC, and memory impairment among aged rats could be localized further within regions of the hippocampus. Six- and 24-month-old male Long-Evans rats were first trained in the water maze on a standard place-learning task and then trained 2 weeks later on a transfer task designed for rapid acquisition. In comparison with young rats, aged rats with impaired spatial memory had increased PKC,-immunoreactivity (PKC,-ir) in CA1 of the hippocampus, but not the dentate gyrus. In addition, PKC,-ir in CA1 was correlated positively with spatial memory impairment among aged rats on the standard place-learning and the transfer training tasks. The current results are consistent with our previous report of PKC, in hippocampal homogenates, and show further that the relationships between PKC,-ir and memory impairments among aged rats are most evident in area CA1. Thus age-related impairments of spatial memory, as well as deficits in the flexible use of previously acquired information, may result from dysregulation of PKC,. Hippocampus 2002;12:285,289. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

An integrated pneumatic tactile feedback actuator array for robotic surgery

Miguel L. Franco
Abstract Background A pneumatically controlled balloon actuator array has been developed to provide tactile feedback to the fingers during robotic surgery. Methods The actuator and pneumatics were integrated onto a robotic surgical system. Potential interference of the inactive system was evaluated using a timed robotic peg transfer task. System performance was evaluated by measuring human perception of the thumb and index finger. Results No significant difference was found between performance with and without the inactive mounted actuator blocks. Subjects were able to determine inflation location with > 95% accuracy and five discrete inflation levels with both the index finger and thumb with accuracies of 94% and 92%. Temporal tests revealed that an 80 ms temporal separation was sufficient to detect balloon stimuli with high accuracy. Conclusions The mounted balloon actuators successfully transmitted tactile information to the index finger and thumb, while not hindering performance of robotic surgical movements. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Transfer of training emotionally biased interpretations

Paula T. Hertel
Non-anxious college students first performed a semantic-judgement task that was designed to train either threat-related or threat-unrelated interpretations of threat-ambiguous homographs (e.g. mug). Next they performed an ostensibly separate transfer task of constructing personal mental images for single words, in a series that included new, threat-ambiguous homographs. In two experiments, the number of threat-related interpretations in the transfer task significantly increased following threat-related experience during the training phase, compared to other training conditions. We conclude that interpretive biases typically shown by anxious people can be established in non-anxious students in ways that generalize to novel tasks and materials. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

How can self-regulated learning be supported in mathematical E-learning environments?

B. Kramarski
Abstract This study compares two E-learning environments: E-learning supported with IMPROVE self-metacognitive questioning (EL+IMP), and E-learning without explicit support of self-regulation (EL). The effects were compared between mathematical problem-solving and self-regulated learning (SRL). Participants were 65 ninth-grade students who studied linear function in Israeli junior high schools. Results showed that EL+IMP students significantly outperformed the EL students in problem-solving procedural and transfer tasks regarding mathematical explanations. We also found that the EL+IMP students outperformed their counterparts in using self-monitoring strategies during problem solving. This study discusses both the practical and theoretical implications of supporting SRL in mathematical E-learning environments. [source]

Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality

Alla Keselman
Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 898,921, 2003 [source]

Factors associated with safe patient handling behaviors among critical care nurses

Soo-Jeong Lee RN
Abstract Background Patient handling is a major risk factor for musculoskeletal (MS) injury among nurses. The aims of the study were to describe nurses' work behaviors related to safe patient handling and identify factors influencing their safe work behaviors, including the use of lifting equipment. Methods A cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire with a nationwide random sample of 361 critical care nurses. Nurses reported on the physical, psychosocial, and organizational characteristics of their jobs and on their MS symptoms, risk perception, work behaviors, and demographics. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify significant factors. Results More than half of participants had no lifting equipment on their unit, and 74% reported that they performed all patient lift or transfer tasks manually. Significant factors for safer work behavior included better safety climate, higher effort,reward imbalance, less overcommitment, greater social support, and day shift work. Physical workload, personal risk perception, or MS symptom experiences were not associated with safe work behavior. Conclusions Safe work behaviors are best understood as socio-cultural phenomena influenced by organizational, psychosocial, and job factors but, counter to extant theories of health behaviors, do not appear to be related to personal risk perception. Management efforts to improve working conditions and enhance safety culture in hospitals could prove to be crucial in promoting nurses' safe work behavior and reducing risk of MS injury. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:886,897, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]