Tension Forces (tension + force)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tension Forces

  • surface tension force

  • Selected Abstracts

    Transport and deformation of droplets in a microdevice using dielectrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2007
    Pushpendra Singh Professor
    Abstract In microfluidic devices the fluid can be manipulated either as continuous streams or droplets. The latter is particularly attractive as individual droplets can not only move but also split and fuse, thus offering great flexibility for applications such as laboratory-on-a-chip. We consider the transport of liquid drops immersed in a surrounding liquid by means of the dielectrophoretic force generated by electrodes mounted at the bottom of a microdevice. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach is used to study the motion of droplets subjected to both hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. Our technique is based on a finite element scheme using the fundamental equations of motion for both the droplets and surrounding fluid. The interface is tracked by the level set method and the electrostatic forces are computed using the Maxwell stress tensor. The DNS results show that the droplets move, and deform, under the action of nonuniform electric stresses on their surfaces. The deformation increases as the drop moves closer to the electrodes. The extent to which the isolated drops deform depends on the electric Weber number. When the electric Weber number is small, the drops remain spherical; otherwise, the drops stretch. Two droplets, however, that are sufficiently close to each other, can deform and coalesce, even if the electric Weber number is small. This phenomenon does not rely on the magnitude of the electric stresses generated by the bulk electric field, but instead is due to the attractive electrostatic drop,drop interaction overcoming the surface tension force. Experimental results are also presented and found to be in agreement with the DNS results. [source]

    A numerical study of wave structures developed on the free surface of a film flowing on inclined planes and subjected to surface shear

    N. H. Shuaib
    Abstract In this work, we determine the different patterns of possible wave structures that can be observed on a thin film flowing on an inclined plane when at the free surface a shear force (surface traction) is applied. Different wave structures are obtained dependening on the selected combination of downstream and upstream boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting initial boundary value problems are solved numerically using the direct BEM numerical solution of the complete two-dimensional Stokes system of equations. In our numerical results, the initial discontinuous shock profiles joining uniform fluid depths are smoothed due to the two-dimensional character of the Stokes formulation, including the effect of the gravitational force as well as the interfacial surface tension force. In this way, physically feasible continuous surface profiles are determined, in which the initial uniform depths are joined by smooth moving wave structures. Numerical solutions have been attained to reproduce the different patterns of possible wave structures previously reported in the literature and extended to identify some other new structures and features defining the behaviour of the surface patterns. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On surface tension modelling using the level set method

    Sergey V. Shepel
    Abstract The paper describes and compares the performance of two options for numerically representing the surface tension force in combination with the level set interface-tracking method. In both models, the surface tension is represented as a body force, concentrated near the interface, but the technical implementation is different: the first model is based on a traditional level set approach in which the force is distributed in a band around the interface using a regularized delta function, whereas in the second, the force is partly distributed in a band around the interface and partly localized to the actual computational cells containing the interface. A comparative study, involving analysis of several two-phase flows with moving interfaces, shows that in general the two surface tension models produce results of similar accuracy. However, in the particular case of merging and pinching-off of interfaces, the traditional level set model of surface tension produces an error that results in non-converging solutions for film-like interfaces (i.e. ones involving large contact areas). In contrast, the second model, based on the localized representation of the surface tension force, displays consistent first-order convergence. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Deep Plane Fixation in Integumental Surgery

    Gerard E. Seery MD
    Background. Standard wound closure techniques are prone to complication in the presence of tension. Objective. To show that deep plane fixation (DPF), a surgical modality based on limited undermining and strategic placement of DPF sutures, affects tension-reduced closure in wounds that would otherwise require skin grafts/flaps or tissue expansion. Methods. The study is based on an analysis of over 2000 scalp operations. Results. Two groupings of identical sagittal scalp reductions were done. DPF was used in one and not the other. In the series with DPF, reduced tension closure was consistently possible, as was significantly increased excision, relative to the series without DPF. Conclusions. DPF narrows the wound base and channels tension forces from superficial to deep and/or nonundermined tissues (where they harmlessly dissipate). This allows relatively increased tissue excision and tension-reduced closure. [source]

    The effect of surfactants on deformation of falling non-Newtonian drops in a Newtonian liquid

    Denis RodrigueArticle first published online: 4 MAR 200
    Abstract Deformation of settling non-Newtonian ellipsoidal drops in a Newtonian liquid was experimentally observed. Corn oil was used as the Newtonian phase and solutions of polyacrylamide in aqueous glycerine as the non-Newtonian phase. The shear-thinning behaviour of the drops fluid was controlled by the amount of polymer dissolved, while the effect of interfacial tension was examined using different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In the range of 1,<,E,<,2.9, 0.2,<,Eo,,<,23, and 0,<,Ma,<,17.2, drop eccentricity increased linearly with a modified Eötvös number taking into account the effect of surfactants. For the range of experimental conditions tested, drop deformation was mainly controlled by viscous and interfacial tension forces, while shear-thinning and inertia effects were negligible. On a observé expérimentalement la déformation de gouttelettes ellipsödales non newtoniennes sédimentant dans un liquide newtonien. Del'huile de mäs a été utilisée comme phase newtonienne et des solutions de polyacrylamide dans de la glycérine aqueuse comme phase non newtonienne. Le comportement rhéofluidifant du fluide des gouttes est contrôlé par la quantité de polymères dissous, tandis que l'effet de la tension interfaciale est examiné avec différentes concentrations de sulfate de dodécyle de sodium. Dans la gamme de 1,<,E,<,2,9, 0,2,<,Eo 23 and 0,<,Ma,<,17,2, l'eccentricité des gouttelettes augmente linéairement avec le nombre d'Eötvös modifié en tenant compte de l'effet des surfactants. Pour la gamme des conditions expérimentales testées, la déformation des gouttelettes est principalement contrôlée par les forces de tension visqueuse et interfaciale, tandis que les effets de rhéofluidifiance et d'inertie sont négligeables. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PEYRONIE'S DISEASE: Use of Penile Extender Device in the Treatment of Penile Curvature as a Result of Peyronie's Disease.

    Results of a Phase II Prospective Study
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Pilot experiences have suggested that tension forces exerted by a penile extender may reduce penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Aim., To test this hypothesis in a Phase II study using a commonly marketed brand of penile extender. Methods., Peyronie's disease patients with a curvature not exceeding 50° with mild or no erectile dysfunction (ED) were eligible. Fifteen patients were required to test the efficacy of the device assuming an effect size of >0.8, consistent with an "important" reduction in penile curvature. Changes in penile length over baseline and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) constituted secondary end points. Main Outcome Measures., Patients were counselled on the use of the penile extender for at least 5 hours per day for 6 months. Photographic pictures of the erect penis and measurements were carried out at baseline, at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (end of study). The IIEF-EF domain scores were administered at baseline and at the end of study. Treatment satisfaction was assessed at end of study using a nonvalidated institutional 5-item questionnaire. Results., Penile curvature decreased from an average of 31° to 27° at 6 months without reaching the effect size (P = 0.056). Mean stretched and flaccid penile length increased by 1.3 and 0.83 cm, respectively at 6 months. Results were maintained at 12 months. Overall treatment results were subjectively scored as acceptable in spite of curvature improvements, which varied from "no change" to "mild improvement." Conclusions., In our study, the use of a penile extender device provided only minimal improvements in penile curvature but a reasonable level of patient satisfaction, probably attributable to increased penile length. The selection of patients with a stabilized disease, a penile curvature not exceeding 50°, and no severe ED may have led to outcomes underestimating the potential efficacy of the treatment. Gontero P, Di Marco M, Giubilei G, Bartoletti R, Pappagallo G, Tizzani A, and Mondaini N. Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Results of a phase II prospective study. J Sex Med 2009;6:558,566. [source]

    Microbubble-enriched lavage fluid for treatment of experimental peritonitis

    P. K. Sharma
    Background: Relaparotomies and closed postoperative peritoneal lavage (CPPL) are performed to treat persistent peritonitis. This experimental animal study compared open abdominal lavage with CPPL, and evaluated the potential of microbubble-enriched lavage fluids to improve the efficiency of CPPL and reduce clinical morbidity, mortality and cost. Methods: Fluorescent polystyrene spheres were injected intraperitoneally into 22 male Wistar rats to simulate localized peritonitis. After 18 h the rats received open abdominal lavage and CPPL, with and without microbubbles. Microbubbles were obtained by adding ultrasound contrast agents to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid. Results: Open abdominal lavage was 3·5 times more effective in particle removal than CPPL, owing to better fluid dynamics. The introduction of air,liquid interfaces in the form of microbubbles made CPPL up to 2·4 times more effective than lavage without bubbles. Best detachment results were obtained when microbubbles with a flexible surfactant shell and longer blood elimination half-life were used. Conclusion: Open abdominal and CPPL lavage techniques are not efficient beyond a certain duration and volume as they do not cause bacterial detachment from the peritoneal membrane. Using surface tension forces from microbubbles significantly enhanced polystyrene particle detachment. These findings may have great consequences for the treatment of patients with peritonitis. Copyright © 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]