Behavioral Therapy (behavioral + therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Behavioral Therapy

  • cognitive behavioral therapy


  • Selected Abstracts


    Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Trauma (2nd Edition) Edited by Victoria M. Follette and Joseph I. Ruzek.

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 3 2009
    2006., New York: The Guilford Press
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Practitioner Review: Adolescent alcohol use disorders: assessment and treatment issues

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 11 2008
    Francheska Perepletchikova
    Background:, Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods:, A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state of the art knowledge of treatment of adolescent alcohol use disorders. Animal models of addiction are also briefly reviewed, and the value of translational research approaches, using findings from basic studies to guide the design of clinical investigations, is also highlighted. Results:, Comorbidity is the rule, not the exception in adolescent alcohol use disorders. Comprehensive assessment of psychiatric and other substance use disorders, trauma experiences, and suicidality is indicated in this population to optimize selection of appropriate clinical interventions. In terms of available investigated treatments for adolescents with alcohol use disorders, Multidimensional Family Therapy and group administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies have received the most empirical support to date. There is a paucity of research on pharmacological interventions in this patient population, and no firm treatment recommendations can be made in this area. Conclusions:, Given the high rate of relapse after treatment, evaluation of combined psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, and the development of novel intervention strategies are indicated. [source]


    Review of the long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy compared to medications in panic disorder

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2003
    Deepa N. Nadiga M.D.
    Abstract Panic disorder is a recurrent and disabling illness. It is believed that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has a long-term protective effect for this disorder. This would offer CBT considerable advantage over medication management of panic disorder, as patients often relapse when they are tapered off their medications. This is a review of the literature about the long-term effectiveness of CBT. We searched for follow-up studies of panic disorder using CBT. Of the 78 citations produced in the initial search, most had major methodological flaws, including ignoring losses to follow-up, not accounting for interval treatment, and unclear reporting. Three papers met strict methodological criteria, and two of these demonstrated a modest protective effect of CBT in panic disorder patients. We make recommendations for well-designed studies involving comparisons of medications and cognitive behavior therapy. Depression and Anxiety 17:58,64, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Improving Care for Minorities: Can Quality Improvement Interventions Improve Care and Outcomes For Depressed Minorities?

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 2 2003
    Controlled Trial, Results of a Randomized
    Objective. Ethnic minority patients often receive poorer quality care and have worse outcomes than white patients, yet practice-based approaches to reduce such disparities have not been identified. We determined whether practice-initiated quality improvement (QI) interventions for depressed primary care patients improve care across ethnic groups and reduce outcome disparities. Study Setting. The sample consists of 46 primary care practices in 6 U.S. managed care organizations; 181 clinicians; 398 Latinos, 93 African Americans, and 778 white patients with probable depressive disorder. Study Design. Matched practices were randomized to usual care or one of two QI programs that trained local experts to educate clinicians; nurses to educate, assess, and follow-up with patients; and psychotherapists to conduct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Patients and physicians selected treatments. Interventions featured modest accommodations for minority patients (e.g., translations, cultural training for clinicians). Data Extraction Methods. Multilevel logistic regression analyses assessed intervention effects within and among ethnic groups. Principal Findings. At baseline, all ethnic groups (Latino, African American, white) had low to moderate rates of appropriate care and the interventions significantly improved appropriate care at six months (by 8,20 percentage points) within each ethnic group, with no significant difference in response by ethnic group. The interventions significantly decreased the likelihood that Latinos and African Americans would report probable depression at months 6 and 12; the white intervention sample did not differ from controls in reported probable depression at either follow-up. While the intervention significantly improved the rate of employment for whites and not for minorities, precision was low for comparing intervention response on this outcome. It is important to note that minorities remained less likely to have appropriate care and more likely to be depressed than white patients. Conclusions. Implementation of quality improvement interventions that have modest accommodations for minority patients can improve quality of care for whites and underserved minorities alike, while minorities may be especially likely to benefit clinically. Further research needs to clarify whether employment benefits are limited to whites and if so, whether this represents a difference in opportunities. Quality improvement programs appear to improve quality of care without increasing disparities, and may offer an approach to reduce health disparities. [source]


    Variation in GABRA2 Predicts Drinking Behavior in Project MATCH Subjects

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2007
    Lance O. Bauer
    Background:, Previous studies demonstrated, and replicated, an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GABRA2 gene and risk for alcohol dependence. The present study examines the association of a GABRA2 SNP with another definition of alcohol involvement and with the effects of psychosocial treatment. Methods:, European-American subjects (n = 812, 73.4% male) provided DNA samples for the analysis. All were participants in Project Matching Alcoholism Treatment to Client Heterogeneity (MATCH), a multi-center randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of 3 types of psychosocial treatment for alcoholism: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or twelve-step facilitation (TSF). The daily probabilities of drinking and heavy drinking were estimated during the 12-week treatment and 12-month post-treatment periods. Results:, Subjects homozygous for the allele associated with low risk for alcohol dependence in previous studies had lower daily probabilities of drinking and heavy drinking in the present study. This low-risk allele was also associated with a greater difference in drinking outcomes between the treatments. In addition, it enhanced the relative superiority of TSF over CBT and MET. Population stratification was excluded as a confound using ancestry informative marker analysis. Conclusions:, The assessment of genetic vulnerability may be relevant to studies of the efficacy of psychosocial treatment: GABRA2 genotype modifies the variance in drinking and can therefore moderate power for resolving differences between treatments. [source]


    Climbing Our Hills: A Beginning Conversation on the Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
    Steven C. Hayes
    The history and developmental program of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and relational frame theory (RFT) is described, and against that backdrop the target article is considered. In the authors' comparison of ACT and traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), traditional CBT does not refer to specific processes, principles, or theories but to a tribal tradition. Framed in that way, comparisons of ACT and CBT cannot succeed intellectually, because CBT cannot be pinned down. At the level of theory, change processes, and outcomes, ACT/RFT seems to be progressing as measured against its own goals. [source]


    What Allows Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Be Brief: Overview, Efficacy, and Crucial Factors Facilitating Brief Treatment

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2001
    Lata K. McGinn
    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been traditionally used as a short-term treatment for a wide range of emotional disorders and problems. In the present paper, we review aspects of CBT that allow it to be time efficient. Specifically, CBT maximizes efficiency because it uses manual-based, empirically supported treatment strategies and defines specific, measurable, and achievable target goals. A focused assessment process and a relatively structured session format facilitate the implementation of treatment strategies without delay and allow the therapist to make efficient use of session time. Once treatment is implemented, a periodic review of treatment progress using objective criteria enables the therapist and client to make informed decisions about the direction of treatment. CBT uses strategies to enhance generalization and prevent relapse and empowers patients by providing them with skills they can use outside therapy sessions. Finally, the therapist's active, directive stance plays a critical role in making CBT time-efficient. [source]


    Homework Assignments in Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2000
    Nikolaos Kazantzis
    This meta-analysis (27 studies, N= 1702) examined (a) the effects of homework assignments on treatment outcome and (b) the relationship between homework compliance and therapy outcome. Results of the primary meta-analyses indicated a weighted mean effect size (r) of .36 for homework effects and .22 for homework compliance. A moderator analysis (chosen on a priori grounds) was also conducted by partitioning the sample of effect size estimations first according to the sample problem type, according to the type of homework activity administered, and according to the source and time of homework compliance assessment. We hope that the focus of future research will now be diverted from general questions of the benefit of including homework in therapy, to more specific questions regarding the relative effectiveness of different types of homework assignments for different client problems. [source]


    Approaches to the development of medications for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 2007
    Frank J. Vocci
    ABSTRACT Background Methamphetamine abuse has become an increasing problem in both the United States and globally with concomitant increases in adverse medical, social and environmental sequelae. Behavioral therapies have been used with some success to treat methamphetamine abusers and dependent individuals, but are not universally efficacious. Methamphetamine has a rich pharmacology that theoretically provides many opportunities for potential pharmacotherapeutic intervention. Nevertheless, there are no approved medications with an indication for treating methamphetamine abusers or addicts at this time. Aim To describe briefly how methamphetamine functions and affects function in brain and report how basic researchers and clinicians are attempting to exploit and exploiting this knowledge to discover and develop effective pharmacotherapies. Results Scientifically based approaches to medications development by evaluating medications that limit brain exposure to methamphetamine; modulate methamphetamine effects at vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2); or affect dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic, and/or glutamatergic brain pathways that participate in methamphetamine's reinforcing effects are presented. Conclusion The evidence supports the rationale that pharmacotherapies to decrease methamphetamine use, or reduce craving during abstinence may be developed from altering the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methamphetamine or its effects on appetitive systems in the brain. [source]


    The Role of Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Insomnia

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2001
    Meta-Analysis of Benzodiazepine Use in the Treatment of Insomnia
    PURPOSE: To obtain a precise estimate of the efficacy and common adverse effects of benzodiazepines for the treatment of insomnia compared with those of placebo and other treatments. BACKGROUND: Insomnia, also referred to as disorder of initiating or maintaining sleep, is a common problem and its prevalence among older people is estimated to be 23% to 34%.1 The total direct cost in the United States for insomnia in 1995 was estimated to be $13.9 billion.2 The complaint of insomnia in older people is associated with chronic medical conditions; psychiatric problems, mainly depression, chronic pain, and poor perceived general condition;1,3,4 and use of sleep medications.5 Thus in most cases, insomnia is due to some other underlying problem and is not just a consequence of aging.6 Accordingly, the management of insomnia should focus on addressing the primary problem and not just short-term treatment of the insomnia. Benzodiazepines belong to the drug class of choice for the symptomatic treatment of primary insomnia.7 This abstract will appraise a meta-analysis that compared the effect of benzodiazepines for short-term treatment of primary insomnia with placebo or other treatment. DATA SOURCES: Data sources included articles listed in Medline from 1966 to December 1998 and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry. The medical subject heading (MeSH) search terms used were "benzodiazepine" (exploded) or "benzodiazepine tranquillizers" (exploded) or "clonazepam,""drug therapy,""randomized controlled trial" or "random allocation" or "all random,""human," and "English language." In addition, bibliographies of retrieved articles were scanned for additional articles and manufacturers of brand-name benzodiazepines were asked for reports of early trials not published in the literature. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: Reports of randomized controlled trials of benzodiazepine therapy for primary insomnia were considered for the meta-analysis if they compared a benzodiazepine with a placebo or an alternative active drug. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted from 45 randomized controlled trials representing 2,672 patients, 47% of whom were women. Fifteen studies included patients age 65 and older and four studies involved exclusively older patients. Twenty-five studies were based in the community and nine involved inpatients. The duration of the studies ranged from 1 day to 6 weeks, with a mean of 12.2 days and median of 7.5 days. The primary outcome measures analyzed were sleep latency and total sleep duration after a sleep study, subjects' estimates of sleep latency and sleep duration, and subjects' report of adverse effects. Interrater reliability was checked through duplicate, independent abstraction of the first 21 articles. Overall agreement was between 95% and 98% (kappa value of 0.90 and 0.95 accordingly) for classification of the studies and validity of therapy, and 76% (kappa value of 0.51) for study of harmful effects. A scale of 0 to 5 was used to rate the individual reports, taking into account the quality of randomization, blinding, follow-up, and control for baseline differences between groups. Tests for homogeneity were applied across the individual studies and, when studies were found to be heterogeneous, subgroup analysis according to a predefined group was performed. MAIN RESULTS: The drugs used in the meta-analysis included triazolam in 16 studies; flurazepam in 14 studies; temazepam in 13 studies; midazolam in five studies; nitrazepam in four studies; and estazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in two studies each. Alternative drug therapies included zopiclone in 13 studies and diphenhydramine, glutethimide, and promethazine in one study each. Only one article reported on a nonpharmacological treatment (behavioral therapy). The mean age of patients was reported in 33 of the 45 studies and ranged between 29 and 82. SLEEP LATENCY: In four studies involving 159 subjects, there was sleep-record latency (time to fall asleep) data for analysis. The pooled difference indicated that the latency to sleep for patients receiving a benzodiazepine was 4.2 minutes (95% CI = (,0.7) (,9.2)) shorter than for those receiving placebo. Patient's estimates of sleep latency examined in eight studies showed a difference of 14.3 minutes (95% CI = 10.6,18.0) in favor of benzodiazepines over placebo. TOTAL SLEEP DURATION: Analysis of two studies involving 35 patients in which total sleep duration using sleep-record results was compared indicated that patients in the benzodiazepine groups slept for an average of 61.8 minutes (95% CI = 37.4,86.2) longer than those in the placebo groups. Patient's estimates of sleep duration from eight studies (566 points) showed total sleep duration to be 48.4 minutes (95% CI = 39.6,57.1) longer for patients taking benzodiazepines than for those on placebo. ADVERSE EFFECTS: Analysis of eight studies (889 subjects) showed that those in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely than those in the placebo groups to complain of daytime drowsiness (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8,3.4). Analysis of four studies (326 subjects) also showed that subjects in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely to complain of dizziness or lightheadedness than the placebo groups. (OR 2.6, 95% CI = 0.7,10.3). Despite the increased reported side effects in the benzodiazepine groups, drop-out rates were similar in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups. For patient reported outcome, there was no strong correlation found for sleep latency data, (r = 0.4, 95% CI = (,0.3) (,0.9)) or for sleep duration (r = 0.2, 95% CI = ,0.8,0.4) between benzodiazepine dose and outcome. COMPARISON WITH OTHER DRUGS AND TREATMENTS: In three trials with 96 subjects, meta-analysis of the results comparing benzodiazepines with zopiclone, did not show significant difference in sleep latency in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups, but the benzodiazepine groups had increased total sleep duration (23.1 min. 95% CI = 5.6,40.6). In four trials with 252 subjects, the side effect profile did not show a statistically significant difference (OR 1.5, CI 0.8,2.9). There was only one study comparing the effect of behavioral therapy with triazolam. The result showed that triazolam was more effective than behavioral therapy in decreasing sleep latency, but its efficacy declined by the second week of treatment. Behavioral therapy remained effective throughout the 9-week follow-up period. There were four small trials that involved older patients exclusively, with three of the studies having less than 2 weeks of follow-up. The results were mixed regarding benefits and adverse effects were poorly reported. CONCLUSION: The result of the meta-analysis shows that the use of benzodiazepines results in a decrease in sleep latency and a significant increase in total sleep time as compared with placebo. There was also a report of significantly increased side effects, but this did not result in increased discontinuation rate. There was no dose-response relationship for beneficial effect seen with the use of benzodiazepines, although the data are scant. Zopiclone was the only alternative pharmacological therapy that could be studied with any precision. There was no significant difference in the outcome when benzodiazepines were compared with zopiclone. There was only one study that compared the effect of benzodiazepines with nonpharmacological therapy; thus available data are insufficient to comment. [source]


    Sleep and Headache Disorders: Clinical Recommendations for Headache Management

    HEADACHE, Issue 2006
    Jeanetta C. Rains PhD
    Clinical practice points were drawn from a review of sleep and headache disorders published in the regular issue of Headache (released in tandem with this supplement). The recommendations include: (1) Sleep as well as psychiatric disorders tend to become prevalent in more complex and severe headache patterns and regulation of sleep and mood may favorably impact headache threshold; (2) Specific headache patterns, irrespective of headache diagnosis, are suggestive of a potential sleep disorder (eg, "awakening" or morning headache, chronic daily headache); (3) Sleep disorders most implicated with headache include obstructive sleep apnea, primary insomnia, and circadian phase abnormalities, and treatment of such sleep disorders may improve or resolve headache; (4) Inexpensive screening tools (eg, sleep history interview, headache/sleep diary, validated questionnaires, prediction equations) aid identification of patients warranting polysomnography; and (5) Pharmacologic and behavioral therapies are effective in the regulation of sleep and are compatible with usual headache care. [source]


    Factors Affecting %CDT Status at Entry Into a Multisite Clinical Treatment Trial: Experience from the COMBINE Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2006
    Raymond F. Anton
    Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) occurs as a higher percentage of normal transferrin (%CDT) in heavy drinkers. %CDT is used as a marker of both alcohol use disorder severity and treatment outcome both clinically and in treatment trials. Nevertheless, little is known about the parameters that predict which patients are %CDT positives at treatment entry. These parameters might include level of drinking, days of abstinence before testing, and severity of alcohol dependence before evaluation. Methods: %CDT levels were collected before randomization from participants of the COMBINE Study, a large federally sponsored multisite clinical trial evaluating medications and behavioral therapies in alcohol-dependent outpatients. %CDT (assayed in a central laboratory) was available in 1,193 individuals for whom drinking history in the 30 days before testing and measures of alcoholism severity were documented. The effects of drinking history and alcohol severity were evaluated for prediction of a %CDT-positive test status. Results: Less percent days abstinent (PDA) and more drinks per drinking day (DDD) were predictive of higher rates of %CDT-positive patients (maximum 67%). Up to 14 days of continuous abstinence before testing did not appear to significantly affect %CDT status. Rates of %CDT positives remained reasonably steady up to about 40% PDA. Years of drinking at dependence levels had an unexpected negative impact on %CDT-positive rates while previous treatment had a small but positive impact of %CDT-positive rates. ADS and DrInC scores had no predictive value over and above recent drinking amounts on %CDT status. Conclusions: %CDT is more likely to be positive in those who have more days of drinking and to a lesser degree in those who drink more per drinking day. It can remain positive even in those alcoholic subjects who stop drinking many days before testing. Alcoholic subjects with more treatment experiences appear to have a marginally higher %CDT-positive rate. [source]


    Cognitive,behavioral therapy with childhood anxiety disorders: Functioning in adolescence

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 4 2004
    Katharina Manassis M.D.
    Abstract We examined anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related impairment, and further treatment in adolescents who received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety disorders 6,7 years previously. Forty-three adolescents and their parents (14 boys, 29 girls; mean age 16.7 years) participated in structured telephone interviews. Participants (68% of initial sample of 63) did not differ in age, diagnostic profile, socioeconomic status, or initial severity from nonparticipants but more girls than boys participated. Indices based on child- and parent-reported symptoms and impairment were calculated, and within-sample comparisons by age, gender, diagnosis, and initial severity were done using t tests. Predictors of symptoms and impairment were also examined. On average, adolescents reported modest levels of anxiety-related impairment. Further treatment for anxiety had occurred in 30% (13 of 43) of patients. Stepwise regressions found female gender and diagnosis other than generalized anxiety disorder predictive of increased symptoms by parent report, and initial severity predicted adolescent-reported impairment. Adolescents showed limited internalizing symptomatology and impairment but almost one third had required further treatment. Studies comparing treated and untreated samples are needed to clarify whether CBT alters the natural history of childhood anxiety disorders and to replicate our findings regarding predictors of symptomatology and impairment. Depression and Anxiety 00:000,000, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Review of the long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy compared to medications in panic disorder

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2003
    Deepa N. Nadiga M.D.
    Abstract Panic disorder is a recurrent and disabling illness. It is believed that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has a long-term protective effect for this disorder. This would offer CBT considerable advantage over medication management of panic disorder, as patients often relapse when they are tapered off their medications. This is a review of the literature about the long-term effectiveness of CBT. We searched for follow-up studies of panic disorder using CBT. Of the 78 citations produced in the initial search, most had major methodological flaws, including ignoring losses to follow-up, not accounting for interval treatment, and unclear reporting. Three papers met strict methodological criteria, and two of these demonstrated a modest protective effect of CBT in panic disorder patients. We make recommendations for well-designed studies involving comparisons of medications and cognitive behavior therapy. Depression and Anxiety 17:58,64, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2009
    M. C. ZanariniArticle first published online: 6 OCT 200
    Objective:, Psychotherapy is considered the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Currently, there are four comprehensive psychosocial treatments for BPD. Two of these treatments are considered psychodynamic in nature: mentalization-based treatment and transference-focused psychotherapy. The other two are considered to be cognitive-behavioral in nature: dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy. Method:, A review of the relevant literature was conducted. Results:, Each of these lengthy and complex psychotherapies significantly reduces the severity of borderline psychopathology or at least some aspects of it, particularly physically self-destructive acts. Conclusion:, Comprehensive, long-term psychotherapy can be a useful form of treatment for those with BPD. However, less intensive and less costly forms of treatment need to be developed. [source]


    Brief motivational interventions for college student problem gamblers

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    Nancy M. Petry
    ABSTRACT Aims College students experience high rates of problem and pathological gambling, yet little research has investigated methods for reducing gambling in this population. This study sought to examine the efficacy of brief intervention strategies. Design Randomized trial. Setting College campuses. Participants A total of 117 college student problem and pathological gamblers. Interventions Students were assigned randomly to: an assessment-only control, 10 minutes of brief advice, one session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or one session of MET, plus three sessions of cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT). The three interventions were designed to reduce gambling. Measurements Gambling was assessed at baseline, week 6 and month 9 using the Addiction Severity Index,gambling (ASI-G) module, which also assesses days and dollars wagered. Findings Compared to the assessment-only condition, those receiving any intervention had significant decreases in ASI-G scores and days and dollars wagered over time. The MET condition decreased significantly ASI-G scores and dollars wagered over time, and increased the odds of a clinically significant reduction in gambling at the 9-month follow-up relative to the assessment-only condition, even after controlling for baseline indices that could impact outcomes. The Brief Advice and MET+CBT conditions had benefits on some, but not all, indices of gambling. None of the interventions differed significantly from one another. Conclusions These results suggest the efficacy of brief interventions for reducing gambling problems in college students. [source]


    Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    Sharon M. Hall
    ABSTRACT Aims Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25,30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers , 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Design Open randomized clinical trial. Setting A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. Participants A total of 402 smokers of , 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Intervention Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Measurements Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. Findings The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Conclusions Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy. Research is needed to determine if these results can be replicated in a sample with a greater range of ages, and improved upon with the addition of medications other than NRT. [source]


    RESEARCH REPORT Alcoholism treatment and medical care costs from Project MATCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2000
    Harold D. Holder
    Aims. This paper examines the costs of medical care prior to and following initiation of alcoholism treatment as part of a study of patient matching to treatment modality. Design Longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment initiation. Measurements. The total medical care costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment for patients participating over a span of 3 years post-treatment. Setting. Three treatment sites at two of the nine Project MATCH locations (Milwaukee, WI and Providence, RI). Participants. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients. Intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment modalities: a 12-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a four-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or a 12-session Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF) treatment over 12 weeks. Findings. Total medical care costs declined from pre- to post-treatment overall and for each modality. Matching effects independent of clinical prognosis showed that MET has potential for medical-care cost-savings. However, patients with poor prognostic characteristics (alcohol dependence, psychiatric severity and/or social network support for drinking) have better cost-savings potential with CBT and/or TSF., Conclusions. Matching variables have significant importance in increasing the potential for medical-care cost-reductions following alcoholism treatment. [source]


    Cortical lesions associated with transient neurological symptoms , not always a matter of cause and effect

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    S. Kipervasser
    The occurrence of transient recurrent stereotypical neurological events mandates the exclusion of an underlying brain lesion. When imaging studies demonstrate the presence of a structural brain lesion, a cause and effect relationship between the two entities is assumed, and the decision for surgical intervention may then follow almost automatically. We describe five patients with transient neurological events suspected as being seizures that were referred for surgery because of an associated structural brain lesion. Video electroencephalographic recordings revealed that the events that brought these patients to neurosurgical attention were non-epileptic seizures. None of these patients underwent surgical intervention, and all were referred for behavioral therapy. Therefore, even in the presence of a confirmed brain lesion, the presenting paroxysmal events may be of a non-organic origin and should not necessarily be assumed to be caused by the concomitantly existing structural abnormality. [source]


    Pearls From an Inpatient Headache Unit

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2008
    Joel R. Saper MD
    Much can be learned from treating over 15,000 headache hospitalized patients over the course of 30 years. By the very need to be admitted, these individuals are complicated, both physiologically and often psychologically. Founded in 1978, the Michigan Head Pain and Neurological Institute and its hospital unit developed a set of criteria for admission and a growing staff of professionals to serve this complex population of patients. Experience has taught us many lessons; several are considered in this review. Among the important topics discussed are: admission criteria to the hospital unit; treatment protocols and other hospital-based strategies; integration of behavioral therapy and therapists into the treatment system; diagnostic testing of patients with intractable headache; identifying the "problem patient" and "medication misuse" early in the course of therapy; approaching the headache patient with cluster B personality disorder; and the use of interventional and anesthesiological treatment for intractable headache. Outcome data and a review of recent publications are presented. [source]


    Behavioral Sleep Modification May Revert Transformed Migraine to Episodic Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2007
    Anne H. Calhoun MD
    Background.,Sleep problems have been linked with headaches for more than a century, but whether the headaches are the cause or the result of the disrupted sleep is unknown. Objectives.,We previously reported that nonrestorative sleep and poor sleep habits are almost universal in a referral population of women with transformed migraine (TM). Since cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in improving sleep quality in individuals with poor sleep hygiene, we designed a randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the impact of such treatment on TM. We hypothesized that behavioral sleep modification (BSM) would be associated with improvement in headache frequency and intensity and with reversion to episodic migraine. Methods.,Subjects were 43 women with TM referred to an academic headache center. After obtaining informed consent, patients were randomized to receive either behavioral sleep instructions or placebo behavioral instructions in addition to usual medical care. Subjects recorded headaches in standardized diaries. The first postintervention visit was scheduled at 6 weeks. At that visit, the blind was broken and all subjects received BSM instructions. A final visit was scheduled 6 weeks later. Results.,Compared to the placebo behavioral group, the BSM group reported statistically significant reduction in headache frequency [F (1, 33 = 12.42, P=.001)] and headache intensity [F(1, 33 = 14.39, P= .01)]. They were more likely to revert to episodic migraine ,2 (2, n = 43) = 7.06, P= .029. No member of the control group reverted to episodic migraine by the first postintervention visit. By the final visit, 48.5% of those who had received BSM instructions had reverted to episodic migraine. Conclusions.,In this pilot study of women with TM, we found that a targeted behavioral sleep invention was associated with improvement in headache frequency, headache index, and with reversion to episodic migraine. [source]


    Anorexia nervosa treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2007
    Cynthia M. Bulik PhD
    Abstract Objective: The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with treatment efficacy, and differential outcome by sociodemographic characteristics. Method: We searched six major databases for studies on the treatment of AN from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria focusing on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. Results: Thirty-two treatment studies involved only medications, only behavioral interventions, and medication plus behavioral interventions for adults or adolescents. The literature on medication treatments and behavioral treatments for adults with AN is sparse and inconclusive. Cognitive behavioral therapy may reduce relapse risk for adults with AN after weight restoration, although its efficacy in the underweight state remains unknown. Variants of family therapy are efficacious in adolescents, but not in adults. Conclusion: Evidence for AN treatment is weak; evidence for treatment-related harms and factors associated with efficacy of treatment are weak; and evidence for differential outcome by sociodemographic factors is nonexistent. Attention to sample size and statistical power, standardization of outcome measures, retention of patients in clinical trials, and developmental differences in treatment appropriateness and outcome is required. 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]


    A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss treatment for overweight individuals with binge eating disorder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2007
    Simone Munsch PhD
    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss treatment (BWLT) for overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighty obese patients meeting criteria of BED according to DSM-IV-TR were randomly assigned to either CBT or BWLT consisting of 16 weekly treatments and 6 monthly follow-up sessions. Binge eating, general psychopathology, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed before, during, and after treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Results: At posttreatment results favored CBT as the more effective treatment. Analysis of the course of treatments pointed to a faster improvement of binge eating in CBT based on the number of self-reported weekly binges, but faster reduction of BMI in BWLT. At 12-month follow-up, no substantial differences between the two treatment conditions existed. Conclusion: CBT was somewhat more efficacious than BWLT in treating binge eating but this superior effect was barely maintained in the long term. Further research into cost effectiveness is needed to assess which treatment should be considered the treatment of choice. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]


    Role of exposure with response prevention in cognitive,behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: Three-year follow-up results

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 2 2003
    Frances A. Carter
    Abstract Background Previous studies have not reported the longer-term outcome of exposure-based treatments for bulimia nervosa. The current study evaluated the 3-year outcome of a randomized clinical trial that compared the additive efficacy of exposure-based versus nonexposure-based behavioral treatments (BT) with a core of cognitive,behavior therapy (CBT). Methods One hundred thirteen women participated in the original treatment trial and attended a 3-year follow-up assessment. Eating disorder diagnoses and primary, secondary, and tertiary outcome measures were assessed. The impact of treatment completion on symptomatology and the stability of treatment effects over time were evaluated. Results At the 3-year follow-up, 85% of the sample had no current diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 69% had no current eating disorder diagnoses of any sort. Failure to complete CBT was associated with inferior outcome. No clear advantages were evident for participants who completed BT in addition to CBT. For subjects who did complete both CBT and BT, outcome was mostly stable from posttreatment to follow-up. No differential effects were found for exposure versus nonexposure-based treatments at 3-year follow-up. Discussion The results of the current study compare favorably with other treatment outcome studies for bulimia nervosa and suggest that treatment gains are maintained after 3 years. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 127,135, 2003. [source]


    The Role of Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Insomnia

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 6 2001
    Meta-Analysis of Benzodiazepine Use in the Treatment of Insomnia
    PURPOSE: To obtain a precise estimate of the efficacy and common adverse effects of benzodiazepines for the treatment of insomnia compared with those of placebo and other treatments. BACKGROUND: Insomnia, also referred to as disorder of initiating or maintaining sleep, is a common problem and its prevalence among older people is estimated to be 23% to 34%.1 The total direct cost in the United States for insomnia in 1995 was estimated to be $13.9 billion.2 The complaint of insomnia in older people is associated with chronic medical conditions; psychiatric problems, mainly depression, chronic pain, and poor perceived general condition;1,3,4 and use of sleep medications.5 Thus in most cases, insomnia is due to some other underlying problem and is not just a consequence of aging.6 Accordingly, the management of insomnia should focus on addressing the primary problem and not just short-term treatment of the insomnia. Benzodiazepines belong to the drug class of choice for the symptomatic treatment of primary insomnia.7 This abstract will appraise a meta-analysis that compared the effect of benzodiazepines for short-term treatment of primary insomnia with placebo or other treatment. DATA SOURCES: Data sources included articles listed in Medline from 1966 to December 1998 and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry. The medical subject heading (MeSH) search terms used were "benzodiazepine" (exploded) or "benzodiazepine tranquillizers" (exploded) or "clonazepam,""drug therapy,""randomized controlled trial" or "random allocation" or "all random,""human," and "English language." In addition, bibliographies of retrieved articles were scanned for additional articles and manufacturers of brand-name benzodiazepines were asked for reports of early trials not published in the literature. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: Reports of randomized controlled trials of benzodiazepine therapy for primary insomnia were considered for the meta-analysis if they compared a benzodiazepine with a placebo or an alternative active drug. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted from 45 randomized controlled trials representing 2,672 patients, 47% of whom were women. Fifteen studies included patients age 65 and older and four studies involved exclusively older patients. Twenty-five studies were based in the community and nine involved inpatients. The duration of the studies ranged from 1 day to 6 weeks, with a mean of 12.2 days and median of 7.5 days. The primary outcome measures analyzed were sleep latency and total sleep duration after a sleep study, subjects' estimates of sleep latency and sleep duration, and subjects' report of adverse effects. Interrater reliability was checked through duplicate, independent abstraction of the first 21 articles. Overall agreement was between 95% and 98% (kappa value of 0.90 and 0.95 accordingly) for classification of the studies and validity of therapy, and 76% (kappa value of 0.51) for study of harmful effects. A scale of 0 to 5 was used to rate the individual reports, taking into account the quality of randomization, blinding, follow-up, and control for baseline differences between groups. Tests for homogeneity were applied across the individual studies and, when studies were found to be heterogeneous, subgroup analysis according to a predefined group was performed. MAIN RESULTS: The drugs used in the meta-analysis included triazolam in 16 studies; flurazepam in 14 studies; temazepam in 13 studies; midazolam in five studies; nitrazepam in four studies; and estazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in two studies each. Alternative drug therapies included zopiclone in 13 studies and diphenhydramine, glutethimide, and promethazine in one study each. Only one article reported on a nonpharmacological treatment (behavioral therapy). The mean age of patients was reported in 33 of the 45 studies and ranged between 29 and 82. SLEEP LATENCY: In four studies involving 159 subjects, there was sleep-record latency (time to fall asleep) data for analysis. The pooled difference indicated that the latency to sleep for patients receiving a benzodiazepine was 4.2 minutes (95% CI = (,0.7) (,9.2)) shorter than for those receiving placebo. Patient's estimates of sleep latency examined in eight studies showed a difference of 14.3 minutes (95% CI = 10.6,18.0) in favor of benzodiazepines over placebo. TOTAL SLEEP DURATION: Analysis of two studies involving 35 patients in which total sleep duration using sleep-record results was compared indicated that patients in the benzodiazepine groups slept for an average of 61.8 minutes (95% CI = 37.4,86.2) longer than those in the placebo groups. Patient's estimates of sleep duration from eight studies (566 points) showed total sleep duration to be 48.4 minutes (95% CI = 39.6,57.1) longer for patients taking benzodiazepines than for those on placebo. ADVERSE EFFECTS: Analysis of eight studies (889 subjects) showed that those in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely than those in the placebo groups to complain of daytime drowsiness (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8,3.4). Analysis of four studies (326 subjects) also showed that subjects in the benzodiazepine groups were more likely to complain of dizziness or lightheadedness than the placebo groups. (OR 2.6, 95% CI = 0.7,10.3). Despite the increased reported side effects in the benzodiazepine groups, drop-out rates were similar in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups. For patient reported outcome, there was no strong correlation found for sleep latency data, (r = 0.4, 95% CI = (,0.3) (,0.9)) or for sleep duration (r = 0.2, 95% CI = ,0.8,0.4) between benzodiazepine dose and outcome. COMPARISON WITH OTHER DRUGS AND TREATMENTS: In three trials with 96 subjects, meta-analysis of the results comparing benzodiazepines with zopiclone, did not show significant difference in sleep latency in the benzodiazepine and placebo groups, but the benzodiazepine groups had increased total sleep duration (23.1 min. 95% CI = 5.6,40.6). In four trials with 252 subjects, the side effect profile did not show a statistically significant difference (OR 1.5, CI 0.8,2.9). There was only one study comparing the effect of behavioral therapy with triazolam. The result showed that triazolam was more effective than behavioral therapy in decreasing sleep latency, but its efficacy declined by the second week of treatment. Behavioral therapy remained effective throughout the 9-week follow-up period. There were four small trials that involved older patients exclusively, with three of the studies having less than 2 weeks of follow-up. The results were mixed regarding benefits and adverse effects were poorly reported. CONCLUSION: The result of the meta-analysis shows that the use of benzodiazepines results in a decrease in sleep latency and a significant increase in total sleep time as compared with placebo. There was also a report of significantly increased side effects, but this did not result in increased discontinuation rate. There was no dose-response relationship for beneficial effect seen with the use of benzodiazepines, although the data are scant. Zopiclone was the only alternative pharmacological therapy that could be studied with any precision. There was no significant difference in the outcome when benzodiazepines were compared with zopiclone. There was only one study that compared the effect of benzodiazepines with nonpharmacological therapy; thus available data are insufficient to comment. [source]


    Cognitive behavioral therapy of negative symptoms

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Dimitri Perivoliotis
    Abstract Negative symptoms account for much of the functional disability associated with schizophrenia and often persist despite pharmacological treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising adjunctive psychotherapy for negative symptoms. The treatment is based on a cognitive formulation in which negative symptoms arise and are maintained by dysfunctional beliefs that are a reaction to the neurocognitive impairment and discouraging life events frequently experienced by individuals with schizophrenia. This article outlines recent innovations in tailoring CBT for negative symptoms and functioning, including the use of a strong goal-oriented recovery approach, in-session exercises designed to disconfirm dysfunctional beliefs, and adaptations to circumvent neurocognitive and engagement difficulties. A case illustration is provided. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 65:1,16, 2009. [source]


    Religiously oriented mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    William Hathaway
    Abstract The interface of religiously accommodative and oriented treatments and the cognitive,behavioral tradition is explored. In terms of Hayes' characterization of the evolution of the cognitive,behavioral tradition through three waves, considerable theoretical, clinical, and empirical work emerged to support a religiously accommodative cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT) during the second-generation CBTs. Rather than including religion and spirituality, the third-wave CBT traditions have engaged in spiritual themes inspired heavily from Eastern religious traditions. The authors discuss the application of a religiously congruent third-wave cognitive therapy with a depressed conservatively Christian client. Some conceptual challenges and rationales for adopting such treatments with Christian or other theist clients are described. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 65:158,171, 2009. [source]


    Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavioral therapy, and fluoxetine (prozac) in treating depression: a randomized clinical trial,

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Florin A. Sava
    Abstract Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive therapy (CT), rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), and fluoxetine (Prozac) for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in a randomized clinical trial with a Romanian sample of 170 clients. Each intervention was offered for 14 weeks, plus three booster sessions. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were obtained prior to intervention, 7 and 14 weeks following the start of intervention, and 6 months following completion of intervention. CT, REBT, and fluoxetine did not differ significantly in changes in the BDI, depression-free days (DFDs), or Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Average BDI scores decreased from 31.1 before treatment to 9.7 six months following completion of treatment. Due to lower costs, both psychotherapies were more cost-effective, and had better cost-utility, than pharmacotherapy: median $26.44/DFD gained/month for CT and $23.77/DFD gained/month for REBT versus $34.93/DFD gained/month for pharmacotherapy, median $/QALYs=$1,638, $1,734, and $2,287 for CT, REBT, and fluoxetine (Prozac), respectively. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65:1,17, 2009. [source]


    Role of gender in depressive disorder outcome for individual and group cognitive,behavioral treatment,

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Hunna J. Watson
    Abstract Gender in cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT) for outcome for depression has been inadequately examined in previous research. Thirty-five men and 55 women diagnosed with a depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) completed individual CBT at an outpatient community mental health clinic and 56 men and 105 women completed group CBT. Depression severity was measured before treatment and at endpoint using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) along with secondary outcomes of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) and quality of life (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire; Endicott, Nee, Harrison, & Blumenthal, 1993). Men and women demonstrated equivalent pretreatment and posttreatment illness severity, a comparable gradient of improvement on outcomes, and attainment of clinically meaningful benchmarks. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 64:1,15, 2008. [source]


    MCMI-III personality complexity and depression treatment outcome following group-based cognitive,behavioral therapy

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Mark A. Craigie
    This study investigated the association of personality disorder complexity to treatment outcome for depression following time-limited group-based cognitive,behavioral therapy. One hundred fifteen outpatients with a primary diagnosis of depression participated in the study. In this study, personality disorder complexity was determined by the degree of personality disorder comorbidity identified by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, 1994). As predicted, analyses revealed that increasing personality disorder complexity was related to increasing baseline symptom severity and slightly poorer end-state functioning at posttreatment. However, results regarding clinically significant improvement and mean improvement in depression symptoms were less supportive of an association between personality disorder complexity and poorer treatment outcome. The implications of these findings for treatment planning are discussed. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 1153,1170, 2007. [source]