Transfer Rate (transfer + rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Transfer Rate

  • electron transfer rate
  • energy transfer rate
  • heat transfer rate
  • mass transfer rate

  • Terms modified by Transfer Rate

  • transfer rate constant

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sonovoltammetric Elucidation of Electron Transfer Rates: The Oxidation of Dimethyl- p -phenylenediamine in Aqueous Solution

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 4 2003
    Abstract The electrochemical oxidation of dimethyl- p -phenylenediamine (DMPD) in aqueous solution (pH 7 phosphate buffer) has been studied under conventional hydrodynamic and microelectrode voltammetric conditions and found to undergo a two-electron electrochemically reversible oxidation. Upon the application of ultrasound to the system an observed shoulder emerges in the oxidation wave. This effect has been attributed to the resolution of the two-electron transfer processes occurring: the first a relatively fast electron transfer (0.1,cm s,1) followed by a second slower (10,3 cm s,1) electron transfer: under the very high mass transport rates induced by insonation an overpotential develops for the second electron transfer so leading to the observed voltammetric resolution. The range of mass transport conditions accessible via sonication allows the estimation of the two rate constants reported. [source]

    Hole Transfer Rates in A-Form DNA/2,-OMeRNA Hybrid

    Kiyohiko Kawai Prof.
    Abstract The hole transfer rates in the DNA/DNA B-form duplex and DNA/2,-OMeRNA A-form duplex were measured which occurred in the time range of ,100,,s. The hole transfer rates in the A-form duplexes were slower and more strongly dependent on the temperature compared to those in the B-form duplexes, suggesting that the A-form is more rigid than the B-form duplex in this time scale. [source]

    Development of a Glucose Biosensor Using Advanced Electrode Modified by Nanohybrid Composing Chemically Modified Graphene and Ionic Liquid

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 11 2010
    Ho Yang
    Abstract Nanohybrids of chemically modified graphene (CMG) and ionic liquid (IL) were prepared by sonication to modify the electrode. The modified CMG-IL electrodes showed a higher current and smaller peak-to-peak potential separation than a bare electrode due to the promoted electron transfer rate. Furthermore, the glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on the modified electrode displayed direct electron transfer rate and symmetrical redox potentials with a linear relationship at different scan rates. The fabricated GOx/CMG-IL electrodes were developed selective glucose biosensor with respect to a sensitivity of 0.64,,A mM,1, detection limit of 0.376,mM, and response time of <5,s. [source]

    Influence of Metal Nanoparticles on the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Glucose by Poly(NiIIteta) Modified Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5 2010
    Pratap Azad
    Abstract Conductive polymeric [NiII(teta)]2+ (teta=C-meso-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-azacyclotetradecane) films (poly(Ni)) have been deposited on the surface of glassy carbon (GC), Nafion (Nf) modified GC (GC/Nf) and Nf stabilized Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) modified GC (GC/Ag-Nf and GC/Au-Nf) electrodes. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting electrodes, show a well defined redox peak due to oxidation and reduction of poly(Ni) system in 0.1,M NaOH. They show electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. AFM studies reveal the formation of poly(Ni) film on the modified electrodes. Presence of metal NPs increases electron transfer rate and electrocatalytic oxidation current by improving the communication within the Nf and poly(Ni) films. In the presence of metal NPs, 4 fold increase in current for glucose oxidation was observed. [source]

    Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Functionalized with Polythionine for Electrocatalytic Application

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 7 2009
    Bin Qi
    Abstract A polythionine (PTH) functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) material (PTH/OMC) was presented. The electrochemistry kinetic characteristics of this material are investigated and compared with pure OMC. The results showed that compared with OMC, PTH/OMC possesses a much higher electron transfer rate. For the application of this material, an electrocatalytic based NADH biosensor was constructed on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Instead of 0.592,V on bare GCE and 0.206,V on OMC/GCE, the amperometric detection of NADH could be effectively performed on the present biosensor with operation potential be set at 0.0,V. In addition, the sensor showed good reproducibility and stability. [source]

    Hydrodynamic Modulation Voltammetry with a Dual Disk Chopped Flow-Microjet Electrode (CF-MJE)

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 18 2003
    Nafeesa Simjee
    Abstract A novel form of hydrodynamic modulation voltammetry (HMV) is described, based on the periodic variation of mass transport in a microjet electrode (MJE) system, in combination with phase-sensitive detection techniques. In the configuration developed, a jet of solution is fired from a nozzle that is aligned directly over the surface of a dual disk Pt-Pt ultramicroelectrode (UME). The potential at each electrode is controlled separately. A rotating blade, positioned between the nozzle and the UME probe, is used to periodically interrupt flow to the electrode surface, resulting in modulation of the overall mass transfer rate between two defined extremes. The use of a dual disk UME enables two transport-limited current signals to be recorded simultaneously, one for the analyte of interest, and the other for a ,reference species' (oxygen for the studies described herein). The latter current response corresponds to the variation in mass transport rate in the chopped flow (CF) arrangement and is used as the signal for phase sensitive detection of the analyte current. Studies of potassium hexachloroiridate (III) [IrCl] oxidation in aqueous solution are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. HMV in the CF-MJE arrangement allows quantitative concentration measurements, down to at least 5×10,7,M. [source]

    Body distribution of trace elements in black-tailed gulls from Rishiri Island, Japan: Age-dependent accumulation and transfer to feathers and eggs

    Tetsuro Agusa
    Abstract Body distribution and maternal transfer of 18 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) to eggs were examined in black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris), which were culled in Rishiri Island, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Manganese, Cu, Rb, Mo, and Cd showed the highest levels in liver and kidney, Ag, Sb, and Hg in feather, and V, Sr, and Pb in bone. Maternal transfer rates of trace elements ranged from 0.8% (Cd) to as much as 65% (Tl) of maternal body burden. Large amounts of Sr, Ba, and Tl were transferred to the eggs, though maternal transfer rates of V, Cd, Hg, and Pb were substantially low. It also was observed that Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, and Ba hardly were excreted into feathers. Concentrations of Co in liver, Ba in liver and kidney, and Mo in liver increased significantly with age, whereas Se in bone and kidney, Hg in kidney, and Cr in feather decreased with age in the known-aged black-tailed gulls (2,20 years old). It also was suggested that feathers might be useful to estimate contamination status of trace elements in birds, especially for Hg on a population basis, although the utility is limited on an individual basis for the black-tailed gulls. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the maternal transfer rate of multielements and also on the usefulness of feathers to estimate contamination status of Hg in birds on a population basis. [source]

    Covert attention allows for continuous control of brain,computer interfaces

    Ali Bahramisharif
    Abstract While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be used for controlling external devices, they also hold the promise of providing a new tool for studying the working brain. In this study we investigated whether modulations of brain activity by changes in covert attention can be used as a continuous control signal for BCI. Covert attention is the act of mentally focusing on a peripheral sensory stimulus without changing gaze direction. The ongoing brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography in subjects as they covertly attended to a moving cue while maintaining fixation. Based on posterior alpha power alone, the direction to which subjects were attending could be recovered using circular regression. Results show that the angle of attention could be predicted with a mean absolute deviation of 51° in our best subject. Averaged over subjects, the mean deviation was ,70°. In terms of information transfer rate, the optimal data length used for recovering the direction of attention was found to be 1700 ms; this resulted in a mean absolute deviation of 60° for the best subject. The results were obtained without any subject-specific feature selection and did not require prior subject training. Our findings demonstrate that modulations of posterior alpha activity due to the direction of covert attention has potential as a control signal for continuous control in a BCI setting. Our approach will have several applications, including a brain-controlled computer mouse and improved methods for neuro-feedback that allow direct training of subjects' ability to modulate posterior alpha activity. [source]

    Energy Collection, Transport, and Trapping by a Supramolecular Organization of Dyes in Hexagonal Zeolite Nanocrystals,

    C. Minkowski
    Abstract The incorporation of guest molecules into the cavities of molecular sieves leads to a large variety of highly interesting materials. Zeolite,L,an aluminosilicate with one-dimensional channels of open diameter 7.1,Å,is a very versatile material for building highly organized host,guest systems. We present materials where organic dye molecules have been incorporated into the channels of zeolite,L by means of diffusion, to build artificial photonic antenna systems. The channel entrance can be plugged by adding closure molecules that then connect the guest molecules inside with materials or molecules outside of the zeolite channels, since they can act as extensions of the interior of the zeolite crystal. The photophysical processes taking place in such dye-loaded zeolite,L antennae can be studied either on single-micrometer- or submicrometer-sized crystals or on crystals dispersed in a solvent or coated as thin layers on a support. The energy-transfer process occurring is of the Förster-type, and its transfer rate can be tuned by separating the donor dyes and the acceptor dyes locally by varying amounts of spacer molecules. The distribution of the dye molecules and empty sites within a zeolite crystal has been modeled by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The Förster energy migration and transfer steps are described as a random walk. [source]

    A study on membrane distillation by a solar thermal-driven system

    Tsung-Ching Chen
    Abstract Membrane distillation (MD) is a membrane separation process that has long been investigated in small scale laboratory studies and has the potential to become a viable tool for water desalination. MD is a separation process that combines simultaneous mass and heat transfer through a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A solar collector is used in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) to heat seawater as a temperature driving force in heat transfer to establish seawater desalting systems. The effect of the temperature difference makes the brine vaporize in the hot fluid side and condense in the cold fluid side. The optimal operating parameters on the pure water production rate will also be examined in this study. The purposes of this study are to develop the theoretical heat and mass transfer formulations, simulate heat transfer rate of solar collector with internal fins in membrane distillation, and investigate the mass-transfer efficiency improvement in membrane distillation with the brine flow rate, solar collector efficiency, and temperature difference between both sides of membrane as parameters. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 36(7): 417,428, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/htj.20172 [source]

    Reverse computation of forced convection heat transfer for optimal control of thermal boundary conditions

    Kazunari Momose
    Abstract A reverse computation based on adjoint formulation of forced convection heat transfer is proposed to obtain the optimal thermal boundary conditions for heat transfer characteristics; for example, a total heat transfer rate or a temperature at a specific location. In the reverse analysis via adjoint formulation, the heat flow is reversed in both time and space. Thus, using the numerical solution of the adjoint problem, we can inversely predict the boundary condition effects on the heat transfer characteristics. As a result, we can obtain the optimal thermal boundary conditions in both time and space to control the heat transfer at any given time. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 33(3): 161,174, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/htj.20002 [source]

    Effect of incidence angle with wake passing on a film cooled leading edge: A numerical study

    F. Montomoli
    Abstract This work presents the numerical study of a film-cooled blade under the influence of wake passing at different incidence angles. The film cooling technology has been proven to be effective to increase the blade life of first turbine stages. However, the leading edge is affected by an high heat transfer rate and cooling this region is difficult. Moreover, separated regions downstream the coolant injection increases the local heat transfer coefficient and can have a detrimental effect in terms of airfoil life. This work analyses how the flow field is affected by the wake passing at different incidence angles (,5, 0, 5) and the impact on heat transfer coefficient. The test case is a linear cascade with two rows of cylindrical holes at the leading edge. Two different holes arrangements are compared in terms of film cooling structures, namely AGTB-B1 and AGTB-B2 with 0 and 45, spanwise inclination. The numerical results show a good agreement with the experiments. A deeper investigation is carried out on AGTB-B1. The results obtained show that the wake passing and the incidence angle have a strong effect on coolant jets. In particular, there is a significative impact on coolant redistribution near the leading edge. The wake passing has a stronger effect on pressure side, mainly at negative incidence. The predictive approach is based on an U-RANS in-house CFD solver using a conventional two-equations closure. In order to avoid extra turbulence production, critical in the leading edge region, the turbulence model incorporates an extra algebraic equation that enforces a realizability constraint. The unsteady formulation is based on a dual time stepping approach with a sliding plane between the moving bars and the cascade. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Simulation of multiple shock,shock interference using implicit anti-diffusive WENO schemes

    Tsang-Jen Hsieh
    Abstract Accurate computations of two-dimensional turbulent hypersonic shock,shock interactions that arise when single and dual shocks impinge on the bow shock in front of a cylinder are presented. The simulation methods used are a class of lower,upper symmetric-Gauss,Seidel implicit anti-diffusive weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for solving the compressible Navier,Stokes equations with Spalart,Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. A numerical flux of WENO scheme with anti-diffusive flux correction is adopted, which consists of first-order and high-order fluxes and allows for a more flexible choice of first-order dissipative methods. Experimental flow fields of type IV shock,shock interactions with single and dual incident shocks by Wieting are computed. By using the WENO scheme with anti-diffusive flux corrections, the present solution indicates that good accuracy is maintained and contact discontinuities are sharpened markedly as compared with the original WENO schemes on the same meshes. Computed surface pressure distribution and heat transfer rate are also compared with experimental data and other computational results and good agreement is found. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Empirical evaluation of receiver-based TCP delay control in CDMA2000 networks

    Oh-keun Kwon
    Abstract Wide-area broadband wireless technologies such as CDMA2000 often suffer from variable transfer rate and long latency. In particular, TCP window-based rate control causes excessive buffering at the base station because of the lower transfer rate of the wireless link than that of the wired backhaul link. This performance characteristic of TCP further increases the end-to-end delay, and additional resources are required at the base station. This paper presents a practical mechanism to control the end-to-end TCP delay for CDMA2000 networks (or other similar wireless technologies). The key idea is to reduce and stabilize RTT (round-trip time) by dynamically controlling the TCP advertised window size, based on a runtime measurement of the wireless channel condition at the mobile station. The proposed system has been implemented by modifying the Linux protocol stack. The experiment results, conducted on a commercial CDMA2000 1x network, show that the proposed scheme greatly reduces the TCP delay in non-congested networks, while not sacrificing the TCP throughput in congested networks. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Heat transfer enhancement of fatty acids when used as PCMs in thermal energy storage

    Muhsin Mazman
    Abstract Phase change materials (PCM) used in latent heat storage systems usually have very low thermal conductivities. This is a major drawback in maintaining the required heat exchange rate between PCM and heat transfer fluid. This paper investigates the enhancement of the heat transfer between PCM and heat transfer fluid, using high thermal conductivity as additives like stainless steel pieces, copper pieces and graphite,PCM composite material. In the experiments, palmitic,lauric acid (80:20) (PL) and stearic,myristic acid (80:20) (SM) were used as PCMs. Test results show that heat transfer enhancement of copper pieces was better at 0.05 Ls,1 flow rate compared to 0.025 Ls,1. Using copper as an additive increased the heat transfer rate 1.7 times for melting and 3.8 times for freezing when flow rate was 0.050 Ls,1. Decreasing the flow rate from 0.050 to 0.025 Ls,1, increased the melting times 1.3 times and freezing times 1.8 times, decreasing heat transfer rates accordingly. The best result of heat transfer enhancement was observed for the PCM,graphite composite. However, changing the flow rate did not affect the heat transfer rate when graphite was used as additive. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long time investigation of the effect of fouling on the super-heaters in a circulating fluidized biomass boiler

    Jan Sandberg
    Abstract The present investigation involves measurements and theories on the mechanisms of the forming of deposit layers on super-heater tubes in a biomass-fired CFD boiler. The deposit layer thickness and the soot-blowing frequency effect on the super-heaters heat transfer are the main subject of the study that has been conducted over a 3-year period. The measurements show a deposit growth rate on the super-heaters of approximately 4 g m,2 h,1. The distribution of the deposit material varies significantly between the windward and the leeward side of the tubes, with the thickest layers on the windward side. Further down stream of the first super-heater, the fouling problem on the super-heater and re-heater tubes are not so severe. A theoretical model shows that a deposit layer of 20 mm will decrease the heat transfer rate of the first super-heater by nearly 40%. The soot-blowing system shows a strong positive effect on the heat transfer rate of the super-heater a few hours after a soot-blowing sequence has been completed. However in the long run, the varied soot-blowing frequency does not have a significant influence on the deposit layer growth rate. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling and experimental studies on heat transfer in the convection section of a biomass boiler

    Jukka Yrjölä
    Abstract This paper describes a model of heat transfer for the convection section of a biomass boiler. The predictions obtained with the model are compared to the measurement results from two boilers, a 50 kWth pellet boiler and a 4000 kWth wood chips boiler. An adequate accuracy was achieved on the wood chips boiler. As for the pellet boiler, the calculated and measured heat transfer rates differed more than expected on the basis of the inaccuracies in correlation reported in the literature. The most uncertain aspect of the model was assumed to be the correlation equation of the entrance region. Hence, the model was adjusted to improve the correlation. As a result of this, a high degree of accuracy was also obtained with the pellet boiler. The next step was to analyse the effect of design and the operating parameters on the pellet boiler. Firstly, the portion of radiation was established at 3,13 per cent, and the portion of entrance region at 39,52 per cent of the entire heat transfer rate under typical operating conditions. The effect of natural convection was small. Secondly, the heat transfer rate seemed to increase when dividing the convection section into more passes, even when the heat transfer surface area remained constant. This is because the effect of the entrance region is recurrent. Thirdly, when using smaller tube diameters the heat transfer area is more energy-efficient, even when the bulk velocity of the flow remains constant. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thermal-fluid transport phenomena in an axially rotating flow passage with twin concentric orifices of different radii

    Shuichi Torii
    Abstract This paper investigates the thermal fluid-flow transport phenomena in an axially rotating passage in which twin concentric orifices of different radii are installed. Emphasis is placed on the effects of pipe rotation and orifice configuration on the flow and thermal fields, i.e. both the formation of vena contracta and the heat-transfer performance behind each orifice. The governing equations are discretized by means of a finite-difference technique and numerically solved for the distributions of velocity vector and fluid temperature subject to constant wall temperature and uniform inlet velocity and fluid temperature. It is found that: (i) for a laminar flow through twin concentric orifices in a pipe, axial pipe rotation causes the vena contracta in the orifice to stretch, resulting in an amplification of heat-transfer performance in the downstream region behind the rear orifice, (ii) simultaneously the heat transfer rate in the area between twin orifice is intensified by pipe rotation, (iii) the amplification of heat transfer performance is affected by the front and rear orifice heights. Results may find applications in automotive and rotating hydraulic transmission lines and in aircraft gas turbine engines. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The impact of fouling on performance evaluation of evaporative coolers and condensers

    Bilal A. Qureshi
    Abstract Fouling of evaporative cooler and condenser tubes is one of the most important factors affecting their thermal performance, which reduces effectiveness and heat transfer capability with time. In this paper, the experimental data on fouling reported in the literature are used to develop a fouling model for this class of heat exchangers. The model predicts the decrease in heat transfer rate with the growth of fouling. A detailed model of evaporative coolers and condensers, in conjunction with the fouling model, is used to study the effect of fouling on the thermal performance of these heat exchangers at different air inlet wet bulb temperatures. The results demonstrate that fouling of tubes reduces gains in performance resulting from decreasing values of air inlet wet bulb temperature. It is found that the maximum decrease in effectiveness due to fouling is about 55 and 78% for the evaporative coolers and condensers, respectively, investigated in this study. For the evaporative cooler, the value of process fluid outlet temperature Tp,out varies by 0.66% only at the clean condition for the ambient wet bulb temperatures considered. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investigation of three-dimensional heat and mass transfer in a metal hydride reactor

    Mahmut D. Mat
    A mathematical model for three-dimensional heat and mass transfer in metal,hydrogen reactor is presented. The model considers three-dimensional complex heat, and mass transfer and chemical reaction in the reactor. The main parameter in hydriding processes is found to be the equilibrium pressure, which strongly depends on temperature. Hydride formation enhanced at regions with lower equilibrium pressure. Hydriding processes are shown to be two dimensional for the system considered in this study. Effects of heat transfer rate and R/H (radius to height) ratio on hydride formation are investigated. Hydride formation increases significantly with larger heat transfer rate from the boundary walls, however after a certain heat transfer rate, the increase in formation rate is found to be not significant, due to the low thermal conductivity of the metal-hydride systems. The estimated results agree satisfactorily with the experimental data in the literature. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Theoretical study on the spectroscopic properties and electronic structures of heteroleptic phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes

    Min Zhang
    Abstract The geometries, spectroscopic and electronic structures properties of a series of heteroleptic phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes including N981, N982, N983, N984 have been characterized by density functional theory calculations. The excited-state properties of the Ir(III) complexes have been characterized by CIS method. The ground- and excited-state geometries were optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ and CIS/LANL2DZ levels, respectively. By using the time-dependent density functional theory method, the absorption and phosphorescence spectra were calculated based on the optimized ground- and excited-state geometries, respectively. The results show that the absorption and emission data agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The calculated results also revealed that the nature of the substituent at the 4-position of the pyridyl moiety can influence the distributions of HOMO and LUMO and their energies. In addition, the charge transport quality has been estimated approximately by the calculated reorganization energy (,). Our result also indicates that the positions of the substitute groups not only change the transition characters but also affect the charge transfer rate and balance, and complex N982 is a very good charge transfer material for green OLEDs. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2009 [source]

    Cation-Enhanced Deprotonation of Water by a Strong Photobase

    Noga Munitz
    We have used picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy to study the proton-dissociation dynamics of bulk water and H2O molecules solvating Mg2+ ions in aqueous solutions. We have analyzed the photo-initiated proton-transfer reaction to a photobase 6-aminoquinoline by the Collins-Kimball approach and have modeled the ensuing bimolecular reaction dynamics by the Smoluchowski equation with radiation boundary conditions. We have found the on-contact proton transfer rate to follow the Marcus free-energy relation for proton transfer and estimate by this rate-equilibrium correlation the considerable enhancement in the acidity of the water molecules solvating the Mg2+ ion. Our findings may be used in the study of metallo-enzymes such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs), which catalyze the reversible addition reaction of OH, to CO2 by increasing the reactivity of the zinc-bound water molecules by means of stabilizing the product of water dissociation, the OH, anion. [source]

    Techniques for oxygen transfer measurement in bioreactors: a review

    S Suresh
    Abstract Oxygen is the most essential requirement for aerobic bioprocesses. The microbial growth in a bioreactor depends upon the oxygen transfer rate (OTR). The OTR is widely used to study the growth behavior of microbial and plant cell cultures. The mass transfer coefficient (kLa) determines the magnitude of the OTR. There are many techniques for measuring oxygen concentration and OTR in bioreactors. Zirconia, electrochemical, infrared, ultrasonic and laser cells are used to measure oxygen concentration in the liquid medium. Optical sensors are better alternatives to measure oxygen concentration in small bioreactors. Sulfite oxidation and gassing-out methods with a Clark-type electrode have been used for OTR measurements in bioreactors. Many new novel techniques have evolved recently for intermittent and continuous online measurement of OTR/kLa in various types of bioreactors. The present paper gives an overview of various measurement techniques and their limitations and/or suitability for measurement of OTR/kLa in various kinds of bioreactors, especially small bioreactors. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Cell removal with supercritical carbon dioxide for acellular artificial tissue

    K. Sawada
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to decellularize artificial tissue without using surfactant solutions. For this purpose, supercritical carbon dioxide was used as the extraction medium. RESULTS: Supercritical carbon dioxide containing a small amount of entrainer was a suitable medium to extract both cell nuclei and cell membranes from artificial tissue. Under gentle extraction conditions (15 MPa, 37 °C), cell nuclei were satisfactorily extracted from tissue within 1 h. In contrast, the efficiency of phospholipid removal depended strongly on the transfer rate of carbon dioxide in the interior of the tissue. Mechanical strength of tissue was not decreased even with prolonged treatment. CONCLUSION: Acellular artificial tissues could be prepared quickly by treatment with a carbon dioxide/entrainer system. The prepared acellular tissue could be obtained in absolutely dry condition. This is advantageous from the viewpoint of long-term preservation without putrefaction and contamination. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Measurement of mass transfer coefficient in an airlift reactor with internal loop using coalescent and non-coalescent liquid media

    M Bla
    Abstract In this work the sulfite oxidation (SOM), dynamic pressure-step (DPM) and gassing-out (GOM) methods were compared for volumetric mass transfer coefficient measurement in an airlift reactor with internal loop. As a liquid phase both, non-coalescent and coalescent media were used. Among the methods discussed here, the mass transfer coefficient (kLa) values obtained by the DPM appear as the most reliable as they were found to be independent of oxygen concentration in the inlet gas, which confirmed the physical correctness of this method. The difference between data measured using air and oxygen was not higher than 10%, which was comparable to the scatter of experimental data. It has been found that the sulfite oxidation method yielded kLa values only a little higher than those obtained by the DPM and the difference did not exceed 10%. Up to an inlet gas velocity (UGC) of ,0.03 m s,1 the GOM using oxygen as a gas medium gave kLa values in fact identical with those obtained by the DPM. At higher flows of the inlet gas, the GOM yielded kLa values as much as 15% lower. The enhancement in oxygen mass transfer rate determined in non-coalescent media was estimated to be up to +15%, when compared with a coalescent batch. The experimental dependence of kLa vs the overall gas hold-up was described by an empirical correlation.1 Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Influence of acid treatment on the surface activity and mass transfer inhibition of a splittable surfactant

    Yuh-Lang Lee
    Abstract A splittable surfactant, Triton SP-190, was used to evaluate the effects of acid treatment on the mass transfer rate of an extraction process and on the interfacial tension-lowering activity of a system containing this surfactant. Equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tensions at the interface of CCl4 and the aqueous phase containing surfactant were measured by using pendent drop tensiometry enhanced by video digitization. A single-drop extraction apparatus was used to obtain the extraction percentage of acetic acid from the dispersed CCl4 droplets to the aqueous phase. The results indicate that the inorganic acid treatment can inhibit the dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tension-lowering activity of Triton SP-190. The mass transfer resistance induced by the addition of Triton SP-190 can also be reduced by the pre-treatment of acid. The effectiveness of acid treatment on both properties was greater at low pH values, lower surfactant concentrations, and longer treatment times. With HCl treatment, the equilibrium interfacial tension was not able to increase to the value of a surfactant-free system, but approached a maximum value which was independent of the pH value, but dependent on surfactant concentration. On the contrary, the extraction percentage, which has decreased due to the presence of surfactant, can be recovered completely to that of a surfactant-free system by acid treatment. The acid-treatment time required to achieve a significant recovery of mass transfer rate was much longer than that required to recover the interfacial tension. The present results also demonstrate that the constituents contained in an acid-treatment system had different effectiveness in affecting the interfacial tension and mass transfer rate due to the different mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Kinetics of Solids Leaching During Rehydration of Particulate Dry Vegetables

    ABSTRACT: Air-dried and freeze-dried carrots were rehydrated in a computerized mixing system, and the medium was analyzed for sugar content with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and for total organic carbon (TOC). Leaching of solids was significant at very short rehydration time. Understanding the mechanism of the leaching process could provide information required for simulation. TOC values were significantly higher than those derived by HPLC, indicating that other organic components were extracted. The difference between TOC and HPLC values varied with time, indicating the existence of a different mass transfer rate. Sugars and TOC values followed an exponential behavior. Quantifying solids leaching is important for modeling and simulation of the rehydration process and for product optimization. [source]

    Drying-induced birefringence of polyimide optical films

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2010
    Po-Ju Chen
    Abstract Drying-induced birefringence of polyimide film was investigated. The polyimide solutions were coated and dried on two different types of substrates and then removed for optical measurements. The operating window, which was a region for stable and uniform film formation, was determined experimentally. The out-of-plane birefringence (OPBR) was found to increase with decreasing dry film thickness, and the increase became more significant for films less than 10 ,m thick. The experimental OPBR results were compared with the predictions of two theoretical models. The results agreed reasonably well with the one-dimensional model of Lei et al. (J Appl Polym Sci. 2001;81:1000-1013). On the other hand, a simple viscoelastic model, which is an extension of the elastic model of Croll (J Appl Polym Sci. 1979;23:847-858), could provide clear physical insight, but its applicability was somewhat limited. The effects of several variables such as elasticity number, solidification concentration, yield stress, and mass transfer rate on OPBR were examined. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

    Explaining the enhanced performance of pulsed bioreactors by mechanistic modeling

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Amaya Franco
    Abstract In this work, steady-state mass balance based models were applied to two UASB reactors and three UAF for a better understanding of the role of pulsation on the efficacy improvement. Models were defined taking into account the hydraulic behavior of each digester and the limiting mechanism of the overall process kinetics (mass transfer or biochemical reaction rate). The application of the model allows to identify that mass transfer was the controlling step in all the reactors, except for the nonpulsed UASB, where methanogenic activity controlled the reactor performance in the last operation steady states. Mass transfer coefficients were higher for pulsed reactors and, in general, a good agreement between those estimated by an empirical correlation and from the model was obtained. Damköhler number values supported that the external mass transfer resistance was not negligible with respect to the process kinetic and in addition, in most cases, it controls the overall process in the reactors. The relative importance of external and internal mass transfer rate was calculated through the Biot number. The values of this dimensionless module indicated that external transport was the main contributor to overall mass transfer resistance. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2008 [source]

    Effect of hydrodynamic multiplicity on trickle bed reactor performance

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Werner van der Merwe
    Abstract Multiple hydrodynamic states in trickle bed reactors have been the subject of numerous hydrodynamic investigations. The extent of variation in the hydrodynamic parameters (like holdup and pressure drop) is large and this variation can be expected to have a significant impact on the conversion in a reaction system. This study presents reaction data for ,-methyl styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor over a range of conditions that include gas and liquid limitations. It is seen that liquid flow rate variation induced hysteresis has a large impact on the conversion. For gas-limited reactions, the upper branch of the pressure drop hysteresis loop has a higher conversion than the lower branch at the same linear fluid velocities and catalyst weight, while for liquid-limited reactions the lower branch has a higher conversion than the upper branch (the difference in productivity being up to 20%). These trends cannot be explained by differences in wetting efficiency. Instead, it is proposed that for this system the gas,liquid mass transfer rate is the limiting step in gas-limited reactions, while the liquid,solid mass transfer rate is the limiting step in liquid-limited reactions. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2008 [source]