Thought Disorder (thought + disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Thought disorder in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

Han-Joo Lee
We examined the presence of disordered thinking/perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently, an obsession model has been proposed, which classifies obsessions into two different subtypes: autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions (Lee & Kwon, 2003). Based on this model, we hypothesized that OCD patients primarily displaying autogenous obsessions as opposed to reactive obsessions would display more severely disordered thinking/perception. We compared 15 OCD patients primarily displaying autogenous obsessions (AOs), 14 OCD patients primarily displaying reactive obsessions (ROs), 32 patients with schizophrenia (SPRs), and 28 patients with other anxiety disorders (OADs) with respect to thought disorders as assessed by the Comprehensive System of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Results indicated that both AOs and SPRs displayed more severe thought disorders compared to ROs or OADs. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

Relations of clinical features, subgroups and medication to serum monoamines in schizophrenia

Robert D. Oades
Abstract Background Plasma and serum indices of monoaminergic activity reflect partly the illness of schizophrenia (e.g. HVA/deficit syndrome) and sometimes the symptoms (e.g. HVA/anhedonia). But, such studies have rarely taken both metabolites and parent amines or inter-amine activity ratios into account. We hypothesized that comparing the major symptom dimensions to measures of transmitter activity (with and without control for antipsychotic drug treatment) would show differential patterns of activity useful for the design of pharmacological treatments. Methods Dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT), their three major metabolites and prolactin were measured in the serum of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls: DA D2-receptor blocking-activity was estimated from a regression of butyrophenone displacement in striatum in vitro on to PET reports of drug-binding in vivo. Symptoms were factored into four dimensions (disorganized/thought disorder, nonparanoid/negative, ideas-of-reference and paranoid/positive symptoms). Results (1) Patients' DA activity did not differ from controls: but their 5-HT and NA turnovers increased/decreased, respectively, and the DA/5HT-metabolite ratio was lower. Increased DA-D2-receptor occupancy was predicted by decreased DA-metabolism and its ratio to 5-HT-metabolism. (2) Patients had higher levels of NA, DA-metabolites and DA-/5-HT-metabolite ratios on atypical vs typical drugs. (3) Increased D2-occupancy was associated with lower DA metabolism in paranoid patients but was unrelated to relative increases of DA/5-HT- and NA-metabolism in nonparanoid patients. (4) Low DA-/5-HT-metabolite ratios, high prolactin and low DA-metabolism characterized thought-disordered patients. (5) High DA-/5-HT-metabolite ratios paralleled many ideas-of-reference. The metabolites were sensitive, respectively, to control for D2-occupancy and prolactin. Conclusions The role of DA in paranoid, and 5-HT in thought-disordered and ideas-of-reference dimensions point both to the mechanisms underlying the features typical of these subgroups and the type of medication appropriate. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Frontal lobe syndrome or adolescent-onset schizophrenia?

A case report
Objective:, To highlight the difficulties that abound in making a clinical distinction between early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and juvenile frontal dementia early in the course of illness. Method:, Clinical information and data from investigations in single case was collated and reviewed. Results:, A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our psychiatric unit because of cognitive decline and formal thought disorder with echopraxia, echolalia and palilalia, and a lack of flexibility in the use of cognitive and motor strategies that culminated in psychosis. A single photon emission computerized tomography scan showed marked frontal lobe hypoperfusion; however, on proton spectroscopy there was no differential in N -acetyl aspartate levels. Conclusion:, Hypofrontality in EOS is well established and the association of frontal functional alterations, neuropsychological impairment and psychotic symptomatology is suggestive of frontal lobe prodrome that precedes the onset of psychosis. [source]

VSD: A database for schizophrenia candidate genes focusing on variations,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2004
Min Zhou
Abstract Schizophrenia is a common mental disease characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and formal thought disorder. It has been demonstrated with genetic evidence that the disease is a polygenic disorder. Pharmacological, neurochemical, and clinical studies have suggested a number of schizophrenia susceptibility loci. In order to systematically search for genes with small effect in the development of schizophrenia, a database called VSD was established to provide variation data for publicly available candidate genes. Most of the genes encode neurotransmitter receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, and the enzymes involved in their metabolism. Other candidate genes extracted from published literature are also included. The variation information has been collected from publicly available mutation and polymorphism databases such as dbSNP, HGVbase, and OMIM, with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) being the most abundant form of collected variations. Reference sequences from NCBI's RefSeq database are used as references when positioning variation at transcript and protein levels. The nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that lead to amino acid changes in the functional sites or domains of proteins are distinguished since they are more likely to affect protein function and would be target SNPs for association studies. In addition to variation data, gene descriptions, enzyme information, and other biological information for each gene locus are also included. The latest version of VSD contains 23,648 variations assigned to a total of 186 genes. Five-hundred eighty-eight domains and sites annotated in the SWISS-PROT and InterPro databases are found to contain nsSNPs. VSD may be accessed via the World Wide Web ( and will be developed as an up-to-date and comprehensive locus-specific resource for identifying susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. Hum Mutat 23:1,7, 2004. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Olanzapine treatment for dopaminergic-induced hallucinations

William G. Ondo MD
Abstract Atypical antipsychotic medications with lower affinities for D2 receptors are considered useful alternatives to treat drug-induced hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, unforced titration, parallel design study (2:1 drug to placebo randomization ratio) using olanzapine (2.5,10 mg/day to effect) in 30 PD patients with drug-induced hallucinations. We performed an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), assessments of on and off time at baseline and at 9 weeks after starting the medication. Sixteen patients on olanzapine (mean dose, 4.6 mg/night) and 11 on placebo completed the study. Compared with placebo, performance on the UPDRS item 2 (thought disorder), and a structured interview for hallucinations, both tended to improve on drug but neither reached statistical significance. A neuropsychological test battery did not show any significant differences. Total on UPDRS motor scores (P < 0.05) and timed tapping (P < 0.01) worsened while on drug compared to placebo. Bradykinesia (P < 0.01) and gait (P < 0.001) items on the UPDRS largely accounted for this deterioration. After completion of the study, 8 of 16 patients randomly assigned to drug continued olanzapine at a mean dose of 2.4 mg/day. However, at the last recorded visit only 5 of 24 (20.8%) of all patients exposed to drug (including those originally randomly assigned to placebo) remained on olanzapine. In patients with PD, low-dose olanzapine did not significantly improve hallucinations but did worsen motor function. 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Increased positive thought disorder with illness duration in patients with schizophrenia

Abstract It is unclear whether the severity of positive formal thought disorder, a core clinical feature of schizophrenia, is stable or worsening through the chronic course of the illness. The neurocognitive basis for positive thought disorder also remains unclear. The aim of the present paper was to examine the relationship between thought disorder as measured by the Thought Disorder Index (TDI) and duration of illness and neuropsychological indices in 79 patients with schizophrenia. TDI scores increased in proportion to illness duration. TDI scores were not associated with verbal memory or executive functioning. These results indicate an ongoing worsening of positive thought disorder through the course of illness in schizophrenia. [source]