Tensor Imaging (tensor + imaging)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Tensor Imaging

  • diffusion tensor imaging

  • Terms modified by Tensor Imaging

  • tensor imaging study

  • Selected Abstracts

    Illustrative White Matter Fiber Bundles

    Ron Otten
    Abstract Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has made feasible the visualization of the fibrous structure of the brain white matter. In the last decades, several fiber-tracking methods have been developed to reconstruct the fiber tracts from DTI data. Usually these fiber tracts are shown individually based on some selection criteria like region of interest. However, if the white matter as a whole is being visualized clutter is generated by directly rendering the individual fiber tracts. Often users are actually interested in fiber bundles, anatomically meaningful entities that abstract from the fibers they contain. Several clustering techniques have been developed that try to group the fiber tracts in fiber bundles. However, even if clustering succeeds, the complex nature of white matter still makes it difficult to investigate. In this paper, we propose the use of illustration techniques to ease the exploration of white matter clusters. We create a technique to visualize an individual cluster as a whole. The amount of fibers visualized for the cluster is reduced to just a few hint lines, and silhouette and contours are used to improve the definition of the cluster borders. Multiple clusters can be easily visualized by a combination of the single cluster visualizations. Focus+context concepts are used to extend the multiple-cluster renderings. Exploded views ease the exploration of the focus cluster while keeping the context clusters in an abstract form. Real-time results are achieved by the GPU implementation of the presented techniques. [source]

    Generalized Diffusion Tensor Imaging (GDTI): A Method for Characterizing and Imaging Diffusion Anisotropy Caused by Non-Gaussian Diffusion

    Chunlei Liu
    For non-Gaussian distributed random displacement, which is common in restricted diffusion, a second-order diffusion tensor is incapable of fully characterizing the diffusion process. The insufficiency of a second-order tensor is evident in the limited capability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in resolving multiple fiber orientations within one voxel of human white matter. A generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) method was recently proposed to solve this problem by generalizing Fick's law to a higher-order partial differential equation (PDE). The relationship between the higher-order tensor coefficients of the PDE and the higher-order cumulants of the random displacement can be derived. The statistical property of the diffusion process was fully characterized via the higher-order tensor coefficients by reconstructing the probability density function (PDF) of the molecular random displacement. Those higher-order tensor coefficients can be measured using conventional diffusion-weighted imaging or spectroscopy techniques. Simulations demonstrated that this method was capable of quantitatively characterizing non-Gaussian diffusion and accurately resolving multiple fiber orientations. It can be shown that this method is consistent with the q-space approach. The second-order approximation of GDTI was shown to be DTI. [source]

    Deviation of Fiber Tracts in the Vicinity of Brain Lesions: Evaluation by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Yaniv Assaf
    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is used to characterize the diffusion properties of deviated white matter caused by brain tumors. DTI was recently shown to be very helpful in delineating white matter both within brain lesions and surrounding them. Displacement of white matter fibers may be one of the consequences of tumor growth adjacent to white matter. The combination of white matter mapping with DTI and gray matter mapping using functional MRI, in some cases, facilitated assessment of the relation between the shifted cortical areas and the corresponding white matter tracts. We found that the fractional anisotropy extracted from DTI is increased by 38% in areas of non-edematous shifted white matter fibers. By contrast, trace apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in those areas were found to be similar to contralateral side and normal control values. Analysis of the three diffusion tensor eigenvalues revealed that the increase in the fractional anisotropy is a result of two processes. The first is the increase in the diffusion parallel to the fibers,,1 (by 18%), and the second is the decrease in the diffusion perpendicular to fibers,,3 (by 34%) as compared with the contralateral side. These opposing changes cause an increase in the diffusion anisotropy but no change in the trace ADC. It is suggested that the pressure caused by the tumor may lead to an increase in white matter fiber tension, thus causing an increase in ,1. On the other hand, the same pressure causes increased fiber density per unit area, leading to a higher degree of restricted diffusion in the extracellular space and, hence, a reduction in ,3. [source]

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging in spinal cord injury

    Benjamin M. Ellingson
    Abstract Noninvasive assessment of spinal cord integrity following injury is critical for precise diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical intervention strategies. Diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are more sensitive to the underlying spinal cord microstructure than traditional imaging techniques. As a result, diffusion imaging is emerging as the clinical technique for imaging the spinal cord after trauma, surgery or during progressive degenerative diseases. This review describes the basic physics of diffusion imaging using magnetic resonance, techniques used to visualize diffusion measurements, and expected changes in diffusion measurements following spinal cord injury. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Concepts Magn Reson Part A 32A: 219,237, 2008. [source]

    Analysis of b -value calculations in diffusion weighted and diffusion tensor imaging

    Daniel Güllmar
    Abstract Diffusion weighted imaging has opened new diagnostic possibilities by using microscopic diffusion of water molecules as a means of image contrast. The directional dependence of diffusion has led to the development of diffusion tensor imaging, which allows us to characterize microscopic tissue geometry. The link between the measured NMR signal and the self-diffusion tensor is established by the so-called b matrices that depend on the gradient's direction, strength, and timing. However, in the calculation of b -matrix elements, the influence of imaging gradients on each element of the b matrix is often neglected. This may cause errors, which in turn leads to an incorrect extraction of diffusion coefficients. In cases where the imaging gradients are high (high spatial resolution), these errors may be substantial. Using a generic pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) imaging sequence, the effects of neglecting the imaging gradients on the b -matrix calculation are demonstrated. By measuring an isotropic phantom with this sequence it can be analytically as well as experimentally shown that large deviations in single b -matrix elements are generated. These deviations are obtained by applying the diffusion weighting in the readout direction of the imaging dimension in combination with relatively large imaging gradients. The systematic errors can be avoided by a full b -matrix calculation considering all the gradients of the sequence or by generating cross-term free signals using the geometric average of two diffusion weighted images with opposite polarity. The importance of calculating the exact b matrices by the proposed methods is based on the fact that more precise diffusion parameters are obtained for extracting correct property maps, such as fractional anisotropy, volume ratio, or conductivity tensor maps. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 25A: 53,66, 2005 [source]

    Fiber tracking using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and its applications to human brain development

    Richard Watts
    Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging is unique in its ability to noninvasively visualize white matter fiber tracts in the human brain in vivo. Diffusion is the incoherent motion of water molecules on a microscopic scale. This motion is itself dependent on the micro-structural environment that restricts the movement of the water molecules. In white matter fibers there is a pronounced directional dependence on diffusion. With white matter fiber tracking or tractography, projections among brain regions can be detected in the three-dimensional diffusion tensor dataset according to the directionality of the fibers. Examples of developmental changes in diffusion, tracking of major fiber tracts, and examples of how diffusion tensor tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging can be combined are provided. These techniques are complimentary and allow both the identification of the eloquent areas of the brain involved in specific functional tasks, and the connections between them. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging will allow these techniques to be used in both longitudinal developmental and diagnostic studies. An overview of the technique and preliminary applications are presented, along with its current limitations. MRDD Research Reviews 2003;9:168,177. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Language lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy using functional MRI and probabilistic tractography

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2008
    Sebastian Rodrigo
    Summary Purpose: Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to noninvasively assess hemispheric language specialization as part of the presurgical work-up in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). White matter asymmetries on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be related to language specialization as shown in controls and TLE. To refine our understanding of the effect of epilepsy on the structure,function relationships, we focused on the arcuate fasciculus (ArcF) and the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (IOF) and tested the relationship between DTI- and fMRI-based lateralization indices in TLE. Methods: fMRI with three language tasks and DTI were obtained in 20 patients (12 right and 8 left TLE). The ArcF, a major language-related tract, and the IOF were segmented bilaterally using probabilistic tractography to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) lateralization indices. These were correlated with fMRI-based lateralization indices computed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Pearson's correlation coefficient). Results: fMRI indices were left-lateralized in 16 patients and bilateral or right-lateralized in four. In the ArcF, FA was higher on the left than on the right side, reaching significance in right but not in left TLE. We found a positive correlation between ArcF anisotropy and fMRI-based lateralization indices in right TLE (p < 0.009), but not in left TLE patients. No correlation was observed for the IOF. Conclusions: Right TLE patients with more left-lateralized functional activations also showed a leftward-lateralized arcuate fasciculus. The decoupling between the functional and structural indices of the ArcF underlines the complexity of the language network in left TLE patients. [source]

    Molecular and diffusion tensor imaging of epileptic networks

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2008
    Aimee F. Luat
    Summary Several studies have shown that seizure-induced cellular and molecular changes associated with chronic epilepsy can lead to functional and structural alterations in the brain. Chronic epilepsy, when medically refractory, may be associated with an expansion of the epileptic circuitry to involve complex interactions between cortical and subcortical neuroanatomical substrates. Progress in neuroimaging has led not only to successful identification of epileptic foci for surgical resection, but also to an improved understanding of the functional and microstructural changes in long-standing epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are all promising tools that can assist in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology in chronic epilepsy. Studies using PET scanning have demonstrated dynamic changes associated with the evolution from acute to chronic intractable epilepsy. Among these changes are data to support the existence of secondary epileptogenesis in humans. MRI with DTI is a powerful tool which has the ability to characterize microstructural abnormalities in epileptic foci, and to demonstrate the white matter fibers and tracts participating in the epileptic network. In this review, we illustrate how PET and DTI can be applied to depict the functional and microstructural alterations associated with chronic epilepsy. [source]

    Intellectual abilities and white matter microstructure in development: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 10 2010
    Christian K. Tamnes
    Abstract Higher-order cognitive functions are supported by distributed networks of multiple interconnected cortical and subcortical regions. Efficient cognitive processing depends on fast communication between these regions, so the integrity of the connections between them is of great importance. It is known that white matter (WM) development is a slow process, continuing into adulthood. While the significance of cortical maturation for intellectual development is described, less is known about the relationships between cognitive functions and maturation of WM connectivity. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between intellectual abilities and development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures of WM microstructure in 168 right-handed participants aged 8,30 years. Independently of age and sex, both verbal and performance abilities were positively related to fractional anisotropy (FA) and negatively related to mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD), predominantly in the left hemisphere. Further, verbal, but not performance abilities, were associated with developmental differences in DTI indices in widespread regions in both hemispheres. Regional analyses showed relations with both FA and RD bilaterally in the anterior thalamic radiation and the cortico-spinal tract and in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In these regions, our results suggest that participants with high verbal abilities may show accelerated WM development in late childhood and a subsequent earlier developmental plateau, in contrast to a steadier and prolonged development in participants with average verbal abilities. Longitudinal data are needed to validate these interpretations. The results provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of intellectual development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Microstructural status of ipsilesional and contralesional corticospinal tract correlates with motor skill in chronic stroke patients

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 11 2009
    Judith D. Schaechter
    Abstract Greater loss in structural integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) is associated with poorer motor outcome in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Animal models of stroke have demonstrated that structural remodeling of white matter in the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres is associated with improved motor recovery. Accordingly, motor recovery in patients with stroke may relate to the relative strength of CST degeneration and remodeling. This study examined the relationship between microstructural status of brain white matter tracts, indexed by the fractional anisotropy (FA) metric derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, and motor skill of the stroke-affected hand in patients with chronic stroke. Voxelwise analysis revealed that motor skill significantly and positively correlated with FA of the ipsilesional and contralesional CST in the patients. Additional voxelwise analyses showed that patients with poorer motor skill had reduced FA of bilateral CST compared to normal control subjects, whereas patients with better motor skill had elevated FA of bilateral CST compared to controls. These findings were confirmed using a DTI-tractography method applied to the CST in both hemispheres. The results of this study suggest that the level of motor skill recovery achieved in patients with hemiparetic stroke relates to microstructural status of the CST in both the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres, which may reflect the net effect of degeneration and remodeling of bilateral CST. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Resting state sensorimotor functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis inversely correlates with transcallosal motor pathway transverse diffusivity

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 7 2008
    Mark J. Lowe
    Abstract Recent studies indicate that functional connectivity using low-frequency BOLD fluctuations (LFBFs) is reduced between the bilateral primary sensorimotor regions in multiple sclerosis. In addition, it has been shown that pathway-dependent measures of the transverse diffusivity of water in white matter correlate with related clinical measures of functional deficit in multiple sclerosis. Taken together, these methods suggest that MRI methods can be used to probe both functional connectivity and anatomic connectivity in subjects with known white matter impairment. We report the results of a study comparing anatomic connectivity of the transcallosal motor pathway, as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional connectivity of the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortices (SMC), as measured with LFBFs in the resting state. High angular resolution diffusion imaging was combined with functional MRI to define the transcallosal white matter pathway connecting the bilateral primary SMC. Maps were generated from the probabilistic tracking employed and these maps were used to calculate the mean pathway diffusion measures fractional anisotropy ,FA,, mean diffusivity ,MD,, longitudinal diffusivity ,,1,, and transverse diffusivity ,,2,. These were compared with LFBF-based functional connectivity measures (Fc) obtained at rest in a cohort of 11 multiple sclerosis patients and ,10 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The correlation between ,FA, and Fc for MS patients was r = ,0.63, P < 0.04. The correlation between all subjects ,,2, and Fc was r = 0.42, P < 0.05. The correlation between all subjects ,,2, and Fc was r = ,0.50, P < 0.02. None of the control subject correlations were significant, nor were ,FA,, ,,1,, or ,MD, significantly correlated with Fc for MS patients. This constitutes the first in vivo observation of a correlation between measures of anatomic connectivity and functional connectivity using spontaneous LFBFs. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2008
    Jessica Dubois
    Abstract Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatiotemporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1,4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spinothalamic tract and fornix, and finally the corticospinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging with whole brain acquisition in a clinically acceptable time

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 4 2002
    Derek Kenton Jones
    Abstract Our objective was to develop a diffusion tensor MR imaging pulse sequence that allows whole brain coverage with isotropic resolution within a clinically acceptable time. A single-shot, cardiac-gated MR pulse sequence, optimized for measuring the diffusion tensor in human brain, was developed to provide whole-brain coverage with isotropic (2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm) spatial resolution, within a total imaging time of approximately 15 min. The diffusion tensor was computed for each voxel in the whole volume and the data processed for visualization in three orthogonal planes. Anisotropy data were further visualized using a maximum-intensity projection algorithm. Finally, reconstruction of fiber-tract trajectories i.e., ,tractography' was performed. Images obtained with this pulse sequence provide clear delineation of individual white matter tracts, from the most superior cortical regions down to the cerebellum and brain stem. Because the data are acquired with isotropic resolution, they can be reformatted in any plane and the sequence can therefore be used, in general, for macroscopic neurological or psychiatric neuroimaging investigations. The 3D visualization afforded by maximum intensity projection imaging and tractography provided easy visualization of individual white matter fasciculi, which may be important sites of neuropathological degeneration or abnormal brain development. This study has shown that it is possible to obtain robust, high quality diffusion tensor MR data at 1.5 Tesla with isotropic resolution (2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm) from the whole brain within a sufficiently short imaging time that it may be incorporated into clinical imaging protocols. Hum. Brain Mapping 15:216,230, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Generalized Diffusion Tensor Imaging (GDTI): A Method for Characterizing and Imaging Diffusion Anisotropy Caused by Non-Gaussian Diffusion

    Chunlei Liu
    For non-Gaussian distributed random displacement, which is common in restricted diffusion, a second-order diffusion tensor is incapable of fully characterizing the diffusion process. The insufficiency of a second-order tensor is evident in the limited capability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in resolving multiple fiber orientations within one voxel of human white matter. A generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) method was recently proposed to solve this problem by generalizing Fick's law to a higher-order partial differential equation (PDE). The relationship between the higher-order tensor coefficients of the PDE and the higher-order cumulants of the random displacement can be derived. The statistical property of the diffusion process was fully characterized via the higher-order tensor coefficients by reconstructing the probability density function (PDF) of the molecular random displacement. Those higher-order tensor coefficients can be measured using conventional diffusion-weighted imaging or spectroscopy techniques. Simulations demonstrated that this method was capable of quantitatively characterizing non-Gaussian diffusion and accurately resolving multiple fiber orientations. It can be shown that this method is consistent with the q-space approach. The second-order approximation of GDTI was shown to be DTI. [source]

    Development of axonal pathways in the human fetal fronto-limbic brain: histochemical characterization and diffusion tensor imaging

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 4 2010
    Lana Vasung
    Abstract The development of cortical axonal pathways in the human brain begins during the transition between the embryonic and fetal period, happens in a series of sequential events, and leads to the establishment of major long trajectories by the neonatal period. We have correlated histochemical markers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry, antibody against synaptic protein SNAP-25 (SNAP-25-immunoreactivity) and neurofilament 200) with the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) database in order to make a reconstruction of the origin, growth pattern and termination of the pathways in the period between 8 and 34 postconceptual weeks (PCW). Histological sections revealed that the initial outgrowth and formation of joined trajectories of subcortico-frontal pathways (external capsule, cerebral stalk,internal capsule) and limbic bundles (fornix, stria terminalis, amygdaloid radiation) occur by 10 PCW. As early as 11 PCW, major afferent fibers invade the corticostriatal junction. At 13,14 PCW, axonal pathways from the thalamus and basal forebrain approach the deep moiety of the cortical plate, causing the first lamination. The period between 15 and 18 PCW is dominated by elaboration of the periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and spread of fibers in the subplate and marginal zone. Tracing of fibers in the subplate with DTI is unsuccessful due to the isotropy of this zone. Penetration of the cortical plate occurs after 24,26 PCW. In conclusion, frontal axonal pathways form the periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and ,waiting' compartments during the path-finding and penetration of the cortical plate. Histochemistry is advantageous in the demonstration of a growth pattern, whereas DTI is unique for demonstrating axonal trajectories. The complexity of fibers is the biological substrate of selective vulnerability of the fetal white matter. [source]

    Neuroimaging of cortical development and brain connectivity in human newborns and animal models

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 4 2010
    Gregory A. Lodygensky
    Abstract Significant human brain growth occurs during the third trimester, with a doubling of whole brain volume and a fourfold increase of cortical gray matter volume. This is also the time period during which cortical folding and gyrification take place. Conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and cerebral white matter injury have been shown to affect brain growth including specific structures such as the hippocampus, with subsequent potentially permanent functional consequences. The use of 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dedicated postprocessing tools to measure brain tissue volumes (cerebral cortical gray matter, white matter), surface and sulcation index can elucidate phenotypes associated with early behavior development. The use of diffusion tensor imaging can further help in assessing microstructural changes within the cerebral white matter and the establishment of brain connectivity. Finally, the use of functional MRI and resting-state functional MRI connectivity allows exploration of the impact of adverse conditions on functional brain connectivity in vivo. Results from studies using these methods have for the first time illustrated the structural impact of antenatal conditions and neonatal intensive care on the functional brain deficits observed after premature birth. In order to study the pathophysiology of these adverse conditions, MRI has also been used in conjunction with histology in animal models of injury in the immature brain. Understanding the histological substrate of brain injury seen on MRI provides new insights into the immature brain, mechanisms of injury and their imaging phenotype. [source]

    Prospects for progress in diagnostic imaging

    E. J. Potchen
    Abstract. Potchen EJ (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA). Prospects for progress in diagnostic imaging (Internal Medicine in the 21st Century). J Intern Med 2000; 247: 411,424. New fast-imaging MRI systems designed specifically for cardiac magnetic resonance enable new applications of noninvasive vascular imaging. The use of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to map brain function and structure offers a new dimension to an understanding of the human condition. Clinical applications of functional MRI will influence many specialties including surgery, education, and rehabilitation. Functional imaging has the potential to visualize the regional concentration of specific proteins. This imaging at the level of molecules may be possible by use of a contrast material whose signal is changed by local enzymatic activity. The three-dimensional digital data collected in modern imaging techniques allow for virtual endoscopy in the respiratory, alimentary, and cardiovascular systems. Virtual endoscopy may replace many of the more invasive diagnostic methods in the near future. The measurement of clinical decision-making through observer performance studies better informs both the physician and the patient on how to improve upon the quality of clinical practice. These prospects for progress reinforce diagnostic imaging as a cornerstone in medical informatics. The history of creating images used in medicine reveals the invention of diagnostic tools which may provide new information but premature use can result in improper application of a poorly understood technology. Research into the use of new technology may be as important as the technology itself in improving the human condition. [source]

    In vivo vascular hallmarks of diffuse leukoaraiosis

    Jinsoo Uh PhD
    Abstract Purpose: To characterize multiple patterns of vascular changes in leukoaraiosis using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Materials and Methods: We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), and blood,brain-barrier (BBB) leakage in a group of 33 elderly subjects (age: 72.3 ± 6.8 years, 17 males, 16 females). Leukoaraiosis brain regions were identified in each subject using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MRI. Vascular parameters in the leukoaraiosis regions were compared to those in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) regions. Vascular changes in leukoaraiosis were also compared to structural damage as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging. Results: CBF and CVR in leukoaraiosis regions were found to be 39.7 ± 5.2% (P < 0.001) and 52.5 ± 11.6% (P = 0.005), respectively, of those in NAWM. In subjects who did not have significant leukoaraiosis, CBF and CVR in regions with high risk for leukoaraiosis showed a slight reduction compared to the other white matter regions. Significant BBB leakage was also detected (P = 0.003) in leukoaraiosis and the extent of BBB leakage was positively correlated with mean diffusivity. In addition, CVR in NAWM was lower than that in white matter of subjects without significant leukoaraiosis. Conclusion: Leukoaraiosis was characterized by reduced CBF, CVR, and a leakage in the BBB. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:184,190. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Smoothing that does not blur: Effects of the anisotropic approach for evaluating diffusion tensor imaging data in the clinic

    Marta Moraschi MS
    Abstract Purpose: To compare the effects of anisotropic and Gaussian smoothing on the outcomes of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) voxel-based (VB) analyses in the clinic, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement and directional information and boundary structures preservation. Materials and Methods: DTI data of 30 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 30 matched control subjects were obtained at 3T. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps with variable degrees and quality (Gaussian and anisotropic) of smoothing were created and compared with an unsmoothed dataset. The two smoothing approaches were evaluated in terms of SNR improvements, capability to separate differential effects between patients and controls by a standard VB analysis, and level of artifacts introduced by the preprocessing. Results: Gaussian smoothing regionally biased the FA values and introduced a high variability of results in clinical analysis, greatly dependent on the kernel size. On the contrary, anisotropic smoothing proved itself capable of enhancing the SNR of images and maintaining boundary structures, with only moderate dependence of results on smoothing parameters. Conclusion: Our study suggests that anisotropic smoothing is more suitable in DTI studies; however, regardless of technique, a moderate level of smoothing seems to be preferable considering the artifacts introduced by this manipulation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:690,697. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Toward a practical protocol for human optic nerve DTI with EPI geometric distortion correction

    Udomchai Techavipoo PhD
    Abstract Purpose To develop a practical protocol for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the human optic nerve with echo planar imaging (EPI) geometric distortion correction. Materials and Methods A conventional DTI protocol was modified to acquire images with fat and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suppression and field inhomogeneity maps of contiguous coronal slices covering the whole brain. The technique was applied to healthy volunteers and multiple sclerosis patients with and without a history of unilateral optic neuritis. DTI measures and optic nerve tractography before and after geometric distortion correction were compared. Diffusion measures from left and right or from affected and unaffected eyes in different subject cohorts were reported. Results The image geometry after correction closely resembled reference anatomical images. Optic nerve tractography became feasible after distortion correction. The diffusion measures from the healthy volunteers were in good agreement with the literature. Statistically significant differences were found in the fractional anisotropy and orthogonal eigenvalues between affected and unaffected eyes in optic neuritis patients with poor recovery. The diffusion measures before and after geometric distortion correction were not significantly different. For cohorts without optic neuritis, the difference between diffusion measures from left and right eyes was not statistically significant. Conclusion The proposed technique could provide a practical DTI protocol to study the human optic nerve. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:699,707. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    MRI of late microstructural and metabolic alterations in radiation-induced brain injuries

    Kevin C. Chan BEng
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the late effects of radiation-induced damages in the rat brain by means of in vivo multiparametric MRI. Materials and Methods The right hemibrains of seven Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a highly collimated 6 MV photon beam at a single dose of approximately 28 Gy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), T2-weighted imaging, and T1-weighted imaging were performed to the same animals 12 months after radiation treatment. Results Compared with the contralateral side, a significantly higher percentage decrease in fractional anisotropy was observed in the ipsilateral fimbria of hippocampus (29%) than the external capsule (8%) in DTI, indicating the selective vulnerability of fimbria to radiation treatment. Furthermore, in 1H-MRS, significantly higher choline, glutamate, lactate, and taurine peaks by 24%, 25%, 87%, and 58%, respectively, were observed relative to creatine in the ipsilateral brain. Postmortem histology confirmed these white matter degradations as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity increase in the ipsilateral brain. Conclusion The microstructural and metabolic changes in late radiation-induced brain injuries were documented in vivo. These multiparametric MRI measurements may help understand the white matter changes and neurotoxicity upon radiation treatment in a single setting. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1013,1020. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fast 3D 1H MRSI of the corticospinal tract in pediatric brain

    Dong-Hyun Kim PhD
    Abstract Purpose To develop a 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence that can be used to image infants/children at 3T and by combining it with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, extract relevant metabolic information corresponding to the corticospinal tract (CST). Materials and Methods A fast 3D MRSI sequence was developed for pediatric neuroimaging at 3T using spiral k-space readout and dual band RF pulses (32 × 32 × 8 cm field of view [FOV], 1 cc iso-resolution, TR/TE = 1500/130, 6:24 minute scan). Using DTI tractography to identify the motor tracts, spectra were extracted from the CSTs and quantified. Initial data from infants/children with suspected motor delay (n = 5) and age-matched controls (n = 3) were collected and N -acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios were quantified. Results The average signal-to-noise ratio of the NAA peak from the studies was ,22. Metabolite profiles were successfully acquired from the CST by using DTI tractography. Decreased NAA ratios in those with motor delay compared to controls of ,10% at the CST were observed. Conclusion A fast and robust 3D MRSI technique targeted for pediatric neuroimaging has been developed. By combining with DTI tractography, metabolic information from the CSTs can be retrieved and estimated. By combining DTI and 3D MRSI, spectral information from various tracts can be obtained and processed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1,6. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Diffusion measurements and diffusion tensor imaging with noisy magnitude data

    Anders Kristoffersen
    Abstract Purpose To compare an unbiased method for estimation of the diffusion coefficient to the quick, but biased, log-linear (LL) method in the presence of noisy magnitude data. Materials and Methods The magnitude operation changes the signal distribution in magnetic resonance (MR) images from Gaussian to Rician. If not properly taken into account, this will introduce a bias in the estimated diffusion coefficient. We compare two methods by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The first one applies least-squares fitting of the measured signal to the median (MD) value of the probability density function. The second method is uncorrected LL estimation. We also perform a high-resolution diffusion tensor experiment. Results The uncorrected LL estimator is heavily biased at low signal-to-noise ratios. The bias has a significant effect on image quality. The MD estimator is accurate and produces images with excellent contrast. Conclusion In the presence of noisy magnitude data, unbiased estimation is essential in diffusion measurements and diffusion tensor imaging. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:237,241. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Chronic hepatitis: Role of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation

    Bachir Taouli MD
    Abstract Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and Methods Breathhold single-shot echo-planar imaging CDI and DTI with b-values of 0 and 500 second/mm2 was performed in 31 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 normal volunteers. Liver biopsy was performed in all patients with liver disease with a median delay of two days from MRI. Fibrosis and inflammation were scored on a 5-point scale (0,4). Liver ADCs obtained with CDI and DTI were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to evaluate the utility of the ADC measures for prediction of fibrosis and inflammation. Results Patients with liver fibrosis and inflammation had significantly lower liver ADC than subjects without fibrosis or inflammation with CDI and DTI. For prediction of fibrosis stage , 1 and stage , 2, area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.848 and 0.783, sensitivity of 88.5% to 73.7%, and specificity of 73.3% to 72.7% were obtained, for ADC ,1.40 × 10,3 mm2/second and ,1.30 × 10,3 mm2/second (using CDI), respectively. For prediction of inflammation grade , 1, AUC of 0.825, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 78.6% were obtained using ADC , 1.30 × 10,3 mm2/second (using CDI). CDI performed better than DTI for diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion Liver ADC can be used to predict liver fibrosis and inflammation with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;28:89,95. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Normal white matter development from infancy to adulthood: Comparing diffusion tensor and high b value diffusion weighted MR images,

    Dafna Ben Bashat PhD
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the sensitivity of high b value diffusion weight magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in detecting normal white matter maturation, compare it to conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to obtain normative quantitative data using this method. Materials and Methods High b value DWI (bmax = 6000 sec/mm2) using q-space analysis and conventional DTI (b = 1000 sec/mm2) were performed on 36 healthy subjects aged 4 months to 23 years. Fractional-anisotropy (FA), apparent-displacement, and apparent-probability values were measured in all slices and in six regions of interest (ROIs) of large fiber tracks. Values were correlated with each other and with age using regression analysis. Results FA, displacement, and probability indices from all slices were highly correlated with each other (r > 0.87, P < 0.0001) and with age (r > 0.82, P < 0.0001). All age-related changes in the six pre-determined ROIs were best fitted by mono-exponential functions. Changes in the splenium extended to a later age when compared with the genu of the corpus-callosum, while the centrum semi-ovale demonstrated the latest changes with age. Conclusions High b-value DWI and DTI showed changes in white matter from infancy through adulthood. However, high b-value detects a signal that is likely to originate mainly from the intra-axonal water population, and thus may represent different aspects of development and different sensitivity to pathology. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005;21:503,511. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Diffusion Tensor and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury and Resulting Language Impairment

    Hui Mao PhD
    ABSTRACT Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common aftermath of brain trauma. The diagnosis of DAI is often difficult using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of a patient who sustained DAI presenting with language impairment. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and DTI tractography revealed a reduction of white matter integrity in the left frontal and medial temporal areas. White matter damage identified by DTI was correlated with the patient's language impairment as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI) and a neuropsychological exam. The findings demonstrate the utility of DTI for identifying white matter changes secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). [source]

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging Monitoring of Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Evolution

    Matilde Inglese MD
    ABSTRACT The characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology is the demyelinated plaque distributed throughout the central nervous system. Although MS is a primary demyelinating disease, acute axonal injury is common in actively demyelinating MS lesions and it is considered one of the major determinants of neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had a dramatic impact on MS in both the clinical practice and basic science settings. Techniques such as T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI are very sensitive in detecting lesions and, thus, increase the level of certainty of MS diagnosis. Conventional MRI has also improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and has provided objective and reliable measures to monitor the effect of experimental treatments in clinical trials. However, conventional MR,I does not provide specific information on the heterogeneous pathologic substrate of MS lesions. Advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy, offer the unprecedented ability to observe and quantify pathological changes in lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue over time. The present review will discuss the major contributions of conventional MRI and quantitative MRI techniques to understand how individual MS lesions evolve. [source]

    Isotropic Component Trace Analysis

    Hitoshi Matsuzawa MD
    ABSTRACT A new method for analyzing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain, based on a recently introduced algorithm, lambda chart analysis (LCA), is presented. Pretreatment of a given DTI data set with LCA, which effectively segregates isotropic and aniso tropic components, allows for total removal of the anisotropic component from the DTI data set. The remaining pure isotropic component can therefore be subjected to further analysis simi lar to that applied in the trace histogram method. Deconvolution of the trace function yielded 3 Gaussian elements. Remapping of these 3 deconvoluted isotropic elements back onto the 2-dimensional image plane provided anatomical correlates of each element. The algorithm, referred to here as isotropic com ponent trace analysis, can be used as a pictorial analytic tool, as well as a numerical analytical tool, for the noninvasive assess ment of isotropic parenchymal components. The presented method provides quantitative indices of certain parenchymal parameters with better clarity than currently available methods. A ready-to-use program, EZ-LCA, for this powerful method is provided (available at http://coe.bri.niigata-u.ac.jp). [source]

    Retrograde Wallerian degeneration of cranial corticospinal tracts in cervical spinal cord injury patients using diffusion tensor imaging

    Saurabh Guleria
    Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has the potential to reveal disruption of white matter microstructure in chronically injured spinal cords. We quantified fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) to demonstrate retrograde Wallerian degeneration (WD) of cranial corticospinal tract (CST) in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-two patients with complete cervical SCI in the chronic stage were studied with DTI along with 13 healthy controls. Mean FA and MD values were computed for midbrain, pons, medulla, posterior limb of internal capsule, and corona radiata. Significant reduction in the mean FA and increase in MD was observed in the cranial CST in patients with SCI compared with controls, suggesting retrograde WD. Statistically significant inverse FA and MD changes were noted in corona radiata, indicating some restoration of spared white matter tracts. Temporal changes in the DTI metrics suggest progressing degeneration in different regions of CST. These spatiotemporal changes in DTI metrics suggest continued WD in injured fibers along with simultaneous reorganization of spared white matter fibers, which may contribute to changing neurological status in chronic SCI patients. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Delay Discounting Behavior and White Matter Microstructure Abnormalities in Youth With a Family History of Alcoholism

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Megan M. Herting
    Background:, Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH,). Methods:, Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH, = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH, youth. Results:, FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times (RTs) on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH, youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower RTs on the delay discounting task. Conclusions:, Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing and may act as an intrinsic risk factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. [source]