Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Topical

  • topical administration
  • topical agent
  • topical ala
  • topical anaesthesia
  • topical anesthesia
  • topical anesthetic
  • topical antibiotics
  • topical antifungal agent
  • topical application
  • topical calcineurin inhibitor
  • topical capsaicin
  • topical corticosteroid
  • topical corticosteroid therapy
  • topical corticosteroid treatment
  • topical delivery
  • topical drug
  • topical exposure
  • topical formulation
  • topical formulations
  • topical glucocorticoid
  • topical hemostatic agent
  • topical imiquimod
  • topical imiquimod 5% cream
  • topical immunomodulator
  • topical issue
  • topical issues
  • topical lidocaine
  • topical medication
  • topical metronidazole
  • topical nitrogen mustard
  • topical photodynamic therapy
  • topical preparation
  • topical products
  • topical side-effect
  • topical skin care
  • topical solution
  • topical steroid
  • topical steroid treatment
  • topical steroid use
  • topical tacrolimus
  • topical tacrolimus ointment
  • topical therapy
  • topical treatment
  • topical use
  • topical vehicle
  • topical vitamin e

  • Selected Abstracts

    Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2005
    Tobias Hagemann
    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrhoic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options. [source]

    Commentary: From Serendipity to Pilot Study and Then Pivotal Trial: Bimatoprost Topical for Eyelash Growth

    2Article first published online: 2 APR 2010, JOEL L. COHEN MD
    Dr. Cohen has been a consultant and clinical trial investigator for Allergan (including related to Latisse). [source]

    Topical and systemic photoprotection

    Cheryl F. Rosen
    ABSTRACT: Sunscreens are a valuable method of sun protection. Several new compounds are now available. It is important to remember, however, that photoprotection includes more than the use of sunscreens. There are a number of sun-protective behaviors that people can use to decrease their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dermatologists and other health professionals can work toward changing public policy, greatly increasing the ability of people to access shade. In addition, there is growing evidence about the effectiveness of other sun-protective agents. The only systemic medication for sun protection is ,-carotene, which is effective in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). [source]

    Systemic 5-fluorouracil producing an inflammatory response in porokeratosis

    WK Nahm
    ABSTRACT Topical 5-fluorouracil has been used as an effective treatment for porokeratosis. Upon its treatment, an inflammatory effect occurs with the topical 5-fluorouracil. We report a case of a patient with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis displaying a comparable inflammatory process following therapy with systemic 5-fluorouracil used to manage a metastatic breast cancer. [source]

    Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Acne inversa): Management of a Recalcitrant Disease

    Joseph Lam M.D.
    Topical and systemic antibiotics, hormonal therapies, oral retinoids, immunosuppressant agents, and surgical treatment are some of the therapeutic alternatives used for this often recalcitrant and frequently troublesome disorder. This article reviews the pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa, an evidence-based analysis of standard treatments, and recent advances in the therapy of this disorder. [source]

    Pyriproxyfen activates reproduction in prediapause northern strain plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst)

    Eric J Hoffmann
    Abstract Field-collected, prediapause northern strain plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), adults were treated with the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen to assess effects on reproductive development. Adults of this pest have an obligate winter reproductive diapause and do not reach reproductive maturity until after spring emergence. Topical (1.0 µL) doses of 10, 1.0 and 0.1 µg µL,1 pyriproxyfen induced oocyte development and reproductive maturation in all treated females as assessed by dissection. There was no increased mortality in treated beetles, and control insects showed no reproductive maturation. Treatment of prediapause males and females with 1.0 µg µL,1 of topical pyriproxyfen or exposure to residues on fruit induced successful egg laying and F1 emergence; F1 pupation success in topical treatments and residue exposure was 47 and 59% respectively. Filial adults require re-exposure to initiate reproductive development. Treatment protocols with pyriproxyfen will allow researchers to culture the northern strain, instead of relying exclusively on the non-diapausing southern strain. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Prurigo nodularis: A review

    Michael R Lee
    SUMMARY Prurigo nodularis is a chronic condition characterized by a papulonodular pruriginous eruption of unknown aetiology. This condition is a difficult disease to treat and causes frustration to both the patient and the treating doctor. A variety of systemic conditions have been reported to be associated with prurigo nodularis. The mechanism by which these disorders may trigger prurigo nodularis is unknown. Nerve growth factor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prurigo nodularis. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunoreactive nerves are markedly increased in prurigo nodularis when compared with normal skin. These neuropeptides may mediate the cutaneous neurogenic inflammation and pruritus in prurigo nodularis. Topical or intralesional glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice. Other topical treatments such as topical vitamin D3, and topical capsaicin have also been reported to be effective. Oral treatments such as cyclosporin and thalidomide have been shown to improve both appearance of the skin and pruritus. We review the clinical features, associations, pathology, pathogenesis and treatment of prurigo nodularis. [source]

    Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for the treatment of urethral condylomata acuminata

    X.L. Wang
    Summary Background, Electrocoagulation and laser evaporation for urethral condylomata acuminata have high recurrence rates and can be associated with urethral malformations. Objectives, To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) on urethral condylomata acuminata and to examine the histological changes in lesions of condylomata acuminata after ALA-PDT. Methods, Patients with urethral condylomata (n = 164) were given topical ALA followed by intraurethral PDT through a cylindrical fibre. Patients included 11 individuals with 16 penile or vulval condylomatous lesions which were biopsied before or after treatment; the histological changes were then evaluated by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results, The complete response rate was 95% and the recurrence rate was 5% after 6,24 months of follow-up. Light microscopy revealed keratinocytes in the middle and upper layers of the epidermis showing marked vacuolation and some necrocytosis 1 and 3 h after PDT. Necrosis in all layers of the epidermis was noted 5 h after PDT. Electron microscopy of keratinocytes revealed distinct ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane damage. Apoptotic bodies were detected 3 h after PDT and a large number of keratinocytes exhibited necrosis 5 h after PDT. Conclusions, Results suggest that, compared with conventional therapies, topical ALA-PDT is a simple, effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment for urethral condylomata acuminata that is associated with a low recurrence rate. The mechanism might be the triggering of both apoptosis and necrosis by ALA-PDT in human papillomavirus-infected keratinocytes. [source]

    Topical versus peribulbar anaesthesia for cataract surgery

    Gangolf Sauder
    Abstract. Background:,To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus peribulbar anaesthesia in patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Methods:,The unicentre, prospective, randomized, clinical interventional trial included 140 consecutive patients undergoing routine cataract surgery performed by one of two surgeons. The patients were randomly distributed to either peribulbar anaesthesia or topical anaesthesia. To assess intraoperative pain, each patient was asked immediately after surgery to quantitate his/her pain using a 10-point pain rating scale. Results:,The study groups did not differ significantly in pain score (p = 0.54), duration of surgery (p = 0.52), anaesthesia-related intraoperative difficulties (p = 0.17), postoperative visual acuity (p = 0.94), overall intraoperative surgical complication rate, blood pressure rise (p = 0.16) or blood oxygen saturation (p = 0.74) Conclusions:,Patient comfort and surgery-related complications did not differ between topical anaesthesia and peribulbar anaesthesia. As there are no significant differences between the two techniques in terms of subjective pain experienced by patients, intraoperative complications and postoperative visual outcome, and in view of the minimally invasive character of topical anaesthesia compared to peribulbar anaesthesia, the present study suggests the use of topical anaesthesia for routine cataract surgery. [source]

    Systemic toxicity of tacrolimus given by various routes and the response to dose reduction

    Laboratory Science
    Abstract Purpose:,To evaluate the long-term systemic toxicity of tacrolimus (FK-506) administered by various routes, and to assess the effect of dose reduction on toxicity. Methods:,The study animals were 120 experimentally naïve adult female Wistar rats weighing 200,250 g each. The rats were randomly divided into 10 equal groups (n = 12 in each) and treated with tacrolimus administered topically (in drops, 0.3%, q.i.d.), intravitreally (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight/week), intramuscularly (1 mg/kg bodyweight/week), low-dose intravenously (1 mg/kg bodyweight/week) and in high-dose intravenously (2 mg/kg bodyweight/week) for 3 months. The rats in the control groups (one for each different route of administration) were treated with 0.9% NaCl. The blood concentration of tacrolimus, complete blood count and biochemistry parameters were measured each month for the 3-month study period. Results:,The rats in the control groups and experimental groups administered topical and intravitreal tacrolimus did not demonstrate any systemic toxic effects. The rats that developed certain toxic effects (hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia and nephrotoxicity) in the groups given low-dose or high-dose i.v. tacrolimus responded well to dose reduction. Following dose reduction, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 247.4 ± 42.3 mg/dL to 189.6 ± 37.9 mg/dL (P < 0.05), and from 237.4 ± 41.1 mg/dL to 182.3 ± 22.7 mg/dL (P < 0.05) in the low- and high-dose i.v. tacrolimus-treated rats, respectively. The rats that developed impaired hepatic function after high-dose tacrolimus did not respond to dose reduction. Baseline cholesterol concentrations for the intramuscular and low- and high-dose i.v. tacrolimus-treated groups, demonstrated decreases, respectively, from 87.4 ± 14.0 mg/dL, 86.4 ± 14.0 mg/dL and 90.4 ± 14.3 mg/dL to 53.6 ± 9.8 mg/dL, 52.1 ± 12.5 mg/dL and 63.5 ± 11.7 mg/dL by the end of the second month. The differences were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05 for each result). Conclusion:,Topical or intravitreal administration of tacrolimus seems to be systemically safe whereas parenteral administration can cause some systemic haematological changes such as dose-dependent decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. Dose reduction may prevent such adverse effects. [source]

    Management of chronic hand eczema

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2007
    Thomas L. Diepgen
    Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the ,management of severe chronic hand eczema' with the focus on the epidemiology, the burden of severe HE, its classification and diagnostic procedures, and the current status of treatment options according to an evidence-based approach (randomized controlled clinical trials, RCTs). We conclude that despite the abundance of topical and systemic treatment options, disease management in patients with severe chronic HE is frequently inadequate. There is a strong need for RCTs of existing and new treatment options based on clearly diagnosed subtypes of HE and its severity. [source]

    Retinoids and Wound Healing

    BACKGROUND Retinoids are widely used in dermatology and may play a role in wound healing. The exact role of retinoids in wounds is confusing and controversial, however. Systemic retinoids are presumed to be detrimental to wound healing; however, this standard is based on isolated reports. OBJECTIVE The objective was to provide a critical review of the available literature regarding the role of both topical and systemic retinoids in various aspects of wound healing. CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment with retinoids likely promotes wound healing after facial resurfacing procedures and full- or partial-thickness wounds. While the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of retinoids applied to fresh and healing wounds, the majority of the evidence available shows favorable wound-healing properties in this setting. The medical,legal standard regarding the avoidance of facial resurfacing and surgical procedures in patients on or recently completing a course of systemic retinoids was likely prematurely established. [source]

    Treatment of Inflammatory Facial Acne Vulgaris with Intense Pulsed Light and Short Contact of Topical 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: A Pilot Study

    BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and red light (550,700 nm) has been introduced for effective treatment of facial acne. Untoward side effects are common, however. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the short contact of topical ALA and intense pulsed light (IPL) in treatment of inflammatory facial acne. METHODS Fourteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with IPL on the left side and combination of IPL and topical ALA on the right side at 3- to 4-week intervals for three sessions. Clinical photographs and lesion counts were obtained for evaluation. RESULTS All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne lesions on both sides. On the ALA-pretreated side, lesion counts decreased 87.7% at 12 weeks after the last treatment (p<.01). Meanwhile, lesion counts on the nonpretreated side decreased 66.8% (p<.01). In addition, a number of lesion counts on the ALA-pretreated side decreased. Mild edema and minimal crust developed on the combined-treatment side. CONCLUSION Short contact of topical ALA and IPL or IPL alone showed some beneficial effect in treatment of inflammatory facial acne; however, degree of improvement was better and remained longer with the combined regimen. Side effects were mild and reversible. [source]

    Plantar Hyperhidrosis and Pitted Keratolysis Treated with Botulinum Toxin Injection

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12p2 2004
    Bhertha M. Tamura
    Background. Sulcate plantare keratolysis or pitted keratolysis (plantar keratolysis sulcatum) is a disease that is commonly found in tropical countries. Patients have also reported plantar hyperhidrosis. Objective. Two patients with pitted keratolysis resistant to topical and systemic treatments are described. Methods. Both patients were injected with botulinum toxin distributed evenly through the plantar extension. Results. The response to the treatment was excellent despite using a low dose of botulinum toxin with the plantar keratolysis healing completely. Conclusion. Hyperhidrosis may be considered the major etiologic factor for pitted keratolysis that does not respond to treatment. [source]

    Tretinoin Peels versus Glycolic Acid Peels in the Treatment of Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    Niti Khunger MD
    Background. Chemical peels have become a popular method for treating melasma. Although daily topical 0.05 and 0.1% tretinoin have been used for melasma, the therapy takes at least 4 to 6 months to produce clinically significant lightening. In a recent trial, 1% tretinoin peel has shown good clinical and histologic results after biweekly applications in 2.5 weeks only in the treatment of melasma. Objective. Because there is a paucity of studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of 1% tretinoin peel in the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned Asian population, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of this potentially new peeling agent versus a standard peeling agent, 70% glycolic acid, in the treatment of melasma in Indian women. Methods. Ten female patients of melasma, after written consent, were taken up for an open left,right comparison pilot study of 12 weeks. One percent tretinoin peel was applied on one-half of the face, whereas 70% glycolic acid was applied on the other at weekly intervals. The results were evaluated by a clinical investigator by using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index and with photographs at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks. Results. A significant decrease in the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index from baseline to 6 weeks and then from 6 to 12 weeks was observed on both facial sides (p<0.001). Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the right and the left sides. Side effects were minimal and 1% tretinoin peel appeared to be well tolerated by the patients. Conclusions. It was concluded from the present trial that serial 1% tretinoin peel is a well tolerated and as effective a therapy for melasma in dark-skinned individuals as a standard and well-tried chemical peel, 70% glycolic acid, although larger trials over longer periods may be necessary to substantiate such findings. [source]

    Safety and efficacy of vaccines

    Brenda L. Bartlett
    ABSTRACT For the past two centuries, vaccines have provided a safe and effective means of preventing a number of infectious diseases. Although the safety of some vaccines has been questioned in recent years, the currently available vaccines are more than a millionfold safer than the diseases they are designed to prevent. Vaccines, however, should always be used in conjunction with other public health interventions. One important intervention is education because the general public can be led to believe that vaccines are unsafe and not needed by misinformation readily available electronically and in print. Not only are some vaccines available via injection but other vaccines are also given orally or intranasally. New vaccines are being studied for topical and intravaginal use. In addition, new systems are being developed for more efficient production of vaccines, especially for influenza. Vaccines are currently available for only a limited number of viral and bacterial diseases. In the future, it is anticipated that safe and effective vaccines will be developed against a number of other viral and bacterial infections as well as fungal and protozoan diseases. [source]

    New and emerging treatments in dermatology: acne

    A. Katsambas
    ABSTRACT:, Topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, and topical and oral antibiotics remain the milestone of treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Oral isotretinoin is useful for the treatment of severe nodular acne, treatment-resistant acne, and acne with a risk of physical or psychological scarring. Hormonal treatment in female acne is useful in resistant or late-onset acne. With increasing concerns regarding teratogenicity of isotretinoin and increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a clear need for therapeutic alternatives to these long-used treatments. Research in the pathogenesis of acne has allowed for new therapies and future perspectives regarding acne to evolve. They include low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5,-reductase type 1 inhibitors, topical photodynamic therapy, new combination formulations, dietary interventions, and antiinflammatory agents such as lipoxygenase inhibitors. [source]

    Update on retinoid therapy of psoriasis in: an update on the use of retinoids in dermatology

    Peter C. M. Van De Kerkhof
    ABSTRACT:, Both in the topical and systemic treatment of psoriasis, retinoids are mainstays. In this chapter the history and modes of actions of retinoids are presented. Tazarotene and acitretin are the only retinoids that are available in both topical and systemic formulations. A more extensive description of their pharmacology, modes of action, indications and contraindications, clinical results, and treatment strategies will be presented. Finally, retinoid X receptor ligands and retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents will be introduced as potential future retinoid mimetics in psoriasis. [source]

    Treatment of patch-stage mycosis fungoides with topical corticosteroids

    Herschel S. Zackheim
    ABSTRACT:, Experience at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in the management of patch-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) with topical, predominantly high-potency, corticosteroids is reviewed. The technique of applications is discussed in detail. Approximately 200 patients have been treated. The results are very favorable. The response rate is over 90%. Side-effects are minor. Topical clobetasol is the first-line treatment for early stage MF at UCSF. [source]

    Alternative therapy in pruritus

    Larry E. Millikan
    ABSTRACT: Because of its multitude of origins, the symptom complex of pruritus has a plethora of purported remedies and few therapeutic indications. Very few topical and systemic FDA approved medications have the indication of pruritus. Specific therapy still awaits a better definition of the exact physiologic events in chronic pruritus. Hence most medications actually focus on the central nervous system,the peripheral receptors,and the lack of specific physiologic targets has inhibited pharmacologic development. The resulting gap has opened the door to a variety of alternative therapies. [source]

    Continuities and changes in self-change research

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Harald Klingemann
    ABSTRACT Aims A substantial literature demonstrates that natural recoveries from substance use disorders not only occur but are a common pathway to recovery. This article reviews selectively and comments on the current state-of-the-art in natural recovery research. Methods Basic concepts in natural recovery research are presented, and topical and methodological trends and changes in self-change research over time are discussed. Conclusions Although considerable progress has occurred in natural recovery research, several topics deserving of further research are identified, and implications for policy practice are discussed. [source]

    Neurotoxicity of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans: how strong is the evidence for persistent brain damage?

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2006
    E. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
    ABSTRACT Background The popular dance drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: MDMA and some analogues) causes selective and persistent neurotoxic damage of central serotonergic neurones in laboratory animals. Serotonin plays a role in numerous functional systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, various abnormalities including psychiatric, vegetative, neuroendocrine and cognitive disorders could be expected in humans following MDMA-induced neurotoxic brain damage. Aims In recent years, the question of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and possible functional sequelae has been addressed in several studies with drug users. The aim of this paper was to review this literature and weigh the strength of the evidence for persistent brain damage in ecstasy users. Methods We used Medline to view all available publications on ,ecstasy' or ,MDMA'. All available studies dealing with ecstasy users entered this analysis. Findings and conclusions Despite large methodological problems the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial restitution may occur after long-term abstinence. However, functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence. To date, the most consistent findings associate subtle cognitive, particularly memory, impairments with heavy ecstasy use. However, the evidence cannot be considered definite and the issues of possible pre-existing traits or the effects of polydrug use are not resolved. Recommendations Questions about the neurotoxic effects of ecstasy on the brain remain highly topical in light of its popularity among young people. More longitudinal and prospective studies are clearly needed in order to obtain a better understanding of the possible long-term sequelae of ecstasy use in humans. [source]

    Ethinyl Estradiol, Not Progestogens, Reduces Lamotrigine Serum Concentrations

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2005
    Arne Reimers
    Summary:,Purpose: To study the interaction between lamotrigine (LTG) and hormonal contraception. Methods: LTG serum concentrations of female patients using either no hormonal contraception (n = 18), an ethinyl estradiol (EE)-containing (n = 11), or a progestogen (PG)-only,containing compound (n = 16) were analyzed. Patients were recruited prospectively, and blood samples were drawn during drug fasting and at steady-state conditions. Comedication with enzyme inducers, valproate, topiramate, or sertraline was not allowed. Some patients changed groups and thus served as their own controls. Samples were analyzed by a gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy method. The Mann,Whitney U test was used for statistical comparison of the groups. Results: The LTG serum concentration-to-dose ratio (CDR), expressed as (mg/L)/(mg/d) was significantly lower in women using EE than in the control group (mean ± SD, 0.010 ± 0.004 vs. 0.017 ± 0.006; p = 0.003). The CDR in women using PG was 0.02 ± 0.007, which was not statistically different from controls. No difference was found in CDR between women using either oral, topical, or parenteral PG. Five women switched from the control to the EE group and experienced a considerable reduction in CDR. An increase of the CDR toward control level was seen in the two women who changed from EE to PG. Conclusions: It is the EE component of oral contraceptives that interacts with LTG. The PG-only compounds did not alter LTG serum concentrations in this study. These findings should be considered when counselling women with epilepsy in the childbearing ages. [source]

    A poet in politics: Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst and first earl of Dorset (1536,1608)*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 204 2006
    Rivkah Zim
    Three elements in the experience of Thomas Sackville , eloquence, money and the law , integrate the achievements of the young poet and the mentality of the mature councillor, and enhance our understanding of him. His poetry had topical, political significance and taught him how to argue persuasively. His wealth gave him the confidence to be outspoken. His legal training, and the emphasis on equity and conscience, which began to affect Tudor jurisprudence (through such works as St. German's), account for many of the assumptions he articulated in public life. Two appended letters provide extended illustrations of these arguments. [source]

    Predicting the population consequences of human disturbance for Ringed Plovers Charadrius hiaticula: a game theory approach

    IBIS, Issue 2007
    Human disturbance and its potential impacts upon bird populations are currently topical and contentious issues for conservationists. Although many studies have revealed a behavioural impact, or even direct effect on breeding success or survival, these cannot usually be extended to predict the impact on population size. Here we present a population model that allows predictions of the effect that changes in human numbers, visiting a 9-km-long section of the coastline, may have upon the size of a Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula population. Human disturbance affects Ringed Plovers in our study area through birds avoiding areas of high disturbance and, in addition, through the accidental trampling of a small number of nests by people walking on the beach. Using the level of human disturbance and habitat variables (which define territory quality) it is possible to predict which areas of beach are occupied and therefore the sites available to the population. Breeding success, for a given area of beach, can be predicted from habitat data. Incorporating known, density-independent, adult mortality allows the equilibrium population size to be predicted. This provides a model that predicts population size. This model is then used to predict the population that the site would support with different, hypothetical, levels of disturbance. If nest loss from human activity was prevented, for example by fencing nests, we predict the Plover population size would increase by 8%. A complete absence of human disturbance would cause a population increase of 85%. If the numbers of people were to double, we predict the population would decrease by 23%. [source]

    Improvement in orofacial granulomatosis on a cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet

    Allison White RD
    Abstract Background: Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory disorder presenting characteristically with lip swelling but also affecting gingivae, buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, and a number of other sites in the oral cavity. Although the cause remains unknown, there is evidence for involvement of a dietary allergen. Patch testing has related responses to cinnamon and benzoate to the symptoms of OFG, with improvement obtained through exclusion diets. However, an objective assessment of the effect of a cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet (CB-free diet) as primary treatment for OFG has not previously been performed. Thus, this study was undertaken to investigate the benefits of a CB-free diet as first-line treatment of patients with OFG. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OFG were identified from a combined oral medicine/gastroenterology clinic. All had received a CB-free diet as primary treatment for a period of 8 weeks. Each patient underwent a standardized assessment of the oral cavity to characterize the number of sites affected and the type of inflammation involved before and after diet. Results: There was a significant improvement in oral inflammation in patients on the diet after 8 weeks. Both global oral and lip inflammatory scores improved (P < 0.001), and there was significant improvement in both lip and oral site and activity involvement. However, improvement in lip activity was less marked than oral activity. Response to a CB-free diet did not appear to be site specific. A history of OFG-associated gut involvement did not predict a response to the diet. Conclusions: The impact of dietary manipulation in patients with OFG can be significant, particularly with regard to oral inflammation. With the disease most prevalent in the younger population, a CB-free diet can be recommended as primary treatment. Subsequent topical or systemic immunomodulatory therapy may then be avoided or used as second line. [source]

    Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a food supplement in improving skin hydration

    G Primavera
    Synopsis Topically applied cosmetic products can be helpful in improving skin hydration. The study shows how oral supplementation could be helpful in improving and preventing the skin dehydration. A total of 32 healthy female volunteers entered the study. Of which, 16 were treated with a food supplement based on vegetable ceramides, amino acids, fish cartilage, antioxidants and essential fatty acids for 40 days and 16 with placebo. The results of the clinical and instrumental evaluations carried out in this study, have highlighted how the active treatment is effective in improving skin hydration and in reducing the cutaneous smoothness and roughness and the depth of furrows, in comparison to the placebo. In fact, concerning several important parameters, as stratum corneum hydration and skin roughness, the improvement measured exceeded 25%. We therefore suggest that a combination of treatments (oral and topical) can be more effective in improving skin hydration. Resume L'application topique de produits cosmétiques peut aider à l'hydratation de la peau. L'étude montre comment une supplémentation orale peut améliorer et empêcher la déshydratation de la peau. Trente deux femmes volontaires en bonne santé ont participéà cette étude. Seize ont été traitées pendant quarante jours avec un supplément alimentaire contenant des céramides végétaux, des aminoacides, du cartilage de poisson, des antioxydants et des acides gras essentiels, seize autres ont reçu un placebo. Les résultats des évaluations cliniques et expérimentales menées dans cette étude ont montré comment le traitement actif est efficace pour améliorer, par rapport au placebo, l'hydratation de la peau et réduire la douceur, la rugosité cutanée et la profondeur des rides. En fait, si l'on considère des paramètres importants comme l'hydratation du stratum corneum et la rugosité de la peau, l'amélioration mesurée dépasse 25%. Nous suggérons également qu'une combinaison de traitements (oral et topique) peut être encore plus efficace. [source]

    Role of topical and nutritional supplement to modify the oxidative stress,

    P. Morganti
    Synopsis Background: Evidence suggests that signs of skin ageing such as wrinkling, ragging and actinic lentigines, may be connected to cumulative oxidative damage incurred throughout our lifetimes. To counteract this oxidative injury, skin is equipped with a network on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, such as tocopherols, ascorbate polyphenols. All these compounds administered topically by cosmetics or by oral route by diet supplements, have been shown to exert an antioxidant/protective effect in skin or skin cells. Objective: The object of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo the activity performed by different topical antioxidants and nutritional supplements. Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out for 8 weeks on 30 dry-skinned elderly volunteers, women aged between 48 and 59 years, with moderate xerosis and photoageing. Surface skin lipids, skin hydration and MDA determination were topically detected by 3C System. ROS was evaluated on the blood serum and on IL-3 stimulated human leukocytes by ROS Meter System at 505 nm. All the subjects applied twice a day for 2 months a nanocolloidal gel and/or take a diet supplement by oral route at the quantity of two capsules per day. All the formulations used were antioxidant-enriched (ascorbic acid, tocopherol, alpha-lipoic acid, melatonin, emblica). Results: Oxidative stress and consequently lipids peroxidation decreased from 30 to 40% (P < 0.005) in blood serum of all the subjects treated with antioxidant compounds topically and by oral route. Both free radicals recovered in blood serum and on skin (in vivo) and ROS induced by irradiation of leucocytes with UVB light (in vitro), appear sensibly lower in subjects antioxidant-treated. Conclusions: From the obtained data, it seems possible to conclude that all the compounds used play interesting role as topical and systemic photoprotectants, thanks to their interesting antioxidant property. Moreover, the antioxidant treatment seems to be a promising therapeutic approach also in reducing the oxidative stress of people affected by photoaging. Résumé Les faits semblent montrer que les signes du vieillissement cutané tels que les rides, la perte d'élasticité ou les taches de vieillesse, peuvent être liés aux effets oxydants cumulés subis tout au long de la vie. Pour contrer ces effets oxydants, la peau est équipée d'un réseau de systèmes antioxydants enzymatiques et non enzymatiques tels que les tocophérols, l'ascorbate et les polyphénols. Tous ces composés, administrés par voie topique par des cosmétiques ou par voie orale avec des suppléments alimentaires, se sont révélés exercer un effet antioxydant/protecteur sur la peau ou les cellules de la peau. L'objet de cette étude était d'évaluer aussi bien in-vitro qu'in-vivo l'activité de différents antioxydants topiques et suppléments alimentaires. Une étude randomisée contre placebo en double aveugle a été conduite sur 8 semaines avec 30 volontaires,gés à peau sèche, des femmes de 48 à 59 ans, présentant une xérose et un viellissement modéré. Les lipides à la surface de la peau, l'hydratation de la peau et la MDA ont été suivis de façon topique par le SYSTEM 3 C. Les ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) ont été déterminés dans le sérum sanguin et sur les leucocytes humains 12-3 stimulés par un SYSTEM ROS-METER à 505 nm. Tous les sujets ont appliqué deux fois par jour pendant deux mois un gel nanocolloïdal et/ou pris des suppléments alimentaires par voie orale à raison de deux gélules par jour. Toutes les formulations utilisées étaient enrichies en antioxydant (acide ascorbique, tocophérol, acide alpha-lipoïque, mélatonine, emblica). Le stress oxydant et par conséquent la péroxydation des lipides diminue de 30 à 40% (p < 0.005) dans le sérum sanguin de tous les sujets traités avec des composés antioxydants par voie topique ou orale. Les radicaux libres retrouvés aussi bien dans le sérum sanguin que dans la peau (in-vivo) et la ROS induite par l'irradiation des leucocytes avec la lumière ultraviolette (in-vitro) apparaissent significativement moins élevés chez les sujets traités aux antioxydants par voie topique ou orale. D'après les données obtenues il semble possible de conclure que tous les composés utilisés jouent un rôle intéressant comme photoprotecteurs topiques et systémiques grâce à leurs intéressantes propriétés antioxydantes. De plus, le traitement antioxydant semble être une approche thérapeutique prometteuse en ce qu'elle réduit aussi le stress oxydant des personnes touchées par le vieillissement. [source]

    Oral fish cartilage polysaccharides in the treatment of photoageing: biophysical findings

    F. Distante
    Synopsis The topically applied cosmetic products can be helpful in improving the aged skin condition. The present study shows how oral fish-cartilage food supplementation can be helpful in improving the treatment of ageing skin. A total of 30 healthy women with signs of skin ageing were studied. Fifteen of the women were treated with a food supplement based on polysaccharides derived from the fish cartilage and a natural mix of antioxidants for 2 months and the other 15 with a placebo. Clinical evaluation and biophysical parameters related to skin function and wrinkle severity, such as silicone replica, skin thickness, mechanical properties, skin colour and capacitance, were measured. The results showed statistically significant changes in the active-treated group in comparison to the placebo. In particular, dermal thickness (treatment: from 1.13 to 1.23 mm; P < 0.001), skin wrinkling (treatment: from 9.5 to 3.5 Ra; P< 0.002), skin colour (treatment: brighter and less pigmented; P < 0.02) and viscoelasticity (treatment: from 0.70 to 0.97%; P < 0.02) showed considerable improvement. Most of these parameters are related to changes occurring within the dermal matrix, which is improved after the treatment, whereas most of the topically applied cosmetic products have a short-term effect on superficial structures. A combination treatment (oral and topical) can be more effective in reducing the signs of skin-ageing. Résumé Les produits cosmétiques en topiques locaux ont montré leur efficacité pour ralentir le vieillissement cutané. Cette étude montre qu'un traitement oral, à base de cartilage de poisson sous forme de suppléments nutritifs, peut être un complément efficace dans le traitement du vieillissement cutané. 30 femmes en bonne santé présentant des signes de vieillissement cutané ont été incluses dans notre étude. 15 d'entre elles ont reçu pendant 2 mois une supplémentation alimentaire à base de polysaccharides dérivés de cartilage de poisson, associée à un mélange normal d'antioxydants. Les 15 autres femmes ont été traitées avec un placebo. Les paramètres cliniques et biophysiques suivants, évaluant la fonction de la peau et la sévérité des rides ont été mesurés: réplica?? de silicone, épaisseur de la peau, propriétés mécaniques, couleur de peau et état d'hydratation cutanée. Les résultats ont mis en évidence des changements significatifs entre le groupe placebo et le groupe traité pour les paramètres étudiés. En particulier, l'épaisseur cutanée (traitement: de 1.13 à 1.23 mm; P < 0.001), les rides (traitement: de 9.5 à,3.5 Ra; P < 0.002), la couleur de la peau (traitement: plus claire et moins pigmentée; P < 0.02) et la visco-élasticité (traitment: de 0.70 à 0.97%; P < 0.02) ont été considérablement améliorées. La plupart de ces paramètres sont liées aux changements qui se produisent en profondeur dans la matrice dermique, alors que la plupart des produits cosmétiques topiques ont un effet à court terme sur les structures superficielles. La combinaison d'un traitement oral associéà un traitement local peut être plus efficace dans la prévention du vieillissement cutané. [source]

    Atypical X-linked ichthyosis in a patient with a large deletion involving the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene

    Luz Gonzalez-Huerta MD
    A 70-year-old male presented with very large, thick, tightly adherent, dark-brown scales on the front of his lower extremities. His face, neck, back, abdomen, upper extremities, flexural areas, palms and soles as well as hair and nails were not involved. Family history was negative for similar lesions. Otherwise, the patient had a normal development. Onset of symptoms occurred during childhood with scales on lower extremities with no more additional features. Treatment included emollients exclusively with partial and temporary remission of cutaneous lesions. Recently, the patient had not received topical or systemic medical treatment. Laboratory investigations were within normal limits. The patient had undetectable levels of STS activity when compared with normal control (0.00 pmol mg -1 protein h -1) which confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) . PCR analysis showed deletion of the STS gene, markers DXS1139 and DXF22S1and the 5, end of the VCX3A gene. The patient had scales present on lower extremities only with no medical treatment that corresponded to an unusual clinical manifestation of XLI. Clinical manifestations of XLI are due to a great variety of environmental, genetic and individual factors that should be considered in XLI diagnosis. [source]