Trade Routes (trade + route)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Sails from the Roman port at Berenike, Egypt

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Felicity C. Wild
A 1st-century AD midden deposit at Berenike, a major port on the trade route between the Roman Empire and India, has produced cotton textile fragments reinforced with a rectangular grid-pattern of cotton strips, interpreted as the remains of sails. Webbing fragments of cotton and linen, in some cases attached to stout cotton or linen cloth, may also have come from sails. The only published example of a Roman-Period sail is a linen sail of 1st-century BC-AD date from Thebes in Egypt, to which the Berenike fragments bear a close resemblance. The S-spun linen sails were presumably manufactured in Egypt. Most of the Berenike material, however, was of Z-spun cotton: an import, it is argued, of Indian origin. The construction of Mediterranean-type sails entirely from Indian materials has implications for the presence of Westerners on the Indian sub-continent. [source]


Trauma in the city of Kerma: ancient versus modern injury patterns

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
M. Judd
Abstract Injuries, whether accidental or intentional, have incapacitated humans and their primordial ancestors throughout time, although the injury mechanisms have become increasingly more technologically sophisticated. Interpretation of injury aetiology among past peoples is challenging, and often impossible, however, clinical research from developing countries provides a useful analogy with which to evaluate trauma or health patterns of an ancient society. This paper presents a systematic analysis of cranial and postcranial skeletal trauma among 223 adults who were excavated by George Reisner in 1923 from the city of Kerma (1750,1550 BC), Egypt's ancient nemesis in the struggle for control of the Nile River trade route. A total of 156 injuries (fractures, dislocations and muscle pulls among the skull, long bones, extremities and torso) were observed among 88 individuals, 48 of whom had one injury only. The skull was the most frequently traumatized element (11.2%) followed by the ulna (8.3%); 2.4% (48/2029) long bones were fractured. The modal distribution of the Kerma fractures was compared to the fracture distributions of two samples from India and Nigeria where falls were the most common cause of injury. Some characteristics of the three injury patterns were shared: males suffered the greatest frequency of injury, the economically active people (25 to 50 years of age) presented the most injuries among adults, and a small proportion of the victims had more than one major injury. However, the Kerma distribution of the fractured bones varied dramatically from the clinical injury distributions: the ulna and skull were among the least frequently injured bones in the modern samples, while the radius, humerus and lower leg were the most commonly traumatized elements among the modern people, but rare among the ancients. The configuration of the ulna and skull injuries at Kerma was characteristic of those associated with blunt force trauma in other clinical assessments and the absence of these specific lesions from the modern samples where accident was the primary injury mechanism presents a persuasive argument for interpersonal violence among the ancient Kerma people. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Darfurian Livelihoods and Libya: Trade, Migration, and Remittance Flows in Times of Conflict and Crisis1

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 4 2007
Helen Young
Labor migration and commerce between Sudan and Libya have long been features of livelihoods in Darfur. This paper describes the importance of historical trade and migration links between Darfur and Libya, and provides a background to the political and economic situation in Libya which has influenced opportunities for Sudanese migrant workers. A case study of the situation of the Darfurian migrants in Kufra (an oasis and transnational trade hub in southern Libya) illustrates how the recent Darfur conflict has affected migration patterns from Darfur and remittance flows in the opposite direction. Official estimates of Darfurian migrant workers in Libya were unavailable but were estimated to be between 150,000 and 250,000. The closure of the national border between Sudan and Libya in May 2003, largely a result of insecurity in Darfur, stopped the traffic of migrant workers between northern Darfur and southern Libya (which prevented the onward travel to Sudan of several thousand migrants in Kufra), and curtailed the well-established trade routes, communications, and remittance flows. The current limited economic prospects for migrant workers in Libya, combined with the threat of detention, difficulties of return to Sudan, and loss of contact with and uncertainty about the fate of their families in Darfur, have created a sense of despair among many Darfurians. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations to improve the conditions of the Darfurian migrants in Libya, including an amnesty for illegal migrants, and also to ease the travel of migrants, promote communications between Libya and Darfur, and support the flow of remittances. [source]


An easy non-invasive X-ray diffraction method to determine the composition of Na-pyroxenes from high-density `greenstone' implements

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION A, Issue 1 2008
Roberto Giustetto
A large number of polished stone implements from Palaeolithic to Bronze Age sites of Northern Italy and Southern France are made of high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks (eclogite and related rocks), mainly consisting of Na-pyroxene (jadeite to omphacite) from the metamorphic belt of the Western Alps. The standard archaeometric study of prehistoric stone implements follows a procedure that is invasive, expensive and time-consuming. Since Na-pyroxenes may show a large compositional range, a thorough study of the variations affecting the dhkl values, obtained by X-ray diffraction, of three selected reflections as a function of different chemical composition was carried out, in order to determine the chemistry of Na-pyroxene isomorphic mixtures and roughly evaluate their relative amounts. These reflections (21, 310, 002) are sharp, intense and sensitive to the variation of pyroxene chemical composition. Using such dhkl values measured on pyroxenes of known chemistry, a Ca-pyroxene(Di),jadeite(Jd),aegirine(Ae) compositional diagram was constructed, from which the composition of an unknown pyroxene can be estimated within an error of about 5%. When the size of the object is relatively small and a flat polished surface is present, the proposed analytical procedure becomes totally non-invasive. The data obtained shed light on the provenance sources of such implements and the prehistoric trade routes. [source]


A geochemical study of bituminous mixtures from Failaka and Umm an-Namel (Kuwait), from the Early Dilmun to the Early Islamic period

ARABIAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND EPIGRAPHY, Issue 2 2007
Jacques Connan
This paper is the last in a series presenting geochemical analyses of fragments of bituminous mixtures excavated from archaeological sites in Kuwait. The first was devoted to bituminous boat remains from the Ubaid-related Neolithic site of H3, As-Sabiyah, while the second dealt with bituminous amalgams from the Partho-Sasanian site of cAkkaz, a former island now joined to the south side of Kuwait Bay. This, the third, refers to bitumen-bearing samples from two other islands, Failaka and Umm an-Namel, and covers a time span including the Early Dilmun period, the Kassite period and the Hellenistic to Early Islamic periods. The composition of the bituminous amalgams was studied in detail. The proportions of soluble and insoluble organic matter as well as vegetal organic matter were evaluated. Mineralogical composition by X-Ray diffraction and thin-section analysis was used to estimate the mineral input in the bituminous mixtures. It can be confirmed that the recipes used in the preparation of these bituminous amalgams comply with those traditionally used in antiquity, as seen at many sites in Mesopotamia and the Gulf. Analysis of the soluble organic matter, and especially its ,,saturates'' fraction, provided sterane and terpane distributions and the measurement of diagnostic molecular ratios. These data, complemented by the isotopic composition of asphaltenes, allowed the identification of the sources of the bitumen, by calibration with numerous references from Iran and northern Iraq (oil seeps, bitumen from archaeological sites). It was established that the bitumen from Failaka and Umm an-Namel was mainly imported from central Iraq (Hit-Abu Jir) and northern Iraq (around Mosul). One sample of oil-stained sand, dating to the Early Dilmun period, originated from Burgan and thus documents small-scale imports from inland Kuwait. These results, and those of previous analyses, agree with the geopolitical context of the Early Dilmun, Kassite and Hellenistic periods, and the maritime trade routes that linked Mesopotamia to the settlements of the Gulf and beyond. The paper concludes with an overview of recent bitumen provenance analyses, and discerns chronological patterns in the distribution of Iraqi and Iranian bitumen in the Gulf and Indian Ocean, from the Neolithic to the Islamic periods. [source]


THE APPLICATION OF TIME-OF-FLIGHT SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY (ToF-SIMS) TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAQUE ANCIENT GLASSES*

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 6 2009
F. J. M. RUTTEN
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used, for the first time, for the characterization of opaque ancient glasses. Isotope-specific chemical imaging with sub-micron resolution enabled the separate analysis of opacifiying inclusions and the surrounding glass matrix. Phase identification has been demonstrated and quantification of the matrix composition has been investigated by use of Corning Glass Standard B as a model. Trace element detection limits are typically in the range 0.5,5.0 ppm atomic,in favourable cases down to 0.01 ppm. For the analysis of inclusions in particular, this has the potential to provide new information of use in establishing provenance and trade routes by ,fingerprinting' as well as the investigation of manufacturing techniques, as demonstrated by comparisons between glasses and with EDX data from the same samples. [source]


Black Gloss Pottery: Production Sites and Technology in Northern Etruria, Part I: Provenance Studies

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2004
E. Gliozzo
The object of the present study is an assemblage of 149 black gloss pottery samples found in northern Etruria (Tuscany, Italy), at Arezzo, Volterra, Chiusi and Populonia. Complete chemical analyses have been performed for the whole set of samples, whereas mineralogical characterization has been provided for most of the Volterra, Chiusi and Populonia samples. The Chiusi-Marcianella production site has been the further object of a detailed study aimed at the creation of a complete reference group. Moreover, several trade routes have been reconstructed, shedding light on the import and export of these ceramics from inland Etruria to the coast and vice versa. [source]


Phylogeography and morphological variability in land snails: the Sicilian Marmorana (Pulmonata, Helicidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2008
VIVIANA FIORENTINO
Land snails have long been recognized as suitable organisms for studying phenotypic differentiation and phylogeny in relation to geographical distribution. Morphological data (shell and anatomy biometry on different geographical scales) and partial sequences from mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I, 16S rDNA) were used to test whether morphological patterns match phylogeny in a diversified group of Sicilian rock-dwelling land snails belonging to the genus Marmorana. The taxonomic implications of the three character sets (shell and anatomical biometry and molecular data) were also considered. The inferred phylogenetic relationships do not match morphological (shell and genitalia) patterns. This result may significantly modify the current taxonomy. Mitochondrial based reconstructions define several supported clades well correlated with geographic distribution and populations were found to be distributed parapatrically. The progressive decline in mitochondrial DNA sequence similarity over a distance of 250 km is consistent with a model of isolation by distance, a pattern previously recognized for other groups of land snails. For one clade of Marmorana, colonization along Mediterranean trade routes appears to be a possibility. 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 94, 809,823. [source]


The practice of travel medicine in Europe

CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Issue 3 2010
P. Schlagenhauf
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 203,208 Abstract Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist ,travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching. [source]