Behaviour Problems (behaviour + problem)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Behaviour Problems

  • child behaviour problem
  • childhood behaviour problem
  • children behaviour problem
  • disruptive behaviour problem
  • externalizing behaviour problem
  • internalizing behaviour problem


  • Selected Abstracts


    Behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence in psychotic offenders: an exploratory study

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2008
    Kris Goethals
    Background,Several studies have shown that adults who develop schizophrenia and commit a criminal offence may already have shown behaviour problems in childhood or adolescence. It is less clear whether such problems follow a particular pattern in such patients. Aims,To examine the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) among offenders, to test whether externalizing behaviour problems, as measured by the CBCL, are more frequent in psychotic offenders than in non-offenders with psychosis, and to investigate relationships between early behavioural problems and adult personality disorder in psychotic offenders. Methods,Three groups of violent offenders detained under the Dutch Entrustment Act (TBS-detainees)(n = 78) and one group of psychotic patients in general psychiatry (n = 16) were rated from case records on the CBCL. Results,There was a significant difference between psychotic offenders with a personality disorder (n = 25) and the non-offender patients with psychosis (n = 16) on the ,delinquent behavior' scale, but no such difference between psychotic offenders with (n = 25) and without (n = 21) personality disorder. A hierarchic cluster analysis revealed significantly higher scores for externalizing behaviour in all TBS-detainees with a personality disorder. Those starting to offend early had higher scores for externalizing behaviour than late starters. Conclusions,Psychotic and non-psychotic offenders with personality disorder resemble one another in their early childhood behaviour problems; psychotic offenders without a personality disorder differ from these two groups but resemble non-offenders with psychosis. In contrast to findings in non-forensic populations, there were no differences on other problem scales of the CBCL. Given the small sample sizes, replication is needed, but the findings lend weight to treatment models which focus on the psychosis in the latter two groups but extend also to personality disorder in the former. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    A prospective analysis of life events, problem behaviours and depression in adults with intellectual disability

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2006
    A. J. Esbensen
    Abstract Background Life events have consistently been found to be associated with behaviour problems and depression among individuals with intellectual disability (ID). However, prior findings have typically been based on correlational or retrospective analyses of case files. The current study attempted to replicate prior findings from life events with concurrent data and extend them to the prospective prediction of behaviour problems and depression. The influence of impact ratings of life events was also explored. Methods Seventy-four informants rated 104 adults with ID on measures of life events, behaviour problems and depressive symptoms. Life events were rated as having either a positive, negative or no impact on the life of the individual with ID. Measures were completed twice, at a 4-month interval. Results Behaviour problems were both correlated with and predicted by frequency counts of life events and life events perceived as negative. However, the predictive ability depended on which measure of problem behaviour was selected. Positive life events were not associated with concurrent behaviour problems. Depressive symptoms were correlated with all life changes, but only predicted by frequency counts of life events and life events perceived as negative. Again, the predictive ability depended on which measure of depression was selected. Findings were corroborated with a group of individuals with clinical diagnoses of major depression. Conclusions Frequency counts of all life events and life events perceived as negative play a role in the development of behaviour problems and depressive symptoms among adults with ID. The results have implications for interventions for behaviour problems following a life event, and for reducing depressive symptoms for adults with mild ID. [source]


    Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: behaviour problems and parenting stress over time

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 4-5 2003
    B. L. Baker
    Abstract Background Children with intellectual disability are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Methods The present authors studied the early manifestation and continuity of problem behaviours in 205 pre-school children with and without developmental delays. Results Behaviour problems were quite stable over the year from age 36,48 months. Children with developmental delays were rated higher on behaviour problems than their non-delayed peers, and were three times as likely to score in the clinical range. Mothers and fathers showed high agreement in their rating of child problems, especially in the delayed group. Parenting stress was also higher in the delayed group, but was related to the extent of behaviour problems rather than to the child's developmental delay. Conclusions Over time, a transactional model fit the relationship between parenting stress and behaviour problems: high parenting stress contributed to a worsening in child behaviour problems over time, and high child behaviour problems contributed to a worsening in parenting stress. Findings for mothers and fathers were quite similar. [source]


    Behaviour problems in children with language impairment

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 11 2007
    John Van Daal
    Background:, Language impairment is often associated with behaviour problems. However, detailed relations between different types of language impairment and specific behaviour problems in children have yet to be demonstrated. The present study attempted to do just this with an eye to the implications to identify foci for early intervention. Methods:, The language abilities of 71 five-year-old children with language impairment were assessed via the administration of an extensive battery of language tests. The children's behaviour profile was assessed via administration of the Child Behaviour Checklist. Results:, Factor analyses confirmed the presence of four language factors: speech, syntax, semantics and phonology. Forty percent of the children displayed serious significant behaviour problems. The most frequently occurring behaviour problems were: withdrawn behaviour, somatic complaints, thought problems and aggressive behaviour. Behaviour problems were associated with three of the four language factors but not strongly associated with speech problems. Conclusions:, Differential relations between specific types of language impairment and specific behaviour problems already exist at a young age. Phonological problems showed broad relations to problem behaviour; semantic language problems were especially related to internalizing behaviour problems. This finding suggests the need for specific therapies for both different types of language problems and different types of behaviour problems. [source]


    Mother,child joint activity and behaviour problems of pre-school children

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 7 2003
    Kumari Chandani Galboda-Liyanage
    Background: Behaviour problems are common among pre-school children, and a substantial proportion persist, causing significant burden to the family, schools and health services. Relatively little research has addressed the effects of positive parenting on behaviour disorder in pre-school children, particularly in larger population-based studies. Method: A cross-sectional postal survey of a representative, population-based sample of 800 mothers of 3-year-old children living in an outer London Borough was carried out to assess the association between mother,child joint activity and behaviour problems of pre-school children. The response rate was 70%. Results: Lower levels of mother,child joint activity remained independently associated with behaviour problems of pre-school children both on a binary and a continuous scale after adjusting for a wide range of household, maternal and child circumstances. The association between low levels of mother,child joint activities and behaviour problems of the children was stronger in the presence of social problems in the family. Conclusion: Possible causal pathways and directions for future research and intervention are discussed. [source]


    Refining diagnoses: applying the DC-LD to an Irish population with intellectual disability

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 11 2005
    A. Felstrom
    Abstract Background The diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD) is a diagnostic tool developed in 2001 to improve upon existing classification systems for adults with learning disability. The aim of this study was to apply the classification system described by the DC-LD to a residential intellectual disability (ID) population to examine whether it improved our diagnostic understanding of residents. Methods Chart reviews of 113 of 178 people in a residential ID service were conducted. For each resident, information was recorded according to the DC-LD multi-axial system. Each resident's case was then discussed with a member of nursing staff familiar with the resident. If diagnosis was unclear, the case was discussed with a senior clinical psychiatrist. Results The percentage of residents with a moderate to profound ID was 87.6%. In total, 94 diagnoses of psychiatric illness (Axis III, Level B, DC-LD) were made. Of those 94 diagnoses, seven new diagnoses were found because of DC-LD criteria. Of the total number of psychiatric diagnoses made, 72.3% were non-specific, residual category diagnoses. A total of 79 residents (69.9%) had at least one behaviour problem diagnosed on Axis III, Level D, Problem behaviours. Fifty-six (49.6%) of residents in this sample had co-morbid epilepsy. Conclusions In people with moderate to profound learning disabilities, diagnosis continues to be challenging. The DC-LD is a useful tool in helping to clarify diagnoses in this population by providing revised criteria and a system to classify problem behaviours. The DC-LD would be more helpful if specific axes were included to document medical and psychosocial problems independently from other diagnoses. Further research is warranted to determine whether the DC-LD hierarchical approach to diagnosis improves diagnostic validity. [source]


    Applying developmental theory to the assessment and treatment of childhood disorders: does it make a difference?

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THEORY & PRACTICE), Issue 5 2001
    Thomas H. Ollendick
    In this paper, we examine the role of developmental theory in the assessment and treatment of child behaviour disorders, with special reference to the anxiety disorders. Following a brief review of the tenets of developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology, we illustrate the role of developmental theory in clinical research and practice. We suggest that developmental theory guides us in the selection and use of developmentally sensitive assessment strategies. Moreover, we indicate that use of developmental theory assists us in the treatment of children and adolescents by helping us determine when a behaviour problem is significant and when to initiate treatment, how to determine the goals of treatment and to select targets for treatment outcome, which treatment strategies to select for intervention, and how to determine the context of intervention. We conclude that the importance of developmental theory is axiomatic when working with children and adolescents. Still, considerable more work is needed before we can conclude that we have fully integrated developmental theory into our ongoing clinical research and practice with children. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence in psychotic offenders: an exploratory study

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2008
    Kris Goethals
    Background,Several studies have shown that adults who develop schizophrenia and commit a criminal offence may already have shown behaviour problems in childhood or adolescence. It is less clear whether such problems follow a particular pattern in such patients. Aims,To examine the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) among offenders, to test whether externalizing behaviour problems, as measured by the CBCL, are more frequent in psychotic offenders than in non-offenders with psychosis, and to investigate relationships between early behavioural problems and adult personality disorder in psychotic offenders. Methods,Three groups of violent offenders detained under the Dutch Entrustment Act (TBS-detainees)(n = 78) and one group of psychotic patients in general psychiatry (n = 16) were rated from case records on the CBCL. Results,There was a significant difference between psychotic offenders with a personality disorder (n = 25) and the non-offender patients with psychosis (n = 16) on the ,delinquent behavior' scale, but no such difference between psychotic offenders with (n = 25) and without (n = 21) personality disorder. A hierarchic cluster analysis revealed significantly higher scores for externalizing behaviour in all TBS-detainees with a personality disorder. Those starting to offend early had higher scores for externalizing behaviour than late starters. Conclusions,Psychotic and non-psychotic offenders with personality disorder resemble one another in their early childhood behaviour problems; psychotic offenders without a personality disorder differ from these two groups but resemble non-offenders with psychosis. In contrast to findings in non-forensic populations, there were no differences on other problem scales of the CBCL. Given the small sample sizes, replication is needed, but the findings lend weight to treatment models which focus on the psychosis in the latter two groups but extend also to personality disorder in the former. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2004
    Dr Julie Messer
    Background The precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women were examined in this longitudinal study of women in their late thirties. Methods The sample consisted of a high-risk group of women (n = 86) and a comparison group ( n = 97): the former had been raised in institutional care. Questionnaire measures of childhood behaviour problems and detailed interview data from two time points in adulthood were obtained, along with official records of offending. Results In terms of childhood precursors, antisocial behaviour, institutional rearing, hyperactivity and adolescent conduct disorder were found to be significantly related to offending. Later adolescent factors were also found to be important: mixing with deviant peers and leaving school without any qualifications or plans for work. Correlates of offending in adulthood included difficulties in mental health, drug use, marriage and parenting. Further analysis was undertaken to clarify the associations by using ex-care status and conduct disorder as covariates. Discussion Well-established predictors of offending in male samples seem quite as important for women and girls. The findings also suggested strong links between offending and problems in parenting. Copyright 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2001
    Joanne Klevens
    Objectives This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. Methods A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. Results Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. Conclusions The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    Early predictors of antisocial developmental pathways among boys and girls

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2010
    M. Pitzer
    Objective:, We investigated in a high-risk sample the differential impact of biological and psychosocial risk factors on antisocial behaviour pathways. Method:, One hundred and thirty-eight boys and 155 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were examined from birth until adolescence. Childhood temperament was assessed by a highly-structured parent-interview and standardized behavioural observations, adolescent temperament was measured by self-report. Neurodevelopmental variables were assessed by age-specific developmental tests. Emotional and behaviour problems were measured at the ages of 8 and 15 by the Achenbach scales. Results:, In both genders, psychosocial adversity and early self-control temperament were strongly associated with early-onset persistent (EOP) antisocial behaviour. Psychosocial adversity and more severe externalizing problems differentiated the EOP from childhood-limited (CL) pathway. In girls, adolescent-onset (AO) antisocial behaviour was strongly associated with novelty seeking at 15 years. Conclusion:, Our findings emphasize the need for early support and intervention in psychosocially disadvantaged families. [source]


    Social functioning and communication in children with cerebral palsy: association with disease characteristics and personal and environmental factors

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    JEANINE M VOORMAN
    Aim, The objective of this longitudinal study was to describe the course of social functioning and communication in children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 3-year period, its difference with the normative course, and its relationship with disease characteristics and personal and environmental factors. Method, Participants in this study were 110 children with CP (70 males, 40 females) with a mean age of 11 years and 3 months (SD 1y 8mo). Social functioning and communication were measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Comparisons were made with normative data; data were analysed with generalized estimating equations. According to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), 50 of the 110 children were categorized as GMFCS level I, 16 as level II, 13 as level III, 13 as level IV, and 18 as level V. Results, The course of social functioning over a 3-year period showed an increase in restrictions in children with CP (p<0.001). Restrictions in communication increased more in children with the most severe forms of CP (p<0.001). In addition to disease characteristics (GMFCS category, presence of epilepsy, and speech problems), personal factors (externalizing behaviour problems) and environmental factors (having no siblings, low parental level of education, and parental stress) were associated with greater restrictions in social functioning and communication. Interpretation, The results indicate that it is important to focus not only on the medical treatment of children with CP, but also on their behavioural problems and social circumstances, and to support the parents so that social functioning and communication in these children may be improved. [source]


    Eating problems at age 6 years in a whole population sample of extremely preterm children

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    MUTHANNA SAMARA
    Aim, The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method, A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%]) aged 6 years who were born at 25 weeks' gestation or earlier (mean 24.5wks, SD 0.7wks; mean birthweight 749.1g, SD 116.8g), and parents of 148 classmates born at term (66 males [44.6%], 82 females [55.4%]). All children underwent neurological, cognitive, and anthropometric assessment, and parents and teachers completed a behaviour scale. Results, Eating problems were more common among the EPC than the comparison group (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1,6.3), including oral motor (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.8,9.9), hypersensitivity (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6,5.6), and behavioural (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9,7.6) problems. Group differences were reduced after adjustment for cognitive impairment, neuromotor disability, and other behaviour problems. EPC with eating problems were shorter, lighter, and had lower mid-arm circumference and lower body mass index (BMI) even after adjusting for disabilities, gestational age, birthweight, and feeding problems at 30 months. Interpretation, Eating problems are still frequent in EPC at school age. They are only partly related to other disabilities but make an additional contribution to continued growth failure and may require early recognition and intervention. [source]


    Differential development of infants at risk for psychopathology: the moderating role of early maternal responsivity

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Manfred Laucht PhD
    The development of behaviour problems in infants born with biological risk (low birthweight) and psychosocial risk (psychosocially disadvantaged family) was studied in a sample of 347 children (171 males, 176 females) at the ages of 2, 4:6, and 8 years. In the search for factors that moderate the effects of early risks, the role of early responsive caregiving was examined. Results indicate that infants at psychosocial risk exhibited both more externalizing and internalizing problems across ages than infants not at psychosocial risk, while no overall differences were apparent between normal-and low-birthweight groups. With one exception, no interactions between biological and psychosocial risk factors emerged, suggesting that their simultaneous effect is largely additive. Maternal responsivity was found to moderate the effects of low birthweight on hyperkinetic and internalizing problems as well as to influence the consequences of family disadvantage on total problems. These findings stress the importance of early parenting in the behavioural development of at-risk children. [source]


    Developmental psychopathology in adolescence: findings from a Swiss study , the NAPE Lecture 2005

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2006
    H.-C. Steinhausen
    Objective:, Presentations of selective findings coming from the Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study with two major aims: i) the study of the prevalence, course, and correlates of mental disorders in adolescence, and ii) the study of the determinants and processes of mental disorders in adolescence. Method:, A representative sample of n = 1964 children and adolescents was studied in the canton of Zurich in 1994. Additional waves of data collection took place in 1997 and 2000/2001. Mean ages at these three assessments were 13, 16, and 20 years. Each wave contained a two-stage procedure of assessment with screening by questionnaires and consecutive interviewing. The main constructs used were general and specific measures of psychopathology, life events, coping styles, self-related cognitions, and quality of the social network. Results:, Prevalence rates of any mental disorder in school-age at the time of assessment was 22.5% fitting into a transcultural range of 18,26% based on DSM-III-R criteria. Furthermore, the derivation and validation of a four-group adolescent drinker typology was demonstrated. Additionally, the prevalence and continuity of functional-somatic symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood was shown. Another piece of the research tested for the identification of risk, compensatory, vulnerability, and protective factors influencing behaviour problems and found remarkably different frequencies across the four types of moderating factors. Conclusion:, The presented findings provide further understanding of the developmental psychology and psychopathology of adolescence and the service, intervention, and prevention needs of this age-group. [source]


    Birthweight-discordance and differences in early parenting relate to monozygotic twin differences in behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7

    DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
    Kathryn Asbury
    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in birthweight and early family environment, showing effect sizes of up to 2%. As predicted by earlier research, associations increased at the extremes of discordance, even in a longitudinal, cross-rater design, with effect sizes reaching as high as 12%. As with previous research some of these nonshared environmental (NSE) relationships appeared to operate partly as a function of SES, family chaos and maternal depression. Higher-risk families generally showed stronger negative associations. [source]


    Evidence of a complex association between dose, pattern and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure and child behaviour problems

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    Colleen M. O'Leary
    ABSTRACT Background There is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of dose, pattern and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure and behaviour problems in children aged 2 years and older. Methods A 10% random sample of women delivering a live infant in Western Australia (1995,96) were invited to participate in an 8-year longitudinal survey (78% response rate n = 2224); 85% were followed-up at 2 years, 73% at 5 years and 61% at 8 years. Alcohol consumption was classified by combining the overall dose, dose per occasion and frequency to reflect realistic drinking patterns. Longitudinal analysis was conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to investigate the association between child behaviour as measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist at 2, 5 and 8 years of age and prenatal alcohol exposure collected 3 months postpartum for each trimester separately, adjusting for a wide range of confounding factors. Results Low levels of prenatal alcohol were not associated with child behaviour problems. There were increased odds of internalizing behaviour problems following heavy alcohol exposure in the first trimester; anxiety/depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07,7.43] and somatic complaints (aOR 2.74; 95% CI 1.47,5.12) and moderate levels of alcohol exposure increased the odds of anxiety/depression (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 1.16,4.34). Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure at moderate and higher levels increased the odds of child behaviour problems with the dose, pattern and timing of exposure affecting the type of behaviour problems expressed. Larger studies with more power are needed to confirm these findings. [source]


    Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]


    A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2000
    Rob McGee
    Aims. To examine the longitudinal association between cannabis use and mental health. Design. Information concerning cannabis use and mental health from 15 to 21 years was available for a large sample of individuals as part of a longitudinal study from childhood to adulthood. Participants. Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a research programme on the health, development and behaviour of a large group of New Zealanders born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. Measurements. Cannabis use and identification of mental disorder was based upon self-report as part of a general assessment of mental health using a standard diagnostic interview. Daily smoking and alcohol use at age 15 were assessed by self-report. Indices of family socio-economic status, family climate and parent - child interaction were formed using information gathered from parent report and behavioural observations over early childhood. Childhood behaviour problems were assessed by parent and teacher report. Attachment to parents was assessed in adolescence. Findings. Cross-sectional associations between cannabis use and mental disorder were significant at all three ages. Both outcome variables shared similar pathways of low socio-economic status and history of behaviour problems in childhood, and low parental attachment in adolescence. Mental disorder at age 15 led to a small but significantly elevated risk of cannabis use at age 18; by contrast, cannabis use at age 18 elevated the risk of mental disorder at age 21. The latter association reflected the extent to which cannabis dependence and other externalizing disorders at age 21 were predicted by earlier level of involvement with cannabis. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the primary causal direction leads from mental disorder to cannabis use among adolescents and the reverse in early adulthood. Both alcohol use and cigarette smoking had independent associations with later mental health disorder. [source]


    Parental depression, parenting behaviours, and behaviour problems in young children,

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2009
    Melissa Middleton
    Abstract In the past, research has demonstrated that parental depression and parenting practices are related. More recently, there has been an increase in research examining child outcomes as they are related to maternal and paternal psychopathology. To continue with this line of research, this study examined the relationships among mothers' and fathers' symptoms of depression, characteristics of their parenting practices, and their ratings of their young children's internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems. The results of this study demonstrated that these variables are related significantly. Further, the results of this study suggested that mothers' parenting, particularly their limit setting with their young children, is an important predictor of their ratings of their young children's externalizing behaviour problems in the context of their own symptoms of depression. A different pattern of relationships may be present for fathers, as both their symptoms of depression and their parenting characteristics predicted their ratings of their young children's externalizing behaviour problems. Such findings were not supported for young children's internalizing behaviour problems. These findings suggested that interventions should have different targets for mothers and fathers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The behaviour style observation system for young children predicts teacher-reported externalizing behaviour in middle childhood

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2009
    Alexa Martin-Storey
    Abstract The Behaviour Style Observation System for Young Children (BSOS) was used to predict preschool-aged children's externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems in middle childhood, 3,5 years after the initial assessment. This observational measurement tool was designed to sample and assess young children's disruptive, non-compliant, and unresponsive behaviour, during a brief (11,min) observation in the child's home. In the current study, the BSOS was used to predict parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour problems after school entry in a longitudinal sample (N=81) of at-risk children at time 2. The BSOS predicted teacher-reported externalizing problems at time 2. In contrast, parent reports of behaviour problems, although correlated with repeated parent reports at time 2, were not significantly predictive of teacher-reported behaviour problems at school age. The BSOS was not associated with either parent or teacher reports of internalizing problems. These findings emphasize the importance and utility of using observational measures when examining the continuity of behaviour problems in young children over time. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Parenting and child behaviour problems: a longitudinal analysis of non-shared environment

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2009
    Paula Y. Mullineaux
    Abstract This study examined potential non-shared environmental processes in middle childhood by estimating statistical associations between monozygotic (MZ) twin differences in externalizing and internalizing problems and positive social engagement, and differential maternal positivity and negativity, over 1 year. Seventy-seven pairs of identical twins participated (M=6.08-years old, 65% male) in two annual home visits. Observers' ratings and maternal reports were gathered. At both assessments, the twin who showed more conduct problems (maternal report and observers' ratings) and less positive social engagement (positive affect, responsiveness) received more maternal negativity and less maternal warmth (self-reports and observers' ratings), relative to his or her genetically identical co-twin. The same patterns held over time, for the associations between change in differential MZ twin conduct problems and social engagement and change in differential maternal behaviour. Effects for child internalizing problems were not consistent within or across raters. Overall, these results indicated that differential maternal warmth and negativity,self-perceived and observed by others,are important aspects of sibling differentiation for both problematic and adaptive behaviours during middle childhood. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Executive functioning deficits in relation to symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in preschool children

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2006
    Lisa B. Thorell
    Abstract The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4,6. A population-based sample (n=201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of disruptive behaviour problems were collected. Both group differences and linear relations were studied and comorbidity was controlled for dimensionally. In both categorical and dimensional analyses, executive functioning was associated with symptoms of ADHD, but not with symptoms of ODD when controlling for comorbidity, and no significant interactive effects of ADHD and ODD symptoms were found. Effect sizes for significant effects were generally in the medium range. Regarding sex differences, the control for comorbid ODD symptoms appeared to affect the relation between ADHD symptoms and executive functioning somewhat more for girls compared with boys. In conclusion, poor executive functioning in preschool appears to be primarily related to symptoms of ADHD, whereas the relation to symptoms of ODD can be attributed to the large overlap between these two disruptive disorders. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Children with behaviour problems: the influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2006
    Lisbeth Henricsson
    Abstract The aims of the present study were to investigate the role for problematic children of the child's social competence, teacher relations and behaviour with peers for later problem persistence, school performance and peer acceptance, in terms of moderating (protective and exacerbating) and independent effects. Groups of children with externalizing (n=26) and internalizing (n=25) problems and a non-problematic group (n=44) were followed from grade 1,6. Teachers rated behaviour problems and social competence in the first, third and sixth grades, the teacher,child relationship in third grade, and school achievement in sixth grade. Behaviour with peers was assessed in observations in later elementary school. Peer acceptance was assessed through peer nominations in sixth grade. Both problem groups had lower social competence, school achievement and peer acceptance in sixth grade than the non-problematic group. There were moderating and independent effects of social competence, teacher and peer relations on outcomes, but these applied mainly to children with internalizing problems. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Developmental change in the relation between executive functions and symptoms of ADHD and co-occurring behaviour problems

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2006
    Karin C. Brocki
    Abstract In a sample of 92 children aged 6,13 years this study investigates the normal developmental change in the relation between executive functioning (EF) and the core behavioural symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) as well as symptoms often co-occurring with childhood hyperactivity (conduct- and internalizing problems). EF was assessed by using multiple tests grouped through prior factor analysis, resulting in cognitive measures relating to disinhibition, speed/arousal, verbal working memory, non-verbal working memory, and fluency. The results showed that although disinhibition was positively related to hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention mainly for the youngest age group, there were no significant age effects for these relations. Instead, age effects were found for the relations between speed/arousal and inattention as well as for the relations between verbal working memory/fluency and inattention. In the oldest age group poor performance on these cognitive measures was associated with high ratings of inattention. For the total sample a relation was obtained between disinhibition and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as between both working memory measures and internalizing problems. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that poor inhibition is most clearly associated with ADHD symptoms for younger children, whereas poor functioning with regard to later developing and more complex executive functions such as working memory and fluency is associated with ADHD symptoms for older children. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
    Keith A. Crnic
    Abstract Despite increasing interest in the effects of parenting stress on children and families, many questions remain regarding the nature of parenting stress and the mechanism through which stress exerts its influence across time. In this study, cumulative parenting stress was assessed across the preschool period in a sample of 125 typically developing children and their mothers. Indices of parenting stress included both major life events stress-assessed annually from age 3 to 5, and parenting daily hassles assessed every 6 months across the same period. Naturalistic home observations were conducted when children were age 5, during which measures of parent and child interactive behaviour as well as dyadic pleasure and dyadic conflict were obtained. Mothers also completed the CBCL to assess children's behaviour problems. Results indicated that parenting daily hassles and major life stress are relatively stable across the preschool period. Both cumulative stress indices also proved to be important predictors of parent and child behaviour and dyadic interaction, although the predictions were somewhat differential. Despite meaningful relations between the stress factors and child well being, no evidence was found to support the premise that parent behaviour mediates the association between parenting stress and child outcomes. Results are discussed within a developmental framework to understand the stability and complexity of cumulative stress associations to early parent,child relationships. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The relationships between parenting stress, parenting behaviour and preschoolers' social competence and behaviour problems in the classroom

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
    Laura Gutermuth Anthony
    Abstract Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively influences parenting behaviour, which in turn has been shown to impact children's development. This study examined the direct relationship between parenting stress and children's behaviour in two types of preschool programmes: private day care centres and Head Start. Parenting stress was significantly related to teacher ratings of social competence, internalizing behaviours, and externalizing behaviours, and the effects of parenting behaviour do not appear to mediate this relationship. Parenting stress was most strongly related to children's social competence. Parents' reports of expectations for their child's behaviour appear to weakly moderate the relationship between externalizing behaviour and parenting stress. This study suggests that examination of a parent's level of stress, in addition to parenting practices, may be important in research and interventions with preschool children's behaviour and social competence. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Family and work predictors of parenting role stress among two-earner families of children with disabilities

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
    Marji Erickson Warfield
    Abstract Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner families of five-year old children with disabilities. The two-level hierarchical model was adapted to assess mothers and fathers as nested within married couples. Both common and unique predictors of maternal and paternal parenting role stress were found. Having fewer children in the family predicted less stress for both parents. Household income and an interaction between child behaviour problems and work interest were significant predictors of maternal parenting role stress. In contrast, greater difficulty in finding reliable child care predicted higher levels of parenting role stress for fathers but not mothers. The policy and research implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    An observational measure of children's behavioural style: Evidence supporting a multi-method approach to studying temperament

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2004
    Jennifer Karp
    Abstract This study demonstrates the potential utility of the Behavioural Style Observational System (BSOS) as a new observational measure of children's behavioural style. The BSOS is an objective, short and easy to use measure that can be readily adapted to a variety of home and laboratory situations. In the present study, 160 mother,child dyads from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project (CLRP) were observed during an 11-min behavioural sample. Videotaped interactions were coded using the BSOS for children's mood, activity level, vocal reactivity, approach to toys, mood consistency and adaptability. Comparisons between the BSOS observational ratings and mothers' ratings of the child on the EAS Temperament Survey (EAS) provided support for modest congruence between these two measurement systems, and revealed a differential predictive pattern of children's functioning. Specifically, the observation-based BSOS predicted children's cognitive performance and adaptive behaviour during testing, whereas the mother-rated EAS predicted maternal ratings of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems. Both measures were found to independently predict mothers' ratings of parenting stress. Overall, the findings imply that neither observational measures nor maternal ratings alone are sufficient to understand children's behavioural style, and that comprehensive evaluations of children's temperament should optimally include both types of measures. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Assessing expressed emotion: comparing Camberwell Family Interview and Five-minute Speech Sample ratings for mothers of children with behaviour problems

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 3 2006
    R. Calam
    Abstract Little is known of the concordance between ratings of expressed emotion (EE) derived from the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and Five-minute Speech Sample (FMSS) for parents of children with behaviour problems. Concordance between CFI and FMSS ratings of EE was assessed prior to intervention and compared to parent-rated behaviour after intervention, at follow-up, 12 months later. Female primary caretakers of 75 children (3,10 years) showing behavioural difficulties were interviewed using FMSS and CFI. Interviews were coded independently by criterion-standard raters. Using CFI, 57 families were classified high EE, and 18 low EE. Using FMSS, 65 families were classified high EE and 10 low EE. 55/75 pairs of ratings (73%) were the same (high, n = 51: low, n = 4) and 20 mothers (27%) were allocated different EE status (Kappa = 0.14, n.s.). The FMSS ratings at initial interview appeared more closely related to behaviour rating at follow-up than CFI. Further investigation is required to establish comparability of CFI and FMSS results for carers of children. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]