Total Tract Digestibility (total + tract_digestibility)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong Cai Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam

N. T. Len
Summary Total tract digestibility and nitrogen retention of three diets containing different levels of fibre [200, 260 and 320 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in dry matter] were determined in three breeds of growing pig at an initial age of approximately 3.5 months. The breeds were local (Mong Cai, MC), F1 crossbred (MC Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace Yorkshire, LY), allocated at random within breed (block) to double 3 3 Latin squares. The main fibrous ingredients of the experimental diets were rice bran, cassava residue meal and non-dehulled groundnut cake meal. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NDF, crude fibre, gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) decreased as the level of dietary NDF increased (p < 0.001). The r2 values for the relationship between NDF level and digestibility of OM, CP, GE and EE were 83%, 83%, 80% and 82% respectively. On average, an increase in NDF content of 1% unit resulted in a decrease in OM, CP, GE and EE digestibility of 0.67%, 0.75%, 0.50% and 0.42% units respectively. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was the highest for MC and the lowest for LY (p < 0.01), with intermediate values for F1. There was a negative effect of NDF level on nitrogen (N) retained as a proportion of intake (p < 0.05). Nitrogen retention and utilization were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for LY than for MC and F1 pigs. [source]

Comparison of total tract digestibility, development of visceral organs and digestive tract of Mong cai and Yorkshire Landrace piglets fed diets with different fibre sources

N. T. Len
Summary The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of piglet age and dietary fibre source on the development of visceral organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and on growth performance and total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) in local [pure-breed Mong cai (MC)] and exotic [Landrace Yorkshire (LY)] piglets. The experimental diets contained different fibre sources: C (basal diet), RB (basal diet + rice bran), SPVM (basal diet + sweet potato vine meal) and CReM (basal diet + cassava residue meal). The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content in diet C and the fibrous diets was 8.8% and 17.1%,17.7% respectively (dry matter basis). Collection of faecal samples to determine TTAD was carried out for five consecutive days before the experiment was finished (63 days). The piglets were killed at the age of 10 days (before being given the same solid feed), 30 days (weaning, 20 days after solid feed introduced) and 63 days (33 days after being given the different fibrous diets) when the length of intestinal segments, weight of organs (liver, heart, kidneys) and empty weight of the GIT (stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon + rectum) were measured. As the age of animals increased, the relative weight of organs and the length of intestines (expressed on a mass-specific basis) decreased (p < 0.05), and the weight of GIT increased (p < 0.001). The piglets fed fibrous diets had heavier GIT than those fed diet C with the highest values in CReM (p < 0.05). The colon + rectum length was not significantly different among C, RB and SPVM, but was shorter than in CReM (p < 0.05). Coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients in the fibrous diets was lower than in C (p < 0.01). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in C, RB and CReM were not different and were better than in SPVM (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the weights of organs between the two breeds at day 10, 30 and 63 (p > 0.05). The weight and length of GIT were not significantly different between the two breeds at day 10 and day 30, but were greater for MC at day 63. The caecum and colon + rectum at 10 and 30 days were longer in MC than in LY (p < 0.001). The relative development of GIT post-weaning was higher than pre-weaning, the difference being most apparent in MC. As a result at 63 days, MC had heavier visceral organs and GIT, and longer intestines on fibrous diets than LY (p < 0.05). The MC at 63 days had higher CTTAD of organic matter, gross energy, crude fibre and NDF (p < 0.001) and ether extract and crude protein (p < 0.05), but lower ADG and poorer FCR than LY (p < 0.001). It can be concluded that the GIT of the MC piglets developed more rapidly than LY when they were introduced to solid feed, and that the difference was more marked on the fibrous diets and after weaning, which resulted in higher total tract digestibility of nutrients in MC compared with LY. Cassava residue meal was better digested than RB and SPVM, and supported higher live weight gains. [source]

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources

S. G. Vhile
Summary The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p < 0.05). In dogs and blue foxes, digestibilities of individual amino acids determined by use of yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p < 0.05). The digestibilities of most main nutrients and amino acids revealed no interaction between diet and method (p > 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in the studied species. [source]

Effects of length of cut and mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage harvested at the black line stage of maturity by lactating dairy cows

Satoshi HARA
ABSTRACT The effects of length of cut and mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by dairy cows were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at the black line stage of maturity and chopped at a theoretical length (TLC) of 9.5 mm without processing (Control) or at a TLC of 19 mm with processing at roller clearances of 1, 3, or 5 mm. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were assigned in a replicated 4 4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Corn silage treatments were fed in diets containing 78.3% corn silage and 21.7% soybean meal (DM basis). Treatments had no significant effects on DMI, milk and 4% FCM production. The efficiency of converting DMI to FCM tended to be greater with processing at a roller clearance of 1 and 3 mm than at other clearances. Apparent total tract digestibility of starch tended to be lowest for cows fed control silage, and increased as roller clearance decreased. Ruminal ammonia concentrations in cows fed control silage were numerically higher than in cows fed proccesed silages. These results suggest that when corn silage is harvested at the black line of maturity, roller clearance should be 3 mm or less with a TLC of 19 mm. [source]

The effect of dietary ratios of corn silage and alfalfa hay on carbohydrate digestion and retention time of feed particles in the gastrointestinal tract of steers

ABSTRACT Four Holstein steers fitted with duodenal cannula were used in a 4 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of the combination of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa hay (AH) in different ratios on the ruminal and intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and feed particle passage rate. Steers were fed mixed diets containing both CS and AH in ratios of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 20:80 on a dry matter basis at 95% of ad libitum feed intake. The increase of AH proportion in diets increased dry matter intake and ruminal digestion of dry matter, non-fiber carbohydrate, neutral and acid detergent fiber linearly. Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber showed a quadratic response, and total digestibility increased linearly with increasing AH proportion. Digestibility of acid detergent fiber in the rumen was not affected by the dietary treatments, but the total tract digestibility increased as the AH proportion increased. Mean retention time of feed particles in total compartment increased when the AH proportion increased from 20% to 60%, but decreased with further increase of the AH proportion. These results indicate that moderate combinations of CS and AH have an associative effect on ruminal fiber digestion, modifying particle movement in the rumen. [source]

Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase

Adewale EMIOLA
ABSTRACT The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 1.06 (mean SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P < 0.02) and the DNC (P < 0.001) diets. Supplementing the NC diet with pyhtase tended to improve P digestibility (P < 0.10). However, addition of phytase to the DNC diet resulted in linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P < 0.03) increases in P digestibility with an overall improvement of 8% and 121% at 4000 phytase U/kg of diet, respectively, compared with the PC and DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P < 0.05) in the PC diet compared with the DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P < 0.10). No effect of phytase addition to NC was observed on Ca, N, DM and OM digestibility. Phytase addition to the DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in N, DM and OM digestibility but not Ca. Increasing the levels of phytase supplementation in the NC and the DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P < 0.05) content by 45 and 42%, respectively. Adding phytase at 1000 or 4000 U/kg increased P retention (P < 0.05) by 14.3 or 15.6% units, respectively, compared with the PC diet. Urinary P excretion was higher in the group fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC and DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance. [source]