Tract Secretions (tract + secretion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


ERRATUM: Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
Gail F. Shust
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Gail F. Shust
Citation Shust GF, Cho S, Kim M, Madan RP, Guzman EM, Pollack M, Epstein J, Cohen HW, Keller MJ, Herold BC. Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus infection: correlation with soluble mucosal immune mediators and impact of hormonal contraception. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 110,119 Problem, Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, however, the intra- and inter-subject variability, contribution of specific mediators, and impact of reproductive hormones have not been defined. Method of study, Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) (n = 89) obtained from nine cyclers and seven women on hormonal contraception (HC), who completed between three and eight weekly visits, were examined for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and concentrations of mediators. Results, The CVL inhibited HSV infection by a mean value of approximately 57% during the follicular or luteal phase, but only by 36% in hormonal contraceptive users. Human neutrophil peptides 1,3 (HNP1-3) (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.003), lactoferrin (P = 0.005), lysozyme (P = 0.003), IgA (P = 0.002), and IgG (P = 0.02) correlated with antiviral activity. Intra-subject and inter-subject variability was observed, suggesting that factors other than hormones contribute to innate defense. Conclusion, Endogenous antimicrobial activity may provide a biomarker of healthy mucosal immunity and may be reduced in the setting of HC. However, larger prospective studies are needed. [source]


Influenza A virus abrogates IFN-, response in respiratory epithelial cells by disruption of the Jak/Stat pathway

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Kohsaku Uetani
Abstract The innate immunity to viral infections induces a potent antiviral response mediated by interferons (IFN). Although IFN-, is detected during the acute stages of illness in the upper respiratory tract secretions and in the serum of influenza A virus-infected individuals, control of influenza A virus is not dependent upon IFN-, as evidenced by studies using anti-IFN-, Ab and IFN-,,/, mice. Thus, we hypothesized that IFN-, is not critical in host survival because influenza A virus has mechanisms to evade the antiviral activity of IFN-,. To test this, A549 cells, an epithelial cell line derived from lung adenocarcinoma, were infected with influenza virus strain A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) (Aichi) and/or stimulated with IFN-, to detect IFN-,-stimulated MHC class II expression. Influenza A virus infection inhibited IFN-,-induced up-regulation of HLA-DR, mRNA and the IFN-, induction of class II transactivator (CIITA), an obligate mediator of MHC class II expression. Nuclear translocation of Stat1, upon IFN-, stimulation was significantly inhibited in influenza A virus-infected cells and this was associated with a decrease in Tyr701 and Ser727 phosphorylation of Stat1,. Thus, influenza A virus subverts antiviral host defense mediated by IFN-, through effects on the intracellular signaling pathways. [source]


Sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for community-acquired pneumonia in infants and young children from a high HIV prevalence area

PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
H.J. Zar MD
Abstract Sputum induction is a standard diagnostic procedure to identify pathogens in lower respiratory tract secretions in adults with pneumonia, but has rarely been studied or used in infants and young children. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of induced sputum (IS) as a diagnostic method for infants and children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a high HIV prevalence area. Children hospitalized for CAP were prospectively enrolled over a year. IS was obtained by nebulization with hypertonic (5%) saline, physiotherapy, and suctioning. Sputum was submitted for bacterial and mycobacterial culture and P. carinii detection. Gastric lavages (GLs) were done for M. tuberculosis culture; a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was obtained for bacterial culture and P. carinii detection. IS was obtained in 210 children (median age, 7 (25th to 75th percentile, 3,18) months); 138 (66%) were HIV-infected; 148 (70%) were receiving supplemental oxygen. Bacteria were isolated from 101 (50%) IS and 141 (70%) NPA paired specimens (P,<,0.001). A significantly higher rate of S. aureus, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae was found in NPAs compared to IS; this pattern was particularly evident in HIV-infected children. M. tuberculosis was cultured from sputum in 19 patients (9%); GLs performed in 142 children were positive in only 9 (6%). The difference (95% confidence interval) between yields for M. tuberculosis from culture of IS compared to GL was 4.3% (95% CI, 0,5.6%; P,=,0.08). P. carinii was identified from IS in 12 (5.7%) children; all corresponding NPAs were negative. Seven (3%) children could not tolerate sputum induction. Side effects included increased coughing in 4%, epistaxis in 3%, and wheezing responsive to bronchodilators in 1%. In conclusion, induced sputum is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure in infants and children with CAP from a high HIV prevalence area. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 36:58,62. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Gail F. Shust
Citation Shust GF, Cho S, Kim M, Madan RP, Guzman EM, Pollack M, Epstein J, Cohen HW, Keller MJ, Herold BC. Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus infection: correlation with soluble mucosal immune mediators and impact of hormonal contraception. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 110,119 Problem, Female genital tract secretions inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, however, the intra- and inter-subject variability, contribution of specific mediators, and impact of reproductive hormones have not been defined. Method of study, Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) (n = 89) obtained from nine cyclers and seven women on hormonal contraception (HC), who completed between three and eight weekly visits, were examined for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and concentrations of mediators. Results, The CVL inhibited HSV infection by a mean value of approximately 57% during the follicular or luteal phase, but only by 36% in hormonal contraceptive users. Human neutrophil peptides 1,3 (HNP1-3) (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.003), lactoferrin (P = 0.005), lysozyme (P = 0.003), IgA (P = 0.002), and IgG (P = 0.02) correlated with antiviral activity. Intra-subject and inter-subject variability was observed, suggesting that factors other than hormones contribute to innate defense. Conclusion, Endogenous antimicrobial activity may provide a biomarker of healthy mucosal immunity and may be reduced in the setting of HC. However, larger prospective studies are needed. [source]