Tracheal Extubation (tracheal + extubation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The efficacy of a subhypnotic dose of propofol in preventing laryngospasm following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children

PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 12 2005
YATINDRA KUMAR BATRA MD MNAMS
Summary Background:, Laryngospasm is a well-known problem typically occurring immediately following tracheal extubation. Propofol is known to inhibit airway reflexes. In this study, we sought to assess whether the empiric use of a subhypnotic dose of propofol prior to emergence will decrease the occurrence of laryngospasm following extubation in children. Methods:, After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed parental consent, we enrolled 120 children ASA physical status I and II, aged 3,14 years who were scheduled to undergo elective tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy under standard general anesthesia. Before extubation, the patients were randomized and received in a blinded fashion either propofol 0.5 mgkg,1 or saline (control) intravenously. Tracheal extubation was performed 60 s after administration of study drug, when the child was breathing regularly and reacting to the tracheal tube. Results:, Laryngospasm was seen in 20% (n = 12) of the 60 children in the control group and in only 6.6% (n = 4) of 60 children in the propofol group (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, During emergence from inhalational anesthesia, propofol in a subhypnotic dose (0.5 mgkg,1) decreases the likelihood of laryngospasm upon tracheal extubation in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. [source]


CASE REPORT: The unrecognised difficult extubation: a call for vigilance

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 9 2010
J. Antoine
Summary Tracheal extubation remains a critical and often overlooked period of difficult airway management. A 66-year-old man, scheduled for C5,C7 anterior fusion, with an easy view of the vocal cords, presented with a sublaryngeal obstruction that required a reduced tracheal tube size. Despite correct tube placement, intra-operative ventilation remained difficult. At the end of surgery a pulsatile tracheal compression was fibreopticially observed above the carina. After discussion with the attending otolaryngologist, neuromuscular blockade was antagonised and the patient was able to maintain normal minute volumes while spontaneously ventilating. With the otolaryngologist present, and with the patient conscious, the trachea was successfully extubated over an airway exchange catheter. A subsequent CT scan revealed an impingement of the trachea by the innominate artery and a mildly ectatic ascending and descending aorta that, in conjunction with tracheomalacia and neuromuscular blockade, could explain the observed signs and symptoms. [source]


Early predictability of the need for tracheotomy after admission to ICU: an observational study

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 9 2010
D. P. VEELO
Background: The goal of this study was to explore the ability of professional judgment to predict the need for tracheotomy early among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: Prospective study using daily questionnaires among ICU physicians in a mixed medical,surgical ICU. The prediction of tracheotomy was by a visual analogue scale (VAS, from 1 to 10, with 1 representing ,absolutely no need for tracheotomy' and 10 representing ,pertinent need for tracheotomy') during ICU stay until tracheal extubation or tracheotomy. For the purpose of this study, a VAS score ,8 was considered a positive prediction for tracheotomy. Results: A total of 476 questionnaires were retrieved for 75 patients (6.45.2 questionnaires per patient), of which 11 patients finally proceeded with a tracheostomy. At first assessment (mean of 2.40.8 days after ICU admittance), ICU physicians predicted the need for tracheotomy 3.0 (2.0,6.0) higher VAS points for patients who were finally tracheotomized (P<0.01). Patients with a positive prediction had a 5.4 (1.2,24.1) higher chance of receiving tracheotomy (P=0.03). Considering the median VAS score over a maximum of 10 days before tracheotomy, ICU physicians scored tracheotomized patients significantly higher from day 8 onwards. When comparing ICU physicians, fellows and residents separately, only staff physicians scored a significant difference in the VAS score (P<0.05). Conclusion: ICU physicians are able to differentiate between patients in need for tracheotomy from those who do not, within 2 days from admittance. The closer the time to the actual intervention, the better the physicians are able to predict this decision. [source]


Post-induction alfentanil reduces sevoflurane-associated emergence agitation in children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2009
J. Y. KIM
Background: Emergence agitation is a common problem in paediatric anaesthesia, especially after volatile induction and maintenance anaesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alfentanil to prevent emergence agitation without delayed recovery after VIMA with sevoflurane in children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy. Methods: One hundred and five children, aged 3,10 years, were randomly allocated to receive normal saline (control group), alfentanil 10 ,g/kg (A10) or 20 ,g/kg (A20) 1 min after loss of the eyelash reflex. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Time to tracheal extubation, recovery time, Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale and emergence behaviour were assessed. Results: The incidence of severe agitation was significantly lower in the A10 and A20 groups compared with those in the control group (11/32 and 12/34 vs. 24/34, respectively) (P=0.007, 0.006, respectively). PAED scales were significantly different between the three groups (P=0.008), and lower in the A10 and A20 groups than that in the control group (P=0.044, 0.013, respectively). However, the incidence of severe agitation and PAED scale was not different between the A10 and the A20 groups. Time to tracheal extubation and recovery time were similar in all three groups. Conclusion: The administration of alfentanil 10 ,g/kg after induction of anaesthesia for children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy under VIMA reduced the incidence of emergence agitation without delaying the recovery time or causing significant hypotension. [source]


Comparison of effects and plasma concentrations of opioids between elderly and middle-aged patients after cardiac surgery

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2009
A. PESONEN
Background: In elderly patients, opioids may cause prominent postoperative sedation and respiratory depression. We evaluated the influence of age on the effects of opioids and plasma concentrations of fentanyl and oxycodone in cardiac surgery patients. Methods: Thirty (,75 years, gender M9/F21) and 20 (,60 years, gender M20/F0) patients scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery. A standard anesthesia with fentanyl as an opioid was used. Fentanyl plasma concentrations were measured at the end of surgery and 2 h later. After tracheal extubation, when the pain intensity was at least moderate, blood samples for fentanyl and oxycodone plasma concentration measurements were taken. Thereafter, oxycodone hydrochloride 0.05 mg/kg i.v. was administered. After 15 and 45 min, pain intensity, sedation and oxycodone plasma concentration were determined. This test protocol was repeated twice. Results: The elderly had a higher plasma concentration of fentanyl at the end of surgery than younger patients (5.72.2 vs. 3.81.2 ng/ml, P=0.001). The plasma concentrations of oxycodone were comparable between the groups. The interval between the second and the third oxycodone dose was longer in the elderly patients (P=0.036). Pain intensity on the verbal rating scale was lower at the 45-min assessment point after all three oxycodone test doses (P=0.008) and sedation scores were significantly higher after the third dose in the elderly patients (P=0.035). Conclusions: In elderly patients, the plasma concentration of fentanyl was higher but plasma levels of oxycodone were at a similar level compared with middle-aged patients. However, the elderly patients had less pain and were more sedated after doses of oxycodone. [source]


Single-dose dexmedetomidine attenuates airway and circulatory reflexes during extubation

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 8 2005
G. Guler
Background:, The alpha agonist dexmedetomidine, a sedative and analgesic, reduces heart rate and blood pressure dose-dependently. We investigated whether it also has the ability to attenuate airway and circulatory reflexes during emergence from anaesthesia. Methods:, Sixty ASA I,III patients received a standard anaesthetic. Five minutes before the end of surgery, they were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine 0.5 g/kg (Group D) (n = 30) or saline placebo (Group P) (n = 30) intravenously (i.v.) over 60 s in a double-blind design. The blinded anaesthetist awoke all the patients, and the number of coughs per patient was continuously monitored for 15 min after extubation; coughing was evaluated on a 4-point scale. Any laryngospasm, bronchospasm or desaturation was recorded. Heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SAP, DAP) were measured before, during and after tracheal extubation. The time from tracheal extubation and emergence from anaesthesia were recorded. Results:, Median coughing scores were 1 (1,3) in Group D and 2 (1,4) in Group P (P < 0.05), but there were no differences between the groups in the incidence of breath holding or desaturation. HR, SAP and DAP increased at extubation in both groups (P < 0.05), but the increase was less significant with dexmedetomidine. The time from tracheal extubation and emergence from anaesthesia were similar in both groups. Conclusion:, These findings suggest that a single-dose bolus injection of dexmedetomidine before tracheal extubation attenuates airway-circulatory reflexes during extubation. [source]


Similar excitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in young children given rectal morphine or midazolam as premedication

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 10 2004
W. Malmgren
Background:, Sevoflurane is a rapid-acting volatile anaesthetic agent frequently used in paediatric anaesthesia despite transient postoperative symptoms of cerebral excitation, particularly in preschool children. This randomised and investigator-blinded study was designed to evaluate whether premedication with an opioid might reduce non-divertible postoperative excitation more than premedication with a benzodiazepine in preschool children anaesthetized with sevoflurane. Methods:, Ninety-two healthy two to six year-old children scheduled for nasal adenoidectomy were randomised to be given rectal atropine 0.02 mg kg,1 together with either morphine 0.15 mg kg,1 or midazolam 0.30 mg kg,1 approximately 30 min before induction and maintenance of sevoflurane anaesthesia. The patient groups were compared pre- and postoperatively by repeated clinical assessments of cerebral excitation according to a modified Objective Pain Discomfort Scale, OPDS. Results:, There were no statistically significant postoperative differences in incidence, extent or duration of excitation between children given morphine or midazolam for premedication, whereas morphine was associated with more preoperative excitation than was midazolam. The study groups did not differ significantly with respect to age, weight, duration of surgery and anaesthesia, and time from tracheal extubation to arrival in and discharge from the postoperative ward. Conclusion:, In this study morphine for premedication in young children anaesthetized with sevoflurane was associated with similar postoperative and higher preoperative OPDS scores compared with midazolam. These findings indicate that substitution of morphine for midazolam is no useful way of reducing clinical excitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia. [source]


Postoperative tracheal extubation after orthotopic liver transplantation

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2001
M. Glanemann
Background: The duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation and its influence on pulmonary function in liver transplant recipients is still debated controversially. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of immediate tracheal extubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>24 h following surgery), and episodes of reintubation in 546 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at our institution. Results: Immediate tracheal extubation in the operating theater was achieved in 18.7% of patients, and prolonged mechanical ventilation was required by 11.2% of patients. In these, median time of extubation was 49.5 h, whereas the remaining 70.1% of patients required ventilation support for a median 5 h after OLT. As risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation we identified the indications of acute liver failure and retransplantation, as well as factors such as mechanical ventilation prior to OLT, massive intraoperative bleeding, and severe reperfusion injury of the liver graft. The incidence of reintubation was 8.8% in patients who were immediately extubated following surgery, and 13.1% in patients who underwent extubation within 24 h. The incidence was significantly increased in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (36.1%). Conclusions: Immediate tracheal extubation was safe and well tolerated. The incidence of reintubation was not increased when compared to patients in whom extubation succeeded later. However, special attention should be given to transplant recipients presenting in reduced clinical condition at the time of OLT, undergoing complicated surgery, or receiving liver allografts with severe reperfusion injury because of an increased risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation. [source]


A lost art: casualty of deep tracheal extubation

PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 12 2009
Shailesh Shah
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


The efficacy of a subhypnotic dose of propofol in preventing laryngospasm following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children

PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 12 2005
YATINDRA KUMAR BATRA MD MNAMS
Summary Background:, Laryngospasm is a well-known problem typically occurring immediately following tracheal extubation. Propofol is known to inhibit airway reflexes. In this study, we sought to assess whether the empiric use of a subhypnotic dose of propofol prior to emergence will decrease the occurrence of laryngospasm following extubation in children. Methods:, After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed parental consent, we enrolled 120 children ASA physical status I and II, aged 3,14 years who were scheduled to undergo elective tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy under standard general anesthesia. Before extubation, the patients were randomized and received in a blinded fashion either propofol 0.5 mgkg,1 or saline (control) intravenously. Tracheal extubation was performed 60 s after administration of study drug, when the child was breathing regularly and reacting to the tracheal tube. Results:, Laryngospasm was seen in 20% (n = 12) of the 60 children in the control group and in only 6.6% (n = 4) of 60 children in the propofol group (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, During emergence from inhalational anesthesia, propofol in a subhypnotic dose (0.5 mgkg,1) decreases the likelihood of laryngospasm upon tracheal extubation in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. [source]


Pretreatment with oral clonidine attenuates cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation in children

PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 1 2000
Yoshitaka Fujii MD
Summary This study was designed to evaluate the effects of diazepam and clonidine orally given preoperatively on cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation in children. Fifty children, ASA physical status I, aged 4,10 years, undergoing minor elective surgery (inguinal hernia, phimosis) received orally, in a randomized, double-blind manner, diazepam 0.4 mgkg,1 or clonidine 4 ,gkg,1 (n=25 of each). These drugs were administered 105 min before an inhalational induction of anaesthesia. The same standard general anaesthetic technique was employed throughout. The maximum changes in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were less in patients who had received clonidine than in those who had received diazepam (HR, 12 vs 24; SBP, 14 vs 26; DBP, 9 vs 16; mean, P < 0.05). In conclusion, compared to diazepam given orally, pretreatment with oral clonidine attenuates haemodynamic changes associated with tracheal extubation in children. [source]


Use of remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill adult patients: a meta-analysis

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2009
J. A. Tan
Summary This meta-analysis examined the benefits of using remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill patients. A total of 11 randomised controlled trials, comparing remifentanil with another opioid or hypnotic agent in 1067 critically ill adult patients, were identified from the Cochrane controlled trials register and EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, and subjected to meta-analysis. Remifentanil was associated with a reduction in the time to tracheal extubation after cessation of sedation (weighted-mean-difference ,2.04 h (95% CI ,0.39 to ,3.69 h); p = 0.02). Remifentanil was, however, not associated with a significant reduction in mortality (relative risk 1.01 (95% CI 0.67,1.52); p = 0.96), duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, and risk of agitation (relative risk 1.08 (95% CI 0.64,1.82); p = 0.77) when compared to an alternative sedative or analgesic agent. The current evidence does not support the routine use of remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill adult patients. [source]


The Pentax-AWS for airway obstruction after tracheal extubation

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 8 2009
S. Matsumoto
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Unplanned extubation in a paediatric intensive care unit: impact of a quality improvement programme

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2008
P. S. L. Da Silva
Summary Unplanned tracheal extubation is an important quality issue in current medical practice as it is a common occurrence in paediatric intensive care units. We have assessed the effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement programme in reducing the incidence of unplanned extubation over a 5-year period. After a 2-year baseline period, we developed action plans to address the issues identified. Following implementation of the programme, the overall incidence of unplanned extubation decreased from 2.9 unplanned extubations per 100 intubated patient days in the first year to 0.6 in the last year (p = 0.0001). This reduction was the result of a decrease in unplanned extubation in children younger than 2 years of age. Although mortality was similar to that of children who did not experience an unplanned extubation, those with an unplanned extubation had a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer stay in the intensive care unit, and longer hospital stay. We found that the implementation of a continuous quality improvement programme is effective in reducing the overall incidence of unplanned extubations. [source]


Right lobe living donor liver transplantation with or without venovenous bypass

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 1 2003
S. T. Fan
Background: Venovenous bypass was considered necessary to maintain haemodynamic stability and avoid splanchnic and retroperitoneal congestion during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation. It was essential for right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in which the inferior vena cava needed to be cross-clamped to construct wide and short hepatic vein anastomoses. However, many complications related to venovenous bypass have been reported. This study aimed to determine whether venovenous bypass was necessary for right lobe LDLT. Methods: Between June 1996 and June 2001, 72 patients underwent right lobe LDLT. The outcomes for the first 29 patients who had venovenous bypass during the operation were compared with those of the remaining 43 patients who did not have venovenous bypass. In patients without bypass, blood pressure was maintained during the anhepatic phase by boluses of fluid infusion and vasopressors. Results: Compared with patients undergoing operation without venovenous bypass, patients who had venovenous bypass required significantly more blood, fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusion, and had a lower body temperature; their postoperative hepatic and renal function in the first week was worse than that in patients who did not have a bypass. The time to tracheal extubation was longer and the incidence of reintubation for ventilatory support was higher with venovenous bypass. Six of the 29 patients with venovenous bypass died in hospital, compared with two of the 43 patients without a bypass (P = 005). By multivariate analysis, the lowest body temperature during the transplant operation was the most significant factor that determined hospital death. Conclusion: Venovenous bypass is not necessary and is probably harmful to patients undergoing right lobe LDLT, and should therefore be avoided. Copyright 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd [source]