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## Tensor
Kinds of Tensor
Terms modified by Tensor
## Selected Abstracts## Tensor-based matrices in geometrically non-linear FEM INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 15 2005V. V. ChekhovAbstract In the framework of the object-oriented paradigm, advantages of using the index-free tensor notation in combination with the concept of generalized tensor-based matrix are considered as being the most corresponding to the paradigm. The advantages reveal itself in the disappearance of a semantic gap between various stages of creation of FEM applications (theoretical inferences, use of the numerical methods, object-oriented software implementation) and, as a result, use of the unified object model in all the stages, as well as simplification of theoretical transformations. Based on the considered approach, a new FEM equation for large strain analysis is developed and its solution technique is outlined. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Diffusion Tensor and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Axonal Injury and Resulting Language Impairment JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Issue 4 2007Hui Mao PhDABSTRACT Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common aftermath of brain trauma. The diagnosis of DAI is often difficult using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of a patient who sustained DAI presenting with language impairment. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and DTI tractography revealed a reduction of white matter integrity in the left frontal and medial temporal areas. White matter damage identified by DTI was correlated with the patient's language impairment as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI) and a neuropsychological exam. The findings demonstrate the utility of DTI for identifying white matter changes secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). [source] ## Nanotubular Paramagnetic Probes as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on the Diffusion Tensor, ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 10 2010Viviana NegriExogenes Nanoröhrenmaterial kann verwendet werden, um die anisotrope Diffusion von Wassermolekülen im Umgebungsmedium in einer durch Magnetresonanzbildgebung nachweisbaren Weise zu induzieren und selektiv zu stören (siehe Schema; ADC: scheinbarer translatorischer Diffusionskoeffizient). Nanoröhren könnten sich als Kontrastmittel in Untersuchungen der mikrostrukturellen Basis von Gewebeanisotropien und deren pathologischer Bedeutung eignen. [source] ## Metric spaces in NMR crystallography CONCEPTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Issue 4 2009David M. GrantAbstract The anisotropic character of the chemical shift can be measured by experiments that provide shift tensor values and comparing these experimental components, obtained from microcrystalline powders, with 3D nuclear shielding tensor components, calculated with quantum chemistry, yields structural models of the analyzed molecules. The use of a metric tensor for evaluating the mean squared deviations, d2, between two or more tensors provides a statistical way to verify the molecular structure governing the theoretical shielding components. The sensitivity of the method is comparable with diffraction methods for the heavier organic atoms (i.e., C, O, N, etc.) but considerably better for the positions of H atoms. Thus, the method is especially powerful for H-bond structure, the position of water molecules in biomolecular species, and other proton important structural features, etc. Unfortunately, the traditional Cartesian tensor components appear as reducible metric representations and lack the orthogonality of irreducible icosahedral and irreducible spherical tensors, both of which are also easy to normalize. Metrics give weighting factors that carry important statistical significance in a structure determination. Details of the mathematical analysis are presented and examples given to illustrate the reason nuclear magnetic resonance are rapidly assuming an important synergistic relationship with diffraction methods (X-ray, neutron scattering, and high energy synchrotron irradiation). © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Concepts Magn Reson Part A 34A: 217,237, 2009. [source] ## Introduction to diffusion tensor imaging mathematics: Part III. CONCEPTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Issue 2 2006Tensor calculation, noise, optimization, simulationsAbstract The mathematical aspects of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI, or DTI), the measurement of the diffusion tensor by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are discussed in this three-part series. Part III begins with a comparison of different ways to calculate the tensor from diffusion-weighted imaging data. Next, the effects of noise on signal intensities and diffusion tensor measurements are discussed. In MRI signal intensities as well as DTI parameters, noise can introduce a bias (systematic deviation) as well as scatter (random deviation) in the data. Propagation-of-error formulas are explained with examples. Step-by-step procedures for simulating diffusion tensor measurements are presented. Finally, methods for selecting the optimal b factor and number of b = 0 images for measuring several properties of the diffusion tensor, including the trace (or mean diffusivity) and anisotropy, are presented. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 28A: 155,179, 2006 [source] ## Analysis of b -value calculations in diffusion weighted and diffusion tensor imaging CONCEPTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Issue 1 2005Daniel GüllmarAbstract Diffusion weighted imaging has opened new diagnostic possibilities by using microscopic diffusion of water molecules as a means of image contrast. The directional dependence of diffusion has led to the development of diffusion tensor imaging, which allows us to characterize microscopic tissue geometry. The link between the measured NMR signal and the self-diffusion tensor is established by the so-called b matrices that depend on the gradient's direction, strength, and timing. However, in the calculation of b -matrix elements, the influence of imaging gradients on each element of the b matrix is often neglected. This may cause errors, which in turn leads to an incorrect extraction of diffusion coefficients. In cases where the imaging gradients are high (high spatial resolution), these errors may be substantial. Using a generic pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) imaging sequence, the effects of neglecting the imaging gradients on the b -matrix calculation are demonstrated. By measuring an isotropic phantom with this sequence it can be analytically as well as experimentally shown that large deviations in single b -matrix elements are generated. These deviations are obtained by applying the diffusion weighting in the readout direction of the imaging dimension in combination with relatively large imaging gradients. The systematic errors can be avoided by a full b -matrix calculation considering all the gradients of the sequence or by generating cross-term free signals using the geometric average of two diffusion weighted images with opposite polarity. The importance of calculating the exact b matrices by the proposed methods is based on the fact that more precise diffusion parameters are obtained for extracting correct property maps, such as fractional anisotropy, volume ratio, or conductivity tensor maps. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 25A: 53,66, 2005 [source] ## Extensions of the 3-Dimensional Plasma Transport Code E3D CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1-3 2004A. RunovAbstract One important aspect of modern fusion research is plasma edge physics. Fluid transport codes extending beyond the standard 2-D code packages like B2-Eirene or UEDGE are under development. A 3-dimensional plasma fluid code, E3D, based upon the Multiple Coordinate System Approach and a Monte Carlo integration procedure has been developed for general magnetic configurations including ergodic regions. These local magnetic coordinates lead to a full metric tensor which accurately accounts for all transport terms in the equations. Here, we discuss new computational aspects of the realization of the algorithm. The main limitation to the Monte Carlo code efficiency comes from the restriction on the parallel jump of advancing test particles which must be small compared to the gradient length of the diffusion coefficient. In our problems, the parallel diffusion coefficient depends on both plasma and magnetic field parameters. Usually, the second dependence is much more critical. In order to allow long parallel jumps, this dependence can be eliminated in two steps: first, the longitudinal coordinate x3 of local magnetic coordinates is modified in such a way that in the new coordinate system the metric determinant and contra-variant components of the magnetic field scale along the magnetic field with powers of the magnetic field module (like in Boozer flux coordinates). Second, specific weights of the test particles are introduced. As a result of increased parallel jump length, the efficiency of the code is about two orders of magnitude better. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Crystal growth, crystal structure and physical properties of polar orthorhombic tris(glycine) zinc chloride CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008M. FleckAbstract Large single crystals of the polar (point group mm 2) compound tris(glycine) zinc chloride, (NH3CH2COO)3 · ZnCl2, were grown from aqueous solutions. The refractive indices were measured in the wavelength region from 365 nm to 1083 nm and an unpolarised absorption spectrum was recorded (transparency range from 260 to 1550nm). The phase matching conditions for second harmonic generation were analysed: both, type I (ss-f) and type II (sf-f) are possible in the red and near IR region. All five components of the piezoelectric tensor [dijk ] were determined; the maximum values of longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric effects are less than one half of d111 of ,-quartz. In addition, a redetermination of the crystal structure (including location of H atoms) is presented. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Three-dimensional thermoelastic stresses in off-axis oriented single crystals with hexagonal symmetry CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007K. BöttcherAbstract A three-dimensional (3D) thermoelastic stress analysis is carried out on a single crystal with axisymmetric geometry but with a hexagonal crystallographic symmetry. The crystallographic orientation is off-axis with respect to the cylindrical coordinate system. By applying a Fourier series expansion with respect to the rotational angle , of the cylindrical coordinates, the 3D boundary value problem is reduced to a sequence of 2D ones on the meridian plane, which are solved by the finite-element method. In our example, the off-axis orientation is towards a direction of high symmetry, and therefore only four of the six stress tensor components are non-zero. In the end, the stress tensor is projected onto the slip system of the crystal. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Transport and deformation of droplets in a microdevice using dielectrophoresis ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2007Pushpendra Singh ProfessorAbstract In microfluidic devices the fluid can be manipulated either as continuous streams or droplets. The latter is particularly attractive as individual droplets can not only move but also split and fuse, thus offering great flexibility for applications such as laboratory-on-a-chip. We consider the transport of liquid drops immersed in a surrounding liquid by means of the dielectrophoretic force generated by electrodes mounted at the bottom of a microdevice. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach is used to study the motion of droplets subjected to both hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. Our technique is based on a finite element scheme using the fundamental equations of motion for both the droplets and surrounding fluid. The interface is tracked by the level set method and the electrostatic forces are computed using the Maxwell stress tensor. The DNS results show that the droplets move, and deform, under the action of nonuniform electric stresses on their surfaces. The deformation increases as the drop moves closer to the electrodes. The extent to which the isolated drops deform depends on the electric Weber number. When the electric Weber number is small, the drops remain spherical; otherwise, the drops stretch. Two droplets, however, that are sufficiently close to each other, can deform and coalesce, even if the electric Weber number is small. This phenomenon does not rely on the magnitude of the electric stresses generated by the bulk electric field, but instead is due to the attractive electrostatic drop,drop interaction overcoming the surface tension force. Experimental results are also presented and found to be in agreement with the DNS results. [source] ## Numerical comparison between Maxwell stress method and equivalent multipole approach for calculation of the dielectrophoretic force in single-cell traps ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 11 2005Carlos RosalesAbstract This paper presents detailed numerical calculations of the dielectrophoretic force in traps designed for single-cell trapping. A trap with eight planar electrodes is studied for spherical and ellipsoidal particles using the boundary element method (BEM). Multipolar approximations of orders one to three are compared with the full Maxwell stress tensor (MST) calculation of the electrical force on spherical particles. Ellipsoidal particles are also studied, but in their case only the dipolar approximation is available for comparison with the MST solution. The results show that a small number of multipolar terms need to be considered in order to obtain accurate results for spheres, even in the proximity of the electrodes, and that the full MST calculation is only required in the study of nonspherical particles. [source] ## Mixed-Ligand Oxidovanadium(V) Complexes with N, -Salicylidenehydrazides: Synthesis, Structure, and 51V Solid-State MAS NMR Investigation, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2008Simona NicaAbstract The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a series of three oxidovanadium(V) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline and Schiff-base ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and ,-hydroxy-functionalized carbohydrazides with different chain lengths are reported. The complex with the hydrazone ligand containing the shortest chain length was crystallographically characterized. This complex crystallizes in the triclinic space group P with two structurally similar but crystallographically independent oxidovanadium(V) complexes. Each vanadium atom is six-coordinate in a distorted-octahedral geometry. The two molecules are assembled through hydrogen-bonding interactions between the hydroxyl groups of the side-chain substituted Schiff-base ligand and the oxido group of one of the two complexes. Electrochemical measurements performed in acetonitrile solution reveal two reversible one-electron reduction steps. The observed pre-wave feature of the second reduction step indicates the presence of dissociation equilibria related to the 8-hydroxyquinoline coligand. Magic-angle spinning solid-state 51V NMR spectroscopy allowed to characterize the full series of complexes with alkyl and hydroxy alkyl-substituted hydrazone ligands that were used. The quadrupolar coupling constants are small with a value of about 4 MHz and show little variation within the series. The asymmetry of the chemical shift tensor indicates a rather axial symmetric environment around the vanadium(V) center. The isotropic chemical shifts observed in the solid state occur at about 30 ppm, which is in the same order of magnitude as the solvent induced variations, about 10 ppm, found for different solvents.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source] ## Diffusion-tensor MR imaging for evaluation of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by carbon monoxide inhalation EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2007C.-P. LoThe purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in patients with delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) caused by carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and neuropsychological test. Conventional and diffusion tensor brain MR imaging exams were performed in six patients with DNS immediately before and 3 months after the HBOT to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Six age- and sex-matched normal control subjects also received MR exams for comparison. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was also performed in patients immediately before and 3 months after the HBOT. A significantly higher mean FA value was found in control subjects as compared with the patients both before and 3 months after the HBOT (P < 0.001). The mean FA value 3 months after the HBOT was also significantly higher than that before the HBOT in the patient group (P < 0.001). All of the patients regained full scores in the MMSE 3 months after the HBOT. Diffusion tensor MR imaging can be a quantitative method for the assessment of the white matter change and monitor the treatment response in patients of CO-induced DNS with a good clinical correlation. HBO may be an effective therapy for DNS. [source] ## Core loss estimation in three-phase transformer using vector hysteresis model and classical loss model incorporated in 2D magnetodynamics EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 2 2003O. DebleckerThis paper deals with the computation of the magnetic field and core loss in a three-phase three-limb transformer at no-load. The computational algorithm consists of the vector hysteresis model incorporated in 2D magneto-dynamics via the differential reluctivity tensor. The hysteretic nonlinearity is handled by a simple iteration scheme. The eddy-current losses in the laminated steel core are accounted for by considering an additional conductivity matrix in the FE equations. The magnetisation-dependant vector Preisach model with an analytical expression for the distribution function is adopted for describing the hysteretic constitutive law in the rolling and transverse directions of the laminations. The parameters and mean field term are fitted on the basis of a set of BH-symmetric (quasistatic) loops. Numerical results are presented that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for the no-load simulation of the transformer in the transient and the steady-states. [source] ## Multiaxial fatigue criterion for a high-density polyethylene thermoplastic FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2010A. BERREHILIABSTRACT The multiaxial fatigue behaviour of a high-density polyethylene was investigated at room temperature and constant frequency. As a consequence of the mode of failure, an end-of-life criterion for fatigue tests is discussed in the first part of the work, in order to define the number of cycles to failure. Based on force controlled fatigue tests under tension, compression and torsion at two stress ratio, a multiaxial fatigue criterion including the stress-ratio effect is proposed for the fatigue design of this polymer. This criterion is based on the maximum and mean values of the second invariant of the stress tensor. [source] ## Constraints from F and D supersymmetry breaking in general supergravity theories FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 7-9 2008M. Gomez-ReinoAbstract We study the conditions under which a generic supergravity model involving chiral and vector multiplets can admit vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and realistic cosmological constant. We find that the existence of such viable vacua implies some constraints involving the curvature tensor of the scalar geometry and the charge and mass matrices of the vector fields, and also that the vector of F and D auxiliary fields defining the Goldstino direction is constrained to lie within a certain domain. We illustrate the relevance of these results through some examples and also discuss the implications of our general results on the dynamics of moduli fields in string models. This contribution is based on [1,3]. [source] ## Some aspects of c = -2 theory FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 11-12 2007M.A. RajabpourAbstract We investigate some aspects of the c = -2 logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT). At first, we calculate some correlators of logarithmic conformal fields which have third order singular OPE with the energy-momentum tensor. Then, we argue about the fields in the c = -2 model which are associated with this kind of more general logarithmic primary fields. We go on to find fermionic representations for all the fields in the extended Kac table, in particular the untwisted sector. Moreover, we calculate the various OPEs of the fields, especially for the logarithmic energy-momentum tensor and by using these OPEs we find the exact finite transformation of this field. We briefly discuss about the important role of the zero modes in the c = -2 model. Finally we consider the perturbation of this theory and its relationship with integrable models, and generalization of Zamalodchikov's c-theorem. [source] ## Coherent state path integral and super-symmetry for condensates composed of bosonic and fermionic atoms FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 9-10 2007B. MieckAbstract A super-symmetric coherent state path integral on the Keldysh time contour is considered for bosonic and fermionic atoms which interact among each other with a common short-ranged two-body potential. We investigate the symmetries of Bose-Einstein condensation for the equivalent bosonic and fermionic constituents with the same interaction potential so that a super-symmetry results between the bosonic and fermionic components of super-fields. Apart from the super-unitary invariance U(L | S) of the density terms, we specialize on the examination of super-symmetries for pair condensate terms. Effective equations are derived for anomalous terms which are related to the molecular- and BCS- condensate pairs. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation from ,Nambu'-doubled super-fields leads to a generating function with super-matrices for the self-energy whose manifold is given by the orthosympletic super-group Osp(S,S | 2L). A nonlinear sigma model follows from the spontaneous breaking of the ortho-symplectic super-group Osp(S,S | 2L) to the coset decomposition Osp(S,S | 2L) \ U(L | S), U(L | S). The invariant subgroup U(L | S) for the vacuum or background fields is represented by the density terms in the self-energy whereas the super-matrices on the coset space Osp(S,S | 2L) \ U(L | S) describe the anomalous molecular and BCS- pair condensate terms. A change of integration measure is performed for the coset decomposition Osp(S,S | 2L) \ U(L | S) , U(L | S), including a separation of density and anomalous parts of the self-energy with a gradient expansion for the Goldstone modes. The independent anomalous fields in the actions can be transformed by the inverse square root of the metric tensor of Osp(S,S | 2L) \ U(L | S) so that the non-Euclidean integration measure with super-Jacobi-determinant can be removed from the coherent state path integral and Gaussian-like integrations remain. The variations of the independent coset fields in the effective actions result in classical field equations for a nonlinear sigma model with the anomalous terms. The dynamics of the eigenvalues of the coset matrices is determined by Sine-Gordon equations which have a similar meaning for the dynamics of the molecular- and BCS-pair condensates as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the coherent wave function in BEC phenomena. [source] ## Gauged supergravities in various spacetime dimensions, FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 8 2007M. WeidnerAbstract In this review article we study the gaugings of extended supergravity theories in various space-time dimensions. These theories describe the low-energy limit of non-trivial string compactifications. For each theory under consideration we review all possible gaugings that are compatible with supersymmetry. They are parameterized by the so-called embedding tensor which is a group theoretical object that has to satisfy certain representation constraints. This embedding tensor determines all couplings in the gauged theory that are necessary to preserve gauge invariance and supersymmetry. The concept of the embedding tensor and the general structure of the gauged supergravities are explained in detail. The methods are then applied to the half-maximal (N = 4) supergravities in d = 4 and d = 5 and to the maximal supergravities in d = 2 and d = 7. Examples of particular gaugings are given. Whenever possible, the higher-dimensional origin of these theories is identified and it is shown how the compactification parameters like fluxes and torsion are contained in the embedding tensor. [source] ## Superalgebras of Dirac operators on manifolds with special Killing-Yano tensors FORTSCHRITTE DER PHYSIK/PROGRESS OF PHYSICS, Issue 12 2006I.I. CotAbstract We present the properties of new Dirac-type operators generated by real or complex-valued special Killing-Yano tensors that are covariantly constant and represent roots of the metric tensor. In the real case these are just the so called complex or hyper-complex structures of the Kählerian manifolds. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. In this way the Dirac operators are related among themselves through continuous transformations associated with specific discrete ones. We show that the group of these continuous transformations can be only U(1) or SU(2). It is pointed out that the Dirac and Dirac-type operators can form ,, = 4 superalgebras whose automorphisms combine isometries with the SU(2) transformation generated by the Killing-Yano tensors. As an example we study the automorphisms of the superalgebras of Dirac operators on Minkowski spacetime. [source] ## A unified continuum representation of post-seismic relaxation mechanisms: semi-analytic models of afterslip, poroelastic rebound and viscoelastic flow GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010Sylvain BarbotSUMMARY We present a unified continuum mechanics representation of the mechanisms believed to be commonly involved in post-seismic transients such as viscoelasticity, fault creep and poroelasticity. The time-dependent relaxation that follows an earthquake, or any other static stress perturbation, is considered in a framework of a generalized viscoelastoplastic rheology whereby some inelastic strain relaxes a physical quantity in the material. The relaxed quantity is the deviatoric stress in case of viscoelastic relaxation, the shear stress in case of creep on a fault plane and the trace of the stress tensor in case of poroelastic rebound. In this framework, the instantaneous velocity field satisfies the linear inhomogeneous Navier's equation with sources parametrized as equivalent body forces and surface tractions. We evaluate the velocity field using the Fourier-domain Green's function for an elastic half-space with surface buoyancy boundary condition. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparisons with finite-element simulations of viscoelastic relaxation following strike-slip and dip-slip ruptures for linear and power-law rheologies. We also present comparisons with analytic solutions for afterslip driven by coseismic stress changes. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to model time-dependent poroelastic rebound by adopting a viscoelastic rheology with bulk viscosity and work hardening. The proposed method allows one to model post-seismic transients that involve multiple mechanisms (afterslip, poroelastic rebound, ductile flow) with an account for the effects of gravity, non-linear rheologies and arbitrary spatial variations in inelastic properties of rocks (e.g. the effective viscosity, rate-and-state frictional parameters and poroelastic properties). [source] ## Physics-based GPS data inversion to estimate three-dimensional elastic and inelastic strain fields GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010Akemi NodaSUMMARY The Earth's crust is macroscopically treated as a linear elastic body, but it includes a number of defects. The occurrence of inelastic deformation such as brittle fracture at the defects brings about elastic deformation in the surrounding regions. The crustal deformation observed through geodetic measurements is the sum of the inelastic deformation as source and the elastic deformation as effect. On such a basic idea, we created a theory of physics-based strain analysis with general source representation by moment tensor, and developed an inversion method to separately estimate 3-D elastic and inelastic strain fields from GPS data. In this method, first, the optimum distribution of moment density tensor is determined from observed GPS data by using Akaike's information criterion. Then, the elastic and inelastic strain fields are obtained from the optimum moment tensor distribution by theoretical computation and direct conversion with elastic compliance tensor, respectively. We applied the inversion method to GPS horizontal velocity data, and succeeded in separately estimating 3-D elastic and inelastic strain rate fields in the Niigata,Kobe transformation zone, central Japan. As for the surface patterns of total strain, the present results of 3-D physics-based inversion analysis accord with the previous results of 2-D geometric inversion analysis. From the 3-D patterns of the inverted elastic and inelastic strain fields, we revealed that the remarkable horizontal contraction in the Niigata,Kobe transformation zone is elastic and restricted near the surface, but the remarkable shear deformation is inelastic and extends over the upper crust. [source] ## Passive seismic imaging with directive ambient noise: application to surface waves and the San Andreas Fault in Parkfield, CA GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2009Philippe RouxSUMMARY This study deals with surface waves extracted from microseismic noise in the (0.1,0.2 Hz) frequency band with passive seismic-correlation techniques. For directive noise, we explore the concept of passive seismic-noise tomography performed on three-component sensors from a dense seismic network. From the nine-component correlation tensor, a rotation algorithm is introduced that forces each station pair to re-align in the noise direction, a necessary condition to extract unbiased traveltime from passive seismic processing. After rotation is performed, the new correlation tensor exhibits a surface wave tensor from which Rayleigh and Love waves can be separately extracted for tomography inversion. Methodological aspects are presented and illustrated with group-speed maps for Rayleigh and Love waves and ellipticity measurements made on the San Andreas Fault in the Parkfield area, California, USA. [source] ## A structural model for the seismicity of the Arudy (1980) epicentral area (Western Pyrenees, France) GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2007Noalwenn Dubos-SalléeSUMMARY The Western Pyrenees presents a diffuse and moderate (M, 5.7) instrumental seismicity. It nevertheless historically suffered from strong earthquakes (I = IX MSK). The seismic sources of these events are not yet clearly identified. We focus on the Arudy (1980) epicentral area (M= 5.1) and propose here the reactivation of early Cretaceous normal faults of the Iberian margin as a potential source. The late Cretaceous inversion of this basin, first in a left-lateral strike-slip mode and then in a more frontal convergence, resulted in a pop-up geometry. This flower structure attests of the presence of a deep crustal discontinuity. The present-day geodynamic arrangement suggests that this accident is reactivated in a right lateral mode. This reactivation leads to a strain partitioning between the deep discontinuity that accommodates the lateral component of the motion and shallow thrusts, rooted on this discontinuity. These thrusts accommodate the shortening component of the strain. The distribution of the instrumental seismicity fits well the structural model of the Arudy basin. Whatever the compressive regional context, the structural behaviour of the system explains too the extensive stress tensor determined for the Arudy crisis if we interpret it in terms of strain ellipsoid. Indeed numerical modelling has shown that this concomitant activity of strike-slip and thrust faulting results in an extensive component that can rise 50 per cent of the finite strain. We identify too a 25,30 km long potential seismic source for the Arudy area. The size of the structure and its potential reactivation in a strike-slip mode suggest that a maximum earthquake magnitude of ,6.5 could be expected. The extrapolation of this model at the scale of the Western Pyrenees allows to propose other potential sources for major regional historical earthquakes. [source] ## Determination of the seismic moment tensor for local events in the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2006M. GuidarelliSUMMARY Six events with magnitude between 3 and 5.6 have been analysed based on regional waveforms recorded by the temporal Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica seismic broad-band network in the Bransfield Strait and the South Shetland Islands in the period 1997,1998. The source parameters have been retrieved using a robust methodology (INDirect PARametrization) to stabilize the inversion of a limited number of noisy records. This methodology is particularly important in oceanic environments, where the presence of seismic noise and the small number of stations makes it difficult to analyse small magnitude events. The source mechanisms obtained are quite variable but consistent with the active tectonic processes and the complicated structure of the South Shetland Island region. [source] ## Measuring finite-frequency body-wave amplitudes and traveltimes GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2006Karin SiglochSUMMARY We have developed a method to measure finite-frequency amplitude and traveltime anomalies of teleseismic P waves. We use a matched filtering approach that models the first 25 s of a seismogram after the P arrival, which includes the depth phases pP and sP. Given a set of broad-band seismograms from a teleseismic event, we compute synthetic Green's functions using published moment tensor solutions. We jointly deconvolve global or regional sets of seismograms with their Green's functions to obtain the broad-band source time function. The matched filter of a seismogram is the convolution of the Green's function with the source time function. Traveltimes are computed by cross-correlating each seismogram with its matched filter. Amplitude anomalies are defined as the multiplicative factors that minimize the RMS misfit between matched filters and data. The procedure is implemented in an iterative fashion, which allows for joint inversion for the source time function, amplitudes, and a correction to the moment tensor. Cluster analysis is used to identify azimuthally distinct groups of seismograms when source effects with azimuthal dependence are prominent. We then invert for one source time function per group. We implement this inversion for a range of source depths to determine the most likely depth, as indicated by the overall RMS misfit, and by the non-negativity and compactness of the source time function. Finite-frequency measurements are obtained by filtering broad-band data and matched filters through a bank of passband filters. The method is validated on a set of 15 events of magnitude 5.8 to 6.9. Our focus is on the densely instrumented Western US. Quasi-duplet events (,quplets') are used to estimate measurement uncertainty on real data. Robust results are achieved for wave periods between 24 and 2 s. Traveltime dispersion is on the order of 0.5 s. Amplitude anomalies are on the order of 1 db in the lowest bands and 3 db in the highest bands, corresponding to amplification factors of 1.2 and 2.0, respectively. Measurement uncertainties for amplitudes and traveltimes depend mostly on station coverage, accuracy of the moment tensor estimate, and frequency band. We investigate the influence of those parameters in tests on synthetic data. Along the RISTRA array in the Western US, we observe amplitude and traveltime patterns that are coherent on scales of hundreds of kilometres. Below two sections of the array, we observe a combination of frequency-dependent amplitude and traveltime patterns that strongly suggest wavefront healing effects. [source] ## Time-domain approach to linearized rotational response of a three-dimensional viscoelastic earth model induced by glacial-isostatic adjustment: I. Inertia-tensor perturbations GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2005k MartinecSUMMARY For a spherically symmetric viscoelastic earth model, the movement of the rotation vector due to surface and internal mass redistribution during the Pleistocene glaciation cycle has conventionally been computed in the Laplace-transform domain. The method involves multiplication of the Laplace transforms of the second-degree surface-load and tidal-load Love numbers with the time evolution of the surface load followed by inverse Laplace transformation into the time domain. The recently developed spectral finite-element method solves the field equations governing glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) directly in the time domain and, thus, eliminates the need of applying the Laplace-domain method. The new method offers the possibility to model the GIA-induced rotational response of the Earth by time integration of the linearized Liouville equation. The theory presented here derives the temporal perturbation of the inertia tensor, required to be specified in the Liouville equation, from time variations of the second-degree gravitational-potential coefficients by the MacCullagh's formulae. This extends the conventional approach based on the second-degree load Love numbers to general 3-D viscoelastic earth models. The verification of the theory of the GIA-induced rotational response of the Earth is performed by using two alternative approaches of computing the perturbation of the inertia tensor: a direct numerical integration and the Laplace-domain method. The time-domain solution of both the GIA and the induced rotational response of the Earth is readily combined with a time-domain solution of the sea level equation with a time-varying shoreline geometry. In a follow-up paper, we derive the theory for the case when GIA-induced perturbations in the centrifugal force affect not only the distribution of sea water, but also deformations and gravitational-potential perturbations of the Earth. [source] ## An ellipticity criterion in magnetotelluric tensor analysis GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2004M. BeckenSUMMARY We examine the magnetotelluric (MT) impedance tensor from the viewpoint of polarization states of the electric and magnetic field. In the presence of a regional 2-D conductivity anomaly, a linearly polarized homogeneous external magnetic field will generally produce secondary electromagnetic fields, which are elliptically polarized. If and only if the primary magnetic field vector oscillates parallel or perpendicular to the 2-D structure, will the horizontal components of the secondary fields at any point of the surface also be linearly polarized. When small-scale inhomogeneities galvanically distort the electric field at the surface, only field rotations and amplifications are observed, while the ellipticity remains unchanged. Thus, the regional strike direction can be identified from vanishing ellipticities of electric and magnetic fields even in presence of distortion. In practice, the MT impedance tensor is analysed rather than the fields themselves. It turns out, that a pair of linearly polarized magnetic and electric fields produces linearly polarized columns of the impedance tensor. As the linearly polarized electric field components generally do not constitute an orthogonal basis, the telluric vectors, i.e. the columns of the impedance tensor, will be non-orthogonal. Their linear polarization, however, is manifested in a common phase for the elements of each column of the tensor and is a well-known indication of galvanic distortion. In order to solve the distortion problem, the telluric vectors are fully parametrized in terms of ellipses and subsequently rotated to the coordinate system in which their ellipticities are minimized. If the minimal ellipticities are close to zero, the existence of a (locally distorted) regional 2-D conductivity anomaly may be assumed. Otherwise, the tensor suggests the presence of a strong 3-D conductivity distribution. In the latter case, a coordinate system is often found, in which three elements have a strong amplitude, while the amplitude of the forth, which is one of the main-diagonal elements, is small. In terms of our ellipse parametrization, this means, that one of the ellipticities of the two telluric vectors approximately vanishes, while the other one may not be neglected as a result of the 3-D response. The reason for this particular characteristic is found in an approximate relation between the polarization state of the telluric vector with vanishing ellipticity and the corresponding horizontal electric field vector in the presence of a shallow conductive structure, across which the perpendicular and tangential components of the electric field obey different boundary conditions. [source] ## Geoelectric dimensionality in complex geological areas: application to the Spanish Betic Chain GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2004Anna MartíSUMMARY Rotational invariants of the magnetotelluric impedance tensor may be used to obtain information on the geometry of underlying geological structures. The set of invariants proposed by Weaver et al. (2000) allows the determination of a suitable dimensionality for the modelling of observed data. The application of the invariants to real data must take into account the errors in the data and also the fact that geoelectric structures in the Earth will not exactly fit 1-D, 2-D or simple 3-D models. In this work we propose a method to estimate the dimensionality of geoelectric structures based on the rotational invariants, bearing in mind the experimental error of real data. A data set from the Betic Chain (Spain) is considered. We compare the errors of the invariants estimated by different approaches: classical error propagation, generation of random Gaussian noise and bootstrap resampling, and we investigate the matter of the threshold value to be used in the determination of dimensionality. We conclude that the errors of the invariants can be properly estimated by classical error propagation, but the generation of random values is better to ensure stability in the errors of strike direction and distortion parameters. The use of a threshold value between 0.1 and 0.15 is recommended for real data of medium to high quality. The results for the Betic Chain show that the general behaviour is 3-D with a disposition of 2-D structures, which may be correlated with the nature of the crust of the region. [source] ## Inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms to obtain the seismotectonic stress IV,a new method free of choice among nodal planes GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2002Jacques AngelierSummary A new method is presented, to obtain the stress state that best accounts for a set of double couple focal mechanisms of earthquakes. This method is based on the slip shear stress component (SSSC) criterion. The sum of the SSSC values is maximized as a function of four unknowns that describe the reduced stress tensor, including the orientations of the principal stress axes and the ratio between the principal stress differences. This new method combines two advantages. First, no choice between the nodal planes of each focal mechanism is needed, because of the intrinsic properties of the SSSC. Secondly, the runtime is negligible regardless of the size of the data set, because the inverse problem is solved by analytical means so that the numerical aspects are reduced to a minimum. For these reasons, the SSSC-based inversion is easily included in a variety of processes for separating or refining the data. A typical set of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Taiwan is processed to illustrate the application and potential of the new method. [source] |