Behavior

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Behavior

  • Self-injuriou behavior
  • aberrant motor behavior
  • abnormal behavior
  • absorption behavior
  • abusive behavior
  • activity behavior
  • actual behavior
  • adaptive behavior
  • addictive behavior
  • adjustment behavior
  • adolescent antisocial behavior
  • adolescent behavior
  • adolescent health behavior
  • adolescent problem behavior
  • adolescent risk behavior
  • adolescent sexual behavior
  • adsorption behavior
  • affective behavior
  • affiliative behavior
  • aggregation behavior
  • aggressive behavior
  • aggressive clinical behavior
  • aging behavior
  • agonistic behavior
  • alcohol-related behavior
  • allocation behavior
  • animal behavior
  • anisotropic behavior
  • anomalous behavior
  • anti-predator behavior
  • antipredator behavior
  • antisocial behavior
  • anxiety-like behavior
  • anxiety-related behavior
  • appetitive behavior
  • approach behavior
  • appropriate behavior
  • asymptotic behavior
  • attachment behavior
  • avoidance behavior
  • base behavior
  • basis behavior
  • bidding behavior
  • binding behavior
  • biologic behavior
  • biological behavior
  • breastfeeding behavior
  • breeding behavior
  • bullying behavior
  • cancer screening behavior
  • caregiver behavior
  • catalytic behavior
  • cell behavior
  • cellular behavior
  • certain behavior
  • challenging behavior
  • characteristic behavior
  • chemical behavior
  • child behavior
  • children behavior
  • children externalizing behavior
  • children problem behavior
  • choice behavior
  • chromatographic behavior
  • citizenship behavior
  • clinical behavior
  • cocaine-seeking behavior
  • collaborative behavior
  • combustion behavior
  • communication behavior
  • communicative behavior
  • competitive behavior
  • complex behavior
  • complex human behavior
  • complex social behavior
  • complexation behavior
  • compression behavior
  • compulsive behavior
  • conduction behavior
  • conductivity behavior
  • conflict behavior
  • conformational behavior
  • constitutive behavior
  • consumer behavior
  • consumption behavior
  • control behavior
  • convergence behavior
  • cooperative behavior
  • coordination behavior
  • coping behavior
  • corrosion behavior
  • cost behavior
  • counterproductive work behavior
  • courtship behavior
  • creep behavior
  • criminal behavior
  • critical behavior
  • crystalline behavior
  • crystallization behavior
  • curing behavior
  • customer behavior
  • cyclic behavior
  • damping behavior
  • decay behavior
  • decision-making behavior
  • decomposition behavior
  • deformation behavior
  • degradation behavior
  • dehydration behavior
  • delinquent behavior
  • densification behavior
  • depression-like behavior
  • destructive behavior
  • deviant behavior
  • dielectric behavior
  • dietary behavior
  • different adsorption behavior
  • different behavior
  • diffusion behavior
  • dimorphic behavior
  • disease behavior
  • disorder behavior
  • dispersal behavior
  • dispersion behavior
  • disruptive behavior
  • dissociation behavior
  • dissolution behavior
  • drinking behavior
  • driving behavior
  • drug release behavior
  • drying behavior
  • ductile behavior
  • dynamic behavior
  • dynamic mechanical behavior
  • dynamical behavior
  • eating behavior
  • economic behavior
  • elastic behavior
  • electrical behavior
  • electrochemical behavior
  • emergence behavior
  • emission behavior
  • emotional behavior
  • employee behavior
  • entrepreneurial behavior
  • environmental behavior
  • equilibrium behavior
  • escape behavior
  • ethical behavior
  • evasive behavior
  • exercise behavior
  • expansion behavior
  • exploratory behavior
  • externalizing behavior
  • failure behavior
  • family behavior
  • fatigue behavior
  • feeding behavior
  • female behavior
  • ferromagnetic behavior
  • fertility behavior
  • field behavior
  • financial behavior
  • fire behavior
  • firm behavior
  • flow behavior
  • fluidization behavior
  • fluorescence behavior
  • folding behavior
  • foraging behavior
  • foreign policy behavior
  • formation behavior
  • fracture behavior
  • fragmentation behavior
  • freezing behavior
  • friction behavior
  • future behavior
  • gambling behavior
  • goal-directed behavior
  • grain growth behavior
  • group behavior
  • growth behavior
  • harmful behavior
  • health behavior
  • health risk behavior
  • health-promoting behavior
  • health-related behavior
  • health-risk behavior
  • healthy behavior
  • help-seeking behavior
  • high-risk behavior
  • high-risk sexual behavior
  • hiv risk behavior
  • hiv-risk behavior
  • homing behavior
  • human behavior
  • hysteretic behavior
  • illegal behavior
  • impact behavior
  • impulsive behavior
  • inclusion behavior
  • individual behavior
  • infant behavior
  • interaction behavior
  • interactive behavior
  • interfacial behavior
  • internalizing behavior
  • interpersonal behavior
  • invasive behavior
  • investment behavior
  • job search behavior
  • judicial behavior
  • kinetic behavior
  • leadership behavior
  • learned behavior
  • learning behavior
  • lifestyle behavior
  • linear behavior
  • liquid crystalline behavior
  • locomotive behavior
  • locomotor behavior
  • long-term behavior
  • macroscopic behavior
  • magnetic behavior
  • maladaptive behavior
  • male courtship behavior
  • male sexual behavior
  • malignant behavior
  • management behavior
  • managerial behavior
  • market behavior
  • mass transfer behavior
  • material behavior
  • maternal behavior
  • mating behavior
  • mechanical behavior
  • melting behavior
  • memory behavior
  • metabolic behavior
  • metallic behavior
  • metastatic behavior
  • microphase separation behavior
  • migration behavior
  • migratory behavior
  • model behavior
  • moral behavior
  • motor behavior
  • multiple risk behavior
  • natural behavior
  • negative behavior
  • nesting behavior
  • newtonian behavior
  • noise behavior
  • non-newtonian behavior
  • nonisothermal crystallization behavior
  • nonlinear behavior
  • nonverbal behavior
  • normal behavior
  • normative behavior
  • novel behavior
  • observed behavior
  • offending behavior
  • opportunistic behavior
  • optical behavior
  • oral health behavior
  • organizational behavior
  • organizational citizenship behavior
  • orientation behavior
  • oscillatory behavior
  • other behavior
  • oviposition behavior
  • own behavior
  • oxidation behavior
  • pain behavior
  • parent behavior
  • parental behavior
  • parenting behavior
  • particular behavior
  • partitioning behavior
  • partner behavior
  • passive behavior
  • past behavior
  • percolation behavior
  • periodic behavior
  • permeation behavior
  • phase behavior
  • phase separation behavior
  • phase transition behavior
  • phase-transition behavior
  • photochromic behavior
  • photoluminescence behavior
  • photophysical behavior
  • physical activity behavior
  • physical behavior
  • physician behavior
  • plan behavior
  • planned behavior
  • play behavior
  • policy behavior
  • political behavior
  • polymerization behavior
  • positional behavior
  • positive behavior
  • positive organizational behavior
  • practice behavior
  • prepayment behavior
  • prescribing behavior
  • preventive behavior
  • price behavior
  • pricing behavior
  • primate behavior
  • proactive behavior
  • problem behavior
  • problem-solving behavior
  • problematic behavior
  • process behavior
  • processing behavior
  • prosocial behavior
  • provider behavior
  • provisioning behavior
  • pseudoplastic behavior
  • purchase behavior
  • rating behavior
  • rational behavior
  • reaction behavior
  • recovery behavior
  • rectifying behavior
  • redox behavior
  • reduction behavior
  • relate behavior
  • relaxation behavior
  • release behavior
  • religious behavior
  • repetitive behavior
  • reproductive behavior
  • response behavior
  • responsible behavior
  • retention behavior
  • rheological behavior
  • rhythmic behavior
  • rich phase behavior
  • risk behavior
  • risk-taking behavior
  • risky behavior
  • risky sexual behavior
  • role behavior
  • same behavior
  • scaling behavior
  • screening behavior
  • search behavior
  • sedentary behavior
  • self-assembly behavior
  • self-care behavior
  • self-harm behavior
  • self-injuriou behavior
  • semiconducting behavior
  • semiconductor behavior
  • separation behavior
  • several behavior
  • sex behavior
  • sexual behavior
  • sexual risk behavior
  • shear thinning behavior
  • shear-thinning behavior
  • shrinkage behavior
  • similar behavior
  • singing behavior
  • sleep behavior
  • smoking behavior
  • social behavior
  • solid-like behavior
  • solubility behavior
  • solution behavior
  • sorption behavior
  • specific behavior
  • staff behavior
  • stalking behavior
  • state behavior
  • steady-state behavior
  • stock price behavior
  • strain behavior
  • strategic behavior
  • stress-strain behavior
  • structural behavior
  • student behavior
  • subsequent behavior
  • suicidal behavior
  • suicide-related behavior
  • superparamagnetic behavior
  • swelling behavior
  • swimming behavior
  • switching behavior
  • system behavior
  • target behavior
  • team behavior
  • temperature behavior
  • tensile behavior
  • territorial behavior
  • therapist behavior
  • thermal behavior
  • thermal degradation behavior
  • thermal expansion behavior
  • thermodynamic behavior
  • thermoregulatory behavior
  • thermoresponsive behavior
  • thermotropic phase behavior
  • thinning behavior
  • time behavior
  • time-dependent behavior
  • trading behavior
  • transfer behavior
  • transformation behavior
  • transient behavior
  • transition behavior
  • transmission behavior
  • transport behavior
  • tribological behavior
  • tumor behavior
  • undesirable behavior
  • unexpected behavior
  • unusual behavior
  • uptake behavior
  • user behavior
  • verbal behavior
  • violent behavior
  • viscoelastic behavior
  • viscous behavior
  • vitro degradation behavior
  • vivo behavior
  • vocal behavior
  • voltammetric behavior
  • voting behavior
  • water uptake behavior
  • wear behavior
  • wetting behavior
  • withdrawal behavior
  • work behavior
  • workplace behavior
  • yielding behavior

  • Terms modified by Behavior

  • behavior analysis
  • behavior change
  • behavior checklist
  • behavior disorder
  • behavior disorders
  • behavior index
  • behavior indicative
  • behavior intention
  • behavior intervention
  • behavior inventory
  • behavior manipulation
  • behavior modification
  • behavior only
  • behavior outcome
  • behavior pattern
  • behavior problem
  • behavior questionnaire
  • behavior rating scale
  • behavior relation
  • behavior relationship
  • behavior research
  • behavior scale
  • behavior score
  • behavior similar
  • behavior support
  • behavior survey
  • behavior theory
  • behavior therapy
  • behavior used

  • Selected Abstracts


    MONITORING BEHAVIOR WITH AN ARRAY OF SENSORS

    COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 4 2007
    Dorothy N. Monekosso
    The objective is to detect activities taking place in a home and to create a model of behavior for the occupant. A behavior is a pattern in the sequence of activities. An array of sensors captures the status of appliances. Models for the occupant's activities are built from the captured data using supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. The models of behavior are built using the hidden Markov model (HMM) technique. Predictive models can be used in a number of ways: to enhance user experience, to maximize resource usage efficiency, for safety and security. This work focuses on supporting independent living and enhancing quality of life of older persons. The ultimate goal is for the system to distinguish between normal and anomalous behavior. In this paper, we present the results of comparing supervised and unsupervised classification techniques applied to the problem of modeling activity for the purpose of modeling behavior in a home. [source]


    THE APPLE DOESN'T FALL FAR FROM THE TREE (OR DOES IT?): INTERGENERATIONAL PATTERNS OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY 2008 SUTHERLAND ADDRESS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    TERENCE P. THORNBERRY
    There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article, I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see whether a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: PARENTAL COHABITATION AND BLENDED HOUSEHOLDS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    ROBERT APEL
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]


    THE INTERACTION OF ANTISOCIAL PROPENSITY AND LIFE-COURSE VARYING PREDICTORS OF DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR: DIFFERENCES BY METHOD OF ESTIMATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    GRAHAM C. OUSEY
    Recent criminological research has explored the extent to which stable propensity and life-course perspectives may be integrated to provide a more comprehensive explanation of variation in individual criminal offending. One line of these integrative efforts focuses on the ways that stable individual characteristics may interact with, or modify, the effects of life-course varying social factors. Given their consistency with the long-standing view that person,environment interactions contribute to variation in human social behavior, these theoretical integration attempts have great intuitive appeal. However, a review of past criminological research suggests that conceptual and empirical complexities have, so far, somewhat dampened the development of a coherent theoretical understanding of the nature of interaction effects between stable individual antisocial propensity and time-varying social variables. In this study, we outline and empirically assess several of the sometimes conflicting hypotheses regarding the ways that antisocial propensity moderates the influence of time-varying social factors on delinquent offending. Unlike some prior studies, however, we explicitly measure the interactive effects of stable antisocial propensity and time-varying measures of selected social variables on changes in delinquent offending. In addition, drawing on recent research that suggests that the relative ubiquity of interaction effects in past studies may be partly from the poorly suited application of linear statistical models to delinquency data, we alternatively test our interaction hypotheses using least-squares and tobit estimation frameworks. Our findings suggest that method of estimation matters, with interaction effects appearing readily in the former but not in the latter. The implications of these findings for future conceptual and empirical work on stable propensity/time-varying social variable interaction effects are discussed. [source]


    UNPACKING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EMPLOYMENT AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A MATCHED SAMPLES COMPARISON,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    ROBERT APEL
    A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]


    AN ALTERNATIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    JULIE HORNEY PH.D.
    [source]


    ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND YOUTH GANG MEMBERSHIP: SELECTION AND SOCIALIZATION

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    RACHEL A. GORDON
    We examine whether gang membership is associated with higher levels of delinquency because boys predisposed to delinquent activity are more likely than others to join. We use 10 years of longitudinal data from 858 participants of the Pittsburgh Youth Study to identify periods before, during and after gang membership. We build on prior research by controlling for ages and calendar time, by better accounting for gang memberships that occurred before the study began, and by using fixed effects statistical models. We find more evidence than has been found in prior studies that boys who join gangs are more delinquent before entering the gang than those who do not join. Even with such selective differences, however, we replicate research showing that drug selling, drug use, violent behaviors and vandalism of property increase significantly when a youth joins a gang. The delinquency of peers appears to be one mechanism of socialization. These findings are clearest in youth self-reports, but are also evident in reports from parents and teachers on boys' behavior and delinquency. Once we adjust for time trends, we find that the increase in delinquency is temporary, that delinquency falls to pre-gang levels when boys leave gangs. [source]


    INDIVIDUAL STABILITY OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD: TESTING THE STABILITY POSTULATE OF MOFFITT'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    ANDREA G. DONKER
    This paper presents a test of Moffitt's (1993) prediction on the stability of longitudinal antisocial behavior, using data from the South-Holland Study. Aggressive (overt) and non-aggressive antisocial (covert) behaviors were measured when subjects were 6,11 years old, and at follow-ups when they were 12,17 years old and 20,25 years old. In accordance with the postulate, we did find a higher level of stability of overt behavior from childhood to adulthood, compared with childhood to adolescence, especially in combination with early manifestations of status violations and/or covert behavior in childhood. Results related to the stability of covert behavior were not in accordance with the prediction, but did support the recently proposed adjustment to the starting age of the adult phase. [source]


    MODELING MEDIATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENCE: A TEST OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    BU HUANG
    The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


    A CROSS-CULTURAL EXAMINATION OF THE LINK BETWEEN CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND ADOLESCENT ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    RONALD L. SIMONS
    Several studies with older children have reported a positive relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and child conduct problems. This has lead some social scientists to conclude that physical discipline fosters antisocial behavior. In an attempt to avoid the methodological difficulties that have plagued past research on this issue, the present study used a proportional measure of corporal punishment, controlled for earlier behavior problems and other dimensions of parenting, and tested for interaction and curvilinear effects. The analyses were performed using a sample of Iowa families that displayed moderate use of corporal punishment and a Taiwanese sample that demonstrated more frequent and severe use of physical discipline, especially by fathers. For both samples, level of parental warmth/control (i.e., support, monitoring, and inductive reasoning) was the strongest predictor of adolescent conduct problems. There was little evidence of a relationship between corporal punishment and conduct problems for the Iowa sample. For the Taiwanese families, corporal punishment was unrelated to conduct problems when mothers were high on warmth/control, but positively associated with conduct problems when they were low on warmtwcontrol, An interaction between corporal punishment and warmth/Wcontro1 was found for Taiwanese fathers as well. For these fathers, there was also evidence of a curvilinear relationship, with the association between corporal punishment and conduct problems becoming much stronger at extreme levels of corporal punishment. Overall, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is when parents engage in severe forms of corporal punishment, or administer physical discipline in the absence of parental warmth and involvement, that children feel angry and unjustly treated, defy parental authority, and engage in antisocial behavior. [source]


    THE TIMING OF DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2001
    DENISE C. GOTTFREDSON
    Research Summary: This study examines self-reports from two samples to assess the timing of delinquency. Results imply that the after-school hours are a time of elevated delinquency, but that the peak is modest compared with that observed in official records. Additionally, children who are unsupervised during the after-school hours - the primary target population for after-school programs - are found to be more delinquent at all times, not only after-school. Policy Implications: This finding suggests that factors (including social competencies and social bonding) in addition to inadequate supervision produce delinquency during the after-school hours and that the effectiveness of after-school programs for reducing delinquency will depend upon their ability to address these other factors through appropriate and high quality services. [source]


    FIXED REVENUE AUCTIONS: THEORY AND BEHAVIOR

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2008
    CARY A. DECK
    In this paper, we study auctions in which the revenue is fixed but the quantity is determined by the auction mechanism. Specifically, we investigate the theory and behavior of English quantity clock, Dutch quantity clock, last-quantity sealed bid, and penultimate-quantity sealed bid auctions. For theoretically equivalent fixed quantity and fixed revenue auctions, we find that fixed revenue auctions are robust to all the previously observed empirical regularities in fixed quantity auctions. (JEL C9, D4, L2) [source]


    AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAM EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR: RESULTS FROM THE 21ST CENTURY COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTERS PROGRAM NATIONAL EVALUATION

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2008
    SUSANNE JAMES-BURDUMY
    This paper presents evidence on after-school programs' effects on behavior from the national evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program. Findings come from both of the study's components: (1) an elementary school component based on random assignment of 2,308 students in 12 school districts and (2) a middle school component based on a matched comparison design including 4,264 students in 32 districts. Key findings include higher levels of negative behavior for elementary students and some evidence of higher levels of negative behaviors for middle school students. (JEL I21) [source]


    INDIRECT GENETIC EFFECTS INFLUENCE ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR IN GUPPIES: ESTIMATES OF THE COEFFICIENT OF INTERACTION PSI AND THE INHERITANCE OF RECIPROCITY

    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2009
    Bronwyn H. Bleakley
    How and why cooperation evolves, particularly among nonrelatives, remains a major paradox for evolutionary biologists and behavioral ecologists. Although much attention has focused on fitness consequences associated with cooperating, relatively little is known about the second component of evolutionary change, the inheritance of cooperation or reciprocity. The genetics of behaviors that can only be expressed in the context of interactions are particularly difficult to describe because the relevant genes reside in multiple social partners. Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe the influence of genes carried in social partners on the phenotype of a focal individual and thus provide a novel approach to quantifying the genetics underlying interactions such as reciprocal cooperation. We used inbred lines of guppies and a novel application of IGE theory to describe the dual genetic control of predator inspection and social behavior, both classic models of reciprocity. We identified effects of focal strain, social group strain, and interactions between focal and group strains on variation in focal behavior. We measured ,, the coefficient of the interaction, which describes the degree to which an individual's phenotype is influenced by the phenotype of its social partners. The genetic identity of social partners substantially influences inspection behavior, measures of threat assessment, and schooling and does so in positively reinforcing manner. We therefore demonstrate strong IGEs for antipredator behavior that represent the genetic variation necessary for the evolution of reciprocity. [source]


    SEXUAL SELECTION AND INTERACTING PHENOTYPES IN EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION: A STUDY OF DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA MATING BEHAVIOR

    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2008
    Leonardo D. Bacigalupe
    Sexual selection requires social interactions, particularly between the sexes. When trait expression is influenced by social interactions, such traits are called interacting phenotypes and only recently have the evolutionary consequences of interacting phenotypes been considered. Here we investigated how variation in relative fitness, or the opportunity for sexual selection, affected the evolutionary trajectories of interacting phenotypes. We used experimentally evolved populations of the naturally promiscuous Drosophila pseudoobscura, in which the numbers of potential interactions between the sexes, and therefore relative fitness, were manipulated by altering natural levels of female promiscuity. We considered two different mating interactions between the sexes: mating speed and copulation duration. We investigated the evolutionary trajectories of means and (co)variances (P) and also the influence of genetic drift on the evolutionary response of these interactions. Our sexual selection treatments did not affect the means of either mating speed or copulation duration, but they did affect P. We found that the means of both traits differed among replicates within each selection treatment whereas the Ps did not. Changes as a consequence of genetic drift were excluded. Our results show that although variable potential strengths of sexual interactions influence the evolution of interacting phenotypes, the influence may be nonlinear. [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF GENOTYPE, AGE, AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ON MALE ORNAMENTATION, MATING BEHAVIOR, AND ATTRACTIVENESS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2005
    Lisa K. Miller
    Abstract The traits thought to advertise genetic quality are often highly susceptible to environmental variation and prone to change with age. These factors may either undermine or reinforce the potential for advertisement traits to signal quality depending on the magnitude of age-dependent expression, environmental variation, and genotype-age and genotype-environment interaction. Measurements of the magnitude of these effects are thus a necessary step toward assessing the implications of age dependence and environmental variability for the evolution of signals of quality. We conducted a longitudinal study of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from 22 full-sibling families. Each fish was assigned at maturity to one of three treatments in order to manipulate his allocation of resources to reproduction: a control in which the male was kept alone, a courtship-only treatment in which he could see and court a female across a clear partition, and a mating treatment in which he interacted freely with a female. We measured each male's size, ornamental color patterns, courtship, attractiveness to females, and mating success at three ages. Size was influenced by treatment and age-treatment interactions, indicating that courtship and mating may impose costs on growth. Tail size and color patterns were influenced by age but not by treatment, suggesting fixed age-dependent trajectories in these advertisement traits. By contrast, display rate and attempted sneak copulation rate differed among treatments but not among ages, suggesting greater plasticity of these behavioral traits. As a result of the different patterns of variation in ornamentation and behavior, male attractiveness and mating success responded to male age, treatment, and the interaction between age and treatment. Neither age nor treatment obscured the presence of genetic variation, and the genetic relationship between male ornamentation and attractiveness remained the same among treatments. Our findings suggest that neither age-dependent variation nor environmentally induced variation in reproductive effort is likely to undermine the reliability of male signaling. [source]


    EVOLUTION OF PREY BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN PREDATION REGIME: DAMSELFLIES IN FISH AND DRAGONFLY LAKES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2003
    R. Stoks
    Abstract In a large behavioral experiment we reconstructed the evolution of behavioral responses to predators to explore how interactions with predators have shaped the evolution of their prey,behavior. All Enallagma damselfly species reduced both movement and feeding in the presence of coexisting predators. Some Enallagma species inhabit water bodies with both fish and dragonflies, and these species responded to the presence of both predators, whereas other Enallagma species inhabit water bodies that have only large dragonflies as predators, and these species only responded to the presence of dragonflies. Lineages that shifted to live with large dragonflies showed no evolution in behaviors expressed in the presence of dragonflies, but they evolved greater movement in the absence of predators and greater movement and feeding in the presence of fish. These results suggest that Enallagma species have evolutionarily lost the ability to recognize fish as a predator. Because species coexisting with only dragonfly predators have also evolved the ability to escape attacking dragonfly predators by swimming, the decreased predation risk associated with foraging appears to have shifted the balance of the foraging/predation risk trade-off to allow increased activity in the absence of mortality threats to evolve in these lineages. Our results suggest that evolution in response to changes in predation regime may have greater consequences for characters expressed in the absence of mortality threats because of how the balance between the conflicting demands of growth and predation risk are altered. [source]


    COEVOLUTION OF COLOR PATTERN AND THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR IN POLYMORPHIC PYGMY GRASSHOPPERS TETRIX UNDULATA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2002
    Anders Forsman
    Abstract Ectothermic organisms, such as insects and reptiles, rely on external heat sources to control body temperature and possess physiological and behavioral traits that are temperature dependent. It has therefore been hypothesised that differences in body temperature resulting from phenotypic properties, such as color pattern, may translate into selection against thermally inferior phenotypes. We tested for costs and benefits of pale versus dark coloration by comparing the behaviors (i.e., basking duration and bouts) of pygmy grasshopper (Tetrix undulata) individuals exposed to experimental situations imposing a trade-off between temperature regulation and feeding. We used pairs consisting of two full-siblings of the same sex that represented different (genetically coded) color morphs but had shared identical conditions from the time of fertilization. Our results revealed significant differences in behavioral thermoregulation between dark and pale individuals in females, but not in males. Pale females spent more time feeding than dark females, regardless of whether feeding was associated with a risk of either hypothermia or overheating. In contrast, only minor differences in behavior (if any) were evident between individuals that belonged to the same color morph but had been painted black or gray to increase and decrease their heating rates. This suggests that the behavioral differences between individuals belonging to different color morphs are genetically determined, rather than simply reflecting a response to different heating rates. To test for effects of acclimation on behaviors, we used pairs of individuals that had been reared from hatchlings to adults under controlled conditions in either low or high temperature. The thermal regime experienced during rearing had little effect on behaviors during the experiments reported above, but significantly influenced the body temperatures selected in a laboratory thermal gradient. In females (but not in males) preferred body temperature also varied among individuals born to mothers belonging to different color morphs, suggesting that a genetic correlation exists between color pattern and temperature preferences. Collectively, these findings, at least in females, are consistent with the hypothesis of multiple-trait coevolution and suggest that the different color morphs represent alternative evolutionary strategies. [source]


    PROGRESS IN THE STUDY ON FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF MICROPLITIS WASPS,

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
    DONG Wen-xia
    Abstract The success of foraging behavior of Microplitis wasps is governed by many factors including semiochemicals, experience and learning, as well as physiological state, rearing method etc. This paper summarizes the progress in the study on foraging behavior of Microplitis wasps. Its application in biological control is also discussed. [source]


    A 65-YEAR-OLD WOMAN WITH SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR: A CASE REPORT

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 7 2010
    Nahla Mahgoub MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    AGITATED BEHAVIOR AS A PRODROMAL SYMPTOM OF PHYSICAL ILLNESS: A CASE OF INFLUENZA

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2006
    Diana Lynn Woods RN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    KINETIC BEHAVIOR OF SOYBEAN LIPOXYGENASE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE FREE ENZYME AND THE ENZYME IMMOBILIZED IN AN ALGINATE SILICA SOL-GEL MATRIX,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2000
    AN-FEI HSU
    Lipoxygenase (LOX) is an enzyme that regioselectively introduces a hydroperoxide into polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We recently reported a procedure that immobilizes soybean LOX within an alginate sol-gel matrix. In this study, the kinetic profile of free LOX was compared with that of the sol-gel immobilized LOX. The temperature dependent activity profile of free LOX was optimal at 25C whereas immobilized LOX had optimal activity over the temperature range of 25,35C. Enzyme activity, measured in aqueous buffer, for both the free and immobilized LOX preparations had Km values of 2.5 and 1.40 mmoles/L, respectively, and Vmax values of 0.056 and 0.02 ,mol/min, respectively. The relative rates of oxidation of linoleic acid and acylgfycerols containing linoleoyl residues catalyzed by free and immobilized LOX also were determined The results showed that both free and immobilized LOX favor linoleic acid as a substrate. Relative substrate preference for free LOX was linoleic acid >1-monolinolein > 1,3-dilinolein >trilinolein, and for immobilized LOX was linoleic acid >l, 3-dilinolein >1-monolinolein >trilinolein. In general, LOX immobilized in alginate silica sol-gel matrix retained the physical and chemical characteristics of free LOX. [source]


    EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE PROCESSING ON TEXTURE AND DRYING BEHAVIOR OF PINEAPPLE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
    A.R.P. KINGSLY
    ABSTRACT The effect of high-pressure processing on texture and drying behavior of pineapple slices was investigated. Pineapple slices were high pressure processed at 50, 100, 300, 500 and 700 MPa at 25C for 10 min. The control, hot water-blanched and high-pressure processed samples were then dehydrated at 70C. Application of high pressure reduced the sample hardness, springiness and chewiness while it had no significant effect on cohesiveness of pineapple. Elevated pressure treatment (,500 MPa) reduced drying time more effectively than for the other pretreated samples. Experimental dehydration data were empirically fitted using six thin-layer drying models. Among the models tested, logarithmic model best described the drying behavior of pineapple slices. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase with an increase in the level of pressure up to 500 MPa, and the samples processed at 500 and 700 MPa had higher diffusivity values than blanched samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work shows that high-pressure blanching of pineapple can be an alternative for hot water blanching, before dehydration. The results may find application in development of quality snack food from pineapple fruits. [source]


    MODELING VARIETAL EFFECT ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF MILLED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) DURING SOAKING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2007
    B.K. YADAV
    ABSTRACT Milled rice is soaked until saturation before cooking and other processing. The soaking behavior of the milled rice is affected by varietal factor as well as initial moisture content (M0) of the samples. In the present study, tests were performed for milled whole kernels of 10 rice varieties ranging from low to high amylose content (16,29% d.b.) with three initial moisture levels (approximately 8, 12 and 16% d.b.) for monitoring water uptake in rice kernels during soaking at room temperature (25 ± 1C), in relation to the varietal differences manifested by the physicochemical properties. The water uptake by milled rice kernels took place at a faster rate in the beginning and was followed by a diminishing rate finally leading to a saturated value during soaking. The water uptake of the kernels during soaking could be best expressed by a modified exponential relationship with R2 values ranging from 0.971 to 0.998 for all varieties. The slope of the fitted straight line between actual and estimated moisture contents of milled rice during soaking using a modified exponential relationship was about unity (0.998) with a high R2 value of 0.989 and a root mean square error of 1.2% d.b. The parameters of the fitted model were the function of the M0 and the physicochemical properties of the milled rice. Using developed relationship, the water uptake of the milled rice during soaking could be estimated from its M0 and the physicochemical properties within±10% of the actual values. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This information would be useful for the scientific world working on the soaking characteristics of various varieties of rice, mainly for the modeling of the soaking process. It could also be used as a tool in selecting the rice varieties to meet their desired water uptake properties in relation to their psychochemical properties by rice breeder scientists. [source]


    EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS AND ADDITIVES ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR AND HYGROSCOPICITY OF FREEZE-DRIED PINEAPPLE JUICE POWDER

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 5-6 2005
    H.S. PHANINDRAKUMAR
    ABSTRACT Pasteurization of pineapple juices at 80C for 5 min in the presence of added acids (citric, malic and fumaric) and cane sugar was found to increase its reducing sugar content from 3.5 to 6.5%, which in turn decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased the hygroscopicity of the juice powder. Inversion of sucrose could be avoided by adding sugar and acid to a pasteurized cooled juice. Among the acids, citric acid caused 30% more hygroscopicity than malic and fumaric. Incorporation of additives into the juice prior to freeze-drying helped in reducing the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder. Among the additives tried, trehalose, beta-cyclodextrin and sorbitol were found to be beneficial as they increase the Tg and reduce the hygroscopic tendency of the juice powder. [source]


    BEHAVIOR OF AVIRULENT YERSINIA PESTIS IN LIQUID WHOLE EGG AS AFFECTED BY STORAGE TEMPERATURE, ANTIMICROBIALS AND THERMAL PASTEURIZATION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2010
    JOSHUA B. GURTLER
    ABSTRACT Yersinia spp. are psychrotrophic bacteria capable of growth at temperatures as low as ,2C, known to contaminate shell eggs and liquid eggs in the U.S.A. and South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia pestis in liquid whole egg (LWE), evaluate the growth pattern of the bacterium in LWE at temperatures of 4,22C and assess the ability of 10 antimicrobial compounds to inhibit the growth of attenuated Y. pestis in LWE. The estimated decimal reduction values of avirulent Y. pestis in LWE at 54C (D54) were 1.39,1.58 min, and D60 values were 13.8 and 11.4 s by the addition of 0 and 965 IU of nisin (MP Biomedicals, LLC, Solon, OH), respectively. Low molecular weight chitosan (0.5%) and an activated lactoperoxidase system (2.18 U/mL) were ineffective at inhibiting growth of Y. pestis, while 500 IU/mL of nisin inhibited populations by up to 1 log cfu/mL at 4, 10 and 15C when compared with the control. Allyl isothiocyanate, diacetyl, diethyl dicarbonate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, methylparaben, monolaurin and benzoyl peroxide inhibited the growth of attenuated Y. pestis when added at high levels. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The genus Yersinia does not currently pose a problem in pasteurized liquid egg products, although it has been isolated from eggs in the U.S.A. and Argentina. Yersiniae, which are psychrotrophic bacteria, can grow at temperatures as low as ,2C; therefore, incidental or intentional contamination of liquid whole egg (LWE) with Yersinia spp. could result in multiplication to high populations, even when stored under refrigeration (ca. 4C). We have shown that avirulent Yersinia pestis is able to multiply to populations of >2, 5 and 8 log cfu/mL in LWE at 4C within 6, 14 and 26 days, respectively. This study provides information that will be helpful in determining thermal and nonthermal means of controlling yersiniae in LWE products. [source]


    INDICATOR AND PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN GUACAMOLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR IN AVOCADO PULP

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2001
    SOFÍ M. ARVIZU-MEDRANO
    ABSTRACT The presence of some indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria in guacamole sampled from restaurants and street vendors, and the behavior of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were studied in avocado pulp. Coliform, yeast and mold populations showed a wide dispersion, in agreement with the diversity of sanitary conditions observed among places sampled. The frequency of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli were 1.3, 16.0, and 60.0 %, respectively; with higher numbers among street vendors. Populations of E. coli ranged from 29 to 3800 NMP/g and S. aureus from 2.95 to 5.35 log CFU/g. Thirteen out of 16 hemolytic L. monocytogenes strains were pathogenic for mice. In avocado pulp Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 showed a lag phase close to 3 h, and a generation time of 54 min and 1.23 h, respectively. No growth of pathogens was observed in avocado pulp stored at 4-7C. [source]


    COOKING BEHAVIOR OF RICE AND BLACK GRAM IN THE PREPARATION OF IDLI, A TRADITIONAL FERMENTED PRODUCT OF INDIAN ORIGIN, BY VISCOGRAPHY

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2009
    BONG KYUNG KOH
    ABSTRACT Pasting profile of coarse rice, fine rice as well as black gram was carried out individually, in combination, in flour as well as in batter form, before and after fermentation by Brabender Viscoamylograph. Lowest gelatinization temperature was seen in black gram among the three commodities studied. Coarse rice registered a peak viscosity (PV) of 1,300 BU, fine rice 1,030 BU and black gram 1,080 BU. Cold paste viscosity (CPV) was highest in fine rice, lowest in black gram and intermediate in coarse rice. Breakdown (BD) was least in fine rice, highest in coarse rice and black gram lay in between. Values of total setback indicated the strong reason for use of coarse rice in parboiling as well as in idli and dosa preparations. Physical combination of black gram, with fine as well as coarse rice, reduced PV on an average to an extent of 26,30%. CPV was highest in fine rice and black gram combination compared with that of coarse rice and black gram. BD was high in the physical mix of coarse rice and black gram. In comparison with physical mix of fine rice and black gram, in the batter form before fermentation, the PV and CPV reduced by 23 and 34%, respectively, but there was no BD in this mix, indicating restricted swelling behavior in the batter before fermentation. Almost all viscographic parameters reduced before fermentation in coarse rice and black gram compared with their physical combination. Highest relative BD (BDr) was noticed in the pasting profile of black gram alone, probably because of the presence of mucilaginous principle. BDr values increased in batter form to various extents, before and after fermentation, compared with physical combination of rice and black gram. After fermentation, in coarse rice and black gram, the BDr value was low compared with that in fine rice and black gram. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Fermented products are commonly ingested in India, especially in the southern states. Nowadays, batter is sold in public for the sake of convenience, as it is a common breakfast preparation. The practice is to use coarse rice for the preparation of idli, a steamed fermented product. It is generally not known how the rice behaves before and after fermentation while cooking. Hence, this work was planned, and results indicated the scientific basis for the usage of coarse rice in the preparation of rice products. The behavior of batter prepared from fine rice has also been described, although it is not an economically viable option. [source]


    GELLING BEHAVIOR OF RICE FLOUR DISPERSIONS AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SOLIDS AND TIME OF HEATING

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 3 2008
    ALKA KAPRI
    ABSTRACT Rice flour dispersions, under suitable conditions of processing, can form a gel. The effect of concentration of solids (10,18%) and time (0,75 min) of processing on textural attributes, and viscoelasticity were investigated along with sensory attributes. The textural attribute determined is gel strength, while viscoelasticity was determined in terms of mechanical spectra like storage modulus (G,), loss modulus (G,), complex viscosity (,*) and loss factor (tan ,) during a frequency sweep varying from 0.01 to 40 Hz at a constant stress of 25 Pa. Microstructural observation indicates the swelling of starch granules in the beginning of heating, while damaged granule and leached-out materials are visible at the end of the gelling process. Desirability function analysis has been applied to obtain a rice gel with acceptable textural attributes; a solid concentration of 15.2% and a heating time of 75 min can lead to the development of a gel with a satisfaction level of 0.6. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Rice flour gels in the form of hard-set gels, porridges and spreads are popular in several parts of the world particularly for feeding of infants and children. The application of the present study lies in understanding the role of major processing variables on the quality attributes and viscoelasticity of a product, characterization of cooked gels and for developing rice flour-based food gels. The findings may also be extended for the development of other cereal-based gels. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF CHEWING AND SWALLOWING BEHAVIOR ON VOLATILE RELEASE IN TWO CONFECTIONERY SYSTEMS

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 5 2006
    A. BLISSETT
    ABSTRACT Electromyography, electroglottography and turbine airflow technology were used to characterize the chewing, swallowing and breath flow profiles of 35 subjects during the consumption of two different (a gum Arabic- and carrageenan-based) confectionery chews. Simultaneous volatile release measurements were obtained using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Subgroups of subjects displaying different eating characteristics were identified for both products. Parameters accounting for the maximum variance (product 1, 42% and product 2, 52%) between the subgroups were chewing force, chewing rate, proportion of work and total number of chews. Volatile release measurements were significantly different between the subgroups from product 1. The impact of the different eating characteristics on volatile release from product 2 was less defined, and postulated to be a result of the contrasting textural properties. Manipulating in vivo breakdown of chewy confectionery products, by texture modification, may influence consumer's volatile release and subsequent flavor perception. [source]