Transfer Programs (transfer + program)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Use of Public Transfer Programs and Privat Aid by Farm Workers

Enrico Moretti
Legal status affects the use of public welfare and insurance and private assistance programs by families of farm workers. Families of unauthorized immigrants are more likely to use public medical assistance and less likely to use other public transfer programs than authorized immigrants and citizens. Unauthorized immigrants with young children in the United States are slightly more likely to use welfare, and welfare recipients are slightly more likely to have young children here. [source]


This paper develops a dynamic model with overlapping generations where there are two possible equilibria: one without child labor, and one with it. It is shown that intergenerational transfers can eliminate the child labor equilibrium and that this intervention is Pareto improving. However, if society does not believe that the government will implement the transfer program, it won't, reinforcing society's expectations. This is true even if the transfer program would have been implemented in the absence of uncertainty. Thus a government may be powerless to prevent the child labor equilibrium if it does not command the confidence of their populace, leaving the country in an expectations trap. (JEL D91, E60, J20, O20) [source]

Immigrants, Natives and Social Assistance: Comparable Take-Up Under Comparable Circumstances

Edward J. Castronova
Are immigrants on welfare because they are more likely to be eligible or because they are more likely to claim benefits for which they are eligible? The answer is politically important, but because most current research on immigration and welfare is based on data from the United States, the answer is difficult due to the complexities of the transfer system which make eligibility determinations difficult. In Germany, by contrast, eligibility for the main cash transfer program, Sozialhilfe (Social Assistance), is determined by a comparatively simple nationwide formula. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel to test whether immigrants to Germany are more likely than natives to claim welfare benefits for which they are eligible. We find that immigrants are more likely than native Germans to receive welfare, both because immigrants are more likely to be eligible and because they are more likely, when eligible, to claim their benefits. However, we also find that this greater propensity to take-up benefits is not related to immigrant status per se: when other sociodemographic factors are accounted for in an appropriate manner, immigrant households are no more likely to take-up benefits than native households. [source]

Unconditional Intergovernmental Transfers to Finance Decentralization in Albania

The Government of Albania embarked on a comprehensive program to decentralize decision-making powers with the passage of the Law on Organization and Functioning of Local Governments in 2000. A centerpiece of the policies undertaken to implement that legislation was an unconditional transfer program which, using a formula-based allocation mechanism, transferred substantial financial resources to the local communes and municipalities beginning in 2002. This paper describes that system and its evolution. It illustrates how the transfer was designed to take into account the transition from a centralized system to a decentralized arrangement for provision of local public services and how the formula has undergone some "fine-tuning" while retaining its simplicity. Analysis of the outcomes reveals how it has achieved its mandated objective of equalizing resources across local governments; however, it does so while running the risk of substantially discouraging local governments from mobilizing resources of their own. [source]

Upstream Solutions: Does the Supplemental Security Income Program Reduce Disability in the Elderly?

Context: The robust relationship between socioeconomic factors and health suggests that social and economic policies might substantially affect health, while other evidence suggests that medical care, the main focus of current health policy, may not be the primary determinant of population health. Income support policies are one promising avenue to improve population health. This study examines whether the federal cash transfer program to poor elderly, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, affects old-age disability. Methods: This study uses the 1990 and 2000 censuses, employing state and year fixed-effect models, to test whether within-state changes in maximum SSI benefits over time lead to changes in disability among people aged sixty-five and older. Findings: Higher benefits are linked to lower disability rates. Among all single elderly individuals, 30 percent have mobility limitations, and an increase of $100 per month in the maximum SSI benefit caused the rate of mobility limitations to fall by 0.46 percentage points. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. First, analyses limited to those most likely to receive SSI produced larger effects, but analyses limited to those least likely to receive SSI produced no measurable effect. Second, varying the disability measure did not meaningfully alter the findings. Third, excluding the institutionalized, immigrants, individuals living in states with exceptionally large benefit changes, and individuals living in states with no SSI supplements did not change the substantive conclusions. Fourth, Medicaid did not confound the effects. Finally, these results were robust for married individuals. Conclusions: Income support policy may be a significant new lever for improving population health, especially that of lower-income persons. Even though the findings are robust, further analyses are needed to confirm their reliability. Future research should examine a variety of different income support policies, as well as whether a broader range of social and economic policies affect health. [source]

Rights, review, and spending: Policy outcomes with judicially enforceable rights

This paper posits that countries with a constitutional right to social security that can be enforced by courts via judicial review will show patterns of spending on social security that are distinct from countries with other constitutional and judicial arrangements. Governments in countries with enforceable rights will be constrained to spend more on transfer programs to avoid censure from the courts. The hypotheses are tested using data from 22 OECD countries using time,series cross,section analysis. The results show that enforceable rights are associated with higher growth rates in social security spending and lower fluctuation in expenditures on social programs, although the amount of GDP spent on social transfers is unaffected by rights. These results are consistent with the idea that governments' spending habits are constrained by positive rights, but rebut the argument that rights lead to economic distortions. [source]

Use of Public Transfer Programs and Privat Aid by Farm Workers

Enrico Moretti
Legal status affects the use of public welfare and insurance and private assistance programs by families of farm workers. Families of unauthorized immigrants are more likely to use public medical assistance and less likely to use other public transfer programs than authorized immigrants and citizens. Unauthorized immigrants with young children in the United States are slightly more likely to use welfare, and welfare recipients are slightly more likely to have young children here. [source]

Who will we serve in the future?

The new student in transition
Hispanics are the fastest-growing ethnic population in the United States. This chapter presents demographic projections for higher education and discusses the role of the transfer function in community colleges. Two notable transfer programs are highlighted. [source]

Income Transfers Alone Won't Eradicate Poverty

Douglas J. Besharov
Even in the current economic situation, in developed countries, rhetoric about cutting "poverty" is misleadingly outmoded,because it implicitly suggests that government income transfers can be the vehicle for achieving substantial reductions in poverty. Almost all Americans already live far above subsistence poverty: most because of their earnings, and the rest because of government transfer programs. This decline in material poverty is obscured by weaknesses in how the official U.S. poverty measure counts income. What is now called poverty is really "income inequality." Reducing income inequality is also a vitally important social goal, but it cannot be accomplished through income transfers alone. The authors argue that, although income transfers have a role to play in lessening the impact of material deprivation, real progress in raising incomes will require building the human capital of the economically disadvantaged. This means both increasing the earnings capacity of lower-income workers and reducing the number of female-headed families. [source]

Technical Efficiency, Technological Change and Output Growth of Wheat Farms in Saskatchewan

Konstantinos Giannakas
This paper utilizes recent advances in stochastic decomposition methodology to examine the level and the driving forces of technical efficiency for an unbalanced panel data set of 100 wheat farms in Saskatchewan during the period 1987,95. The contributions of resource use and total factor productivity to the output growth of these farms are also investigated. The analysis indicates moderate levels of technical efficiency and a considerable variation of efficiency ratings among Saskatchewan farms. The ownership status, composition of labor employed, participation in crop insurance and government income transfer programs, participation in Top Management Workshops, degree of specialization, level of intensification and mechanization of production, type of land used, and the farm debts account for differences in efficiency across wheat farms. Even though the productive efficiency of the farms has been increasing over time, the results show that technological progress was the main source of productivity and output growth during the study period. L'analyse que voici fait appel aux plus récentes améliorations apportées à la méthode de décomposition stochastique pour déterminer le degré d'efficacité technique et les motivations d'ungroupe non pondéré de 100 producteurs de blé de la Saskatchewan entre 1987 et 1995. Les auteurs ont aussi déterminé dans quelle mesure l'exploitation des ressources et la productivité totale des facteurs affectent la croissance de la production dans les exploitations concernées. L'analyse révéle un degré moyen d'efficacité technique et une variation considérable du rendement chez les agriculteurs de la Saskatchewan. La variation du rendement s'explique par divers facteurs comme le type de propriété, la composition de la main-d',uvre, l'inscription aux programmes gouvernementaux d'assurance récolte et de transfert du revenu, la participation à des ateliers de gestion, le degré de spécialisation, le niveau d'industrialisation et de mécanisation de la production, le genre de terres cultivées et la dette de l'exploitant. Même si la productivité des fermes a augmenté au fil des ans, les résultats indiquent que le progrés de la technologie demeure la principale source d'une croissance du rendement et de la production durant la période à l'étude. [source]