Tensile Strain (tensile + strain)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Selected Abstracts

The evolution of the stress,strain fields near a fatigue crack tip and plasticity-induced crack closure revisited

ABSTRACT The evolution of the stress,strain fields near a stationary crack tip under cyclic loading at selected R -ratios has been studied in a detailed elastic,plastic finite element analysis. The material behaviour was described by a full constitutive model of cyclic plasticity with both kinematic and isotropic hardening variables. Whilst the stress/strain range remains mostly constant during the cyclic loading and scales with the external load range, progressive accumulation of tensile strain occurs, particularly at high R -ratios. These results may be of significance for the characterization of crack growth, particularly near the fatigue threshold. Elastic,plastic finite element simulations of advancing fatigue cracks were carried out under plane-stress, plane-strain and generalized plane-strain conditions in a compact tension specimen. Physical contact of the crack flanks was observed in plane stress but not in the plane-strain and generalized plane-strain conditions. The lack of crack closure in plane strain was found to be independent of the material studied. Significant crack closure was observed under plane-stress conditions, where a displacement method was used to obtain the actual stress intensity variation during a loading cycle in the presence of crack closure. The results reveal no direct correlation between the attenuation in the stress intensity factor range estimated by the conventional compliance method and that determined by the displacement method. This finding seems to cast some doubts on the validity of the current practice in crack-closure measurement, and indeed on the role of plasticity-induced crack closure in the reduction of the applied stress intensity factor range. [source]

Preparation and properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube/cellulose nanocomposites using N -methylmorpholine- N -oxide monohydrate

Dong-Hun Kim
Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/cellulose nanocomposite films were prepared using N -methylmorpholine- N -oxide (NMMO) monohydrate as a dispersing agent for the acid-treated SWNTs (A-SWNTs) as well as a cellulose solvent. The A-SWNTs were dispersed in both NMMO monohydrate and the nanocomposite film (as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy) because of the strong hydrogen bonds of the A-SWNTs with NMMO and cellulose. The mechanical properties, thermal properties, and electric conductivity of the nanocomposite films were improved by adding a small amount of the A-SWNTs to the cellulose. For example, by adding 1 wt % of the A-SWNTs to the cellulose, tensile strain at break point, Young's modulus, and toughness increased , 5.4, , 2.2, and , 6 times, respectively, the degradation temperature increased to 9°C as compared with those of the pure cellulose film, and the electric conductivities at , (the wt % of A-SWNTs in the composite) = 1 and 9 were 4.97 × 10,4 and 3.74 × 10,2 S/cm, respectively. Thus, the A-SWNT/cellulose nanocomposites are a promising material and can be used for many applications, such as toughened Lyocell fibers, transparent electrodes, and soforth. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Effects of cyclic dynamic tensile strain on previously compressed inner annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells of human intervertebral disc,an in vitro study

Hwan Tak Hee
Abstract Our objective was to investigate whether dynamic tensile strain on previously compressed human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells can restore the biosynthetic effects of collagen and glycosaminoglycan. Inner annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases undergoing thoracoscopic discectomy and fusion were cultured on compressive plates. Compressive stress was applied using 0.4 MPa at 1 Hz, for 2 h twice a day for 7 days, to the inner AF and NP tissues, followed by equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain to deform the released cells onto the plate's flexible bottom. With 10% elongation at a rate of 1 Hz, for 2 h twice a day for 7 days, a significant increase in the level of collagen and glycosaminoglycan of the previously compressed inner AF, as well as the level of glycosaminoglycan of the previously compressed NP cells were found. The DNA content and number of endoplasmic reticulum under transmission electron micrograph of the previously compressed inner AF and NP cell were also significantly increased. The results suggested that equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain at a rate of 1 Hz with 10% tensile strain was capable of increasing collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis of previously compressed inner AF cells, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis of previously compressed NP cells. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:503,509, 2010 [source]

Ultrasonic Velocity Technique for Nondestructive Quantification of Elastic Moduli Degradation during Creep in Silicon Nitride

Franti, ek Lofaj
The ultrasonic velocity technique was used for nondestructive quantification of creep damage during interrupted tensile creep tests at 1400°C in an advanced silicon nitride to investigate the possibilities of this technique for creep damage monitoring in ceramic components. The longitudinal and shear wave velocities, Poisson's ratio, and Young's, shear, and bulk moduli linearly decreased with strain. Precise density change measurements indicated a linear relationship with a coefficient of proportionality of 0.69 between the volume fraction of cavities and tensile strain. Cavitation was identified as the main creep mechanism in the studied silicon nitride and the reason for ultrasonic velocity and elastic moduli degradation. The measurement of just the longitudinal wave velocity changes was found to be sufficient for quantification of cavitation during creep. The capability of the ultrasonic velocity technique for simple, sensitive, and reliable nondestructive monitoring of creep damage during intermittent creep was demonstrated in silicon nitride. [source]

Photocurable Shape-Memory Copolymers of , -Caprolactone and L -Lactide

Minoru Nagata
Abstract Biodegradable and photocurable block copolymers of , -caprolactone and L -lactide were synthesized by polycondensation of PLLA diol (,=,10,000,g,·,mol,1), PCL diol (,=,10,000,g,·,mol,1), and a chain extender bearing a coumarin group. The effect of copolymer composition on the thermal and mechanical properties of the photocured copolymers was studied by means of DSC and cyclic tensile tests. An increase in Young's modulus and a decrease in the tensile strain with increasing PLLA content was observed for the block copolymers. Block copolymers with high PCL content showed good to excellent shape-memory properties. Random copolymers exhibited Rf and Rr values above 90% at 45,°C for an extremely large tensile strain of 1,000%. [source]

Acceptor compensation by dislocations related defects in boron doped homoepitaxial diamond films from cathodoluminescence and Schottky diodes current voltage characteristics

P. Muret
Abstract This document shows that new electrically active defects can develop in the homoepitaxial layer grown on Ib diamond substrates, related to the increase of the dislocation density. Deep centres, which are able to compensate the boron acceptors, specially when the growth process allows boron incorporation below 1015 cm,3 like achieved in the samples, are identified after heating in an inert gas ambient both from photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS) and changes in Schottky diode current,voltage characteristics. Cathodoluminescence spectra are used to monitor the bands and excitonic lines, some of them being specific of dislocations. A correlation is demonstrated between the onset of properties characteristic of a compensated semiconductor and the increase of signals associated to dislocations in cathodoluminescence spectra. These modifications are thermally driven only when the samples are laid on a heating holder immerged in an inert gas, suggesting that a temperature gradient induced an additional stress which finally led to plastic relaxation of the tensile strain in the homoepitaxial layer by an increase of the dislocation density. New deep centres being simultaneously created in this degradation process, the problem of overcoming the onset of these defects for implementing high voltage devices is discussed. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Depth profiling of optical and vibrational properties in GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices

A. Cros
Abstract Spatially resolved confocal ,-Raman and ,-photoluminescence experiments were performed to analyze the vibrational and optical properties of GaN/AlN quantum dots as a function of depth. Two approaches have been followed. First, spectra were taken by defocusing the microscope objective at various depths on the sample surface. In a second set of experiments a bevel at an angle of 20° with respect to the surface normal was prepared by mechanical polishing of the surface, and spectra were taken across the bevel. The E2h vibrational modes ascribed to the GaN QDs and the AlN spacer redshift towards the surface, indicating the progressive relaxation of the QDs and a considerable increase of the tensile strain in the AlN spacer. The photoluminescence is found to blueshift and narrow towards the surface. This behaviour is ascribed to the decrease of the QD internal electric field as a consequence of the relaxation. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Auxetic compliant flexible PU foams: static and dynamic properties

F. Scarpa
Abstract The paper describes the manufacturing and tensile testing of auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) thermoplastic polyurethane foams, both under constant strain rate and sinusoidal excitation. The foams are produced from conventional flexible polyurethane basis following a manufacturing route developed in previous works. The Poisson's ratio behaviour over tensile strain has been analyzed using an Image Data processing technique based on Edge Detection from digital images recorded during quasi-static tensile test. The samples have been subjected to tensile and compressive tests at quasi-static and constant strain-rate values (up to 12 s,1). Analogous tests have been performed over iso-volumetric foams samples, i.e., foams subjected to the same volumetric compression of the auxetic ones, exhibiting a near zero Poisson's ratio behaviour. The auxetic and non-auxetic foams have been also tested under sinusoidal cycling load up to 10 Hz, with maximum pre-strain applied of 12%. The hysteresis of the cycling loading curve has been measured to determine the damping hysteretic loss factor for the various foams. The measurements indicate that auxetic foams have increased damping loss factor of 20% compared to the conventional foams. The energy dissipation is particularly relevant in the tensile segment of the curve, with effects given by the pre-strain level imposed on the samples. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Effects of lattice-mismatch induced built-in strain on the valence band properties of wurtzite ZnO/Zn1,xMgxO quantum well heterostructures

K. Zitouni
Abstract We present a theoretical study of the effects of lattice-mismatch induced built-in strain on the electronic properties of valence band states in wurtzite ZnO/Zn1,xMgxO Quantum Well (QW) heterostructures. In this purpose, a 6x6 k·p method has been used to incorporate the effects of strain and nonparabolicity. The energies corresponding to the transitions between conduction band (C), heavy hole (HH), light hole (LH) and crystal-field split-off hole (CH) bands have been calculated as a function of Mg composition and strain. We have also calculated the energy dispersions and wave functions of strained wurtzite ZnO. It is found that ZnO is always under a biaxial tensile strain, in the whole Mg composition range investigated (x < 40%). As a consequence, the light hole valence subband is shifted upwards with respect to the corresponding heavy hole valence subband, resulting in a reduction of ZnO direct band gap by almost 6% when x = 35%. This is found to result in turn in a significantly reduced in-plane hole effective mass at the top of the valence band which is always LH-like. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures for pressure and pH sensing

B. S. Kang
Abstract Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structures are excellent candidates for polar liquid detectors, pressure sensors and piezoelectric-related applications. The changes in conductance of the channel of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures during application of both tensile and compressive strain are reported. For fixed Al mole fraction, the changes in conductance were roughly linear over the range up to 2.7 × 108 N.cm,2 , with coefficients for planar devices of ,6.0 +/,2.5 × 10,10 S.N,1 m,2 for tensile strain and +9.5+/,3.5 × 10,10 S.N,1m,2 for compressive strain . The large changes in conductance demonstrate that simple AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are promising for pressure and strain sensor applications. A gateless HEMT structure was also used for sensing different liquids present in the gate region. The forward current showed significant decreases upon exposure of the gate area to solvents (water, acetone) or acids (HCl). Milli ampere changes in the source-drain current are observed relative to the value measured in air ambient . The pH sensitivity is due to changes in net surface charge that affects the relative depletion in the channel of the transistor. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Tensile properties and damage behaviors of glass-bead-filled modified polyphenylene oxide under large strain

C. P. Tsui
Based on Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM), a damage model for glass-bead-filled modified polyphenylene oxide (GB/PPO) has been proposed to describe its damage behavior at various levels of tensile strain by considering the reduction of effective loading area. Hence, an equation for prediction of effective elastic modulus of the damaged GB/PPO composites in terms of the three principal true strains was derived. The tensile properties and damage behaviors of the GB/PPO composites with different volume percentages of glass beads were investigated using standard tensile tests and load-unload tests, respectively. The addition of glass beads increases Young's modulus of PPO but has a weakening effect on its tensile strength. A maximum value of tensile work to break and tensile strain at break was found when 5 vol% of glass beads with a mean diameter of 11 ,m was blended with PPO. These results were justified through microscopic examination of the fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In - situ observations of the strain damage processes were made through the SEM equipped with a tensile stage to determine the strain at fully debonding of glass beads. The volumetric strain of GB/PPO composites increases because of microcavitation during strain damage. In general, the prediction for the effective elastic modulus of the damaged GB/PPO composites at different true strains is slightly higher than the experimental results. The damage evolution rates after fully debonding of glass beads from the matrix are close to those predicted by the proposed damage model. [source]

Low-level mechanical strain induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in alveolar epithelial cells

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Xiaobo HU
Background and objective: The pattern and the degree of mechanical stimuli may determine cellular responses, but little is known about how low magnitude stimuli are converted into biochemical signals in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The aim of this study was to explore whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) are activated by low-level strain in A549 cells and how mechanical factors affect ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods: A549 cells (an AEC line) were exposed to cyclic tensile strain via a four-point bending system, with strains of different magnitude (437, 874, 1748, 3496 µstrain), duration (5, 15, 30, 60, 120 min) and frequency (0.5, 1 Hz). Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins was assessed by western blot. Results: Maximal ERK1/2 phosphorylation occurred in the 874 µstrain group (a 2.25-fold increase, P < 0.01). In this group, the peak response occurred after 30 min of exposure and slowly decreased to baseline after 90 min. Static strain did not produce a statistically significant increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas a frequency of 0.5 Hz produced a 4.56-fold increase compared with the control (P < 0.05). A 10.87-fold increase in response with frequency of 1 Hz was found. Conclusion: Low-level strain activates ERK1/2 in A549 cells. ERK1/2 may be the key signalling molecules mediating strain-induced cellular responses. [source]

Characterization of a Novel Fiber Composite Material for Mechanotransduction Research of Fibrous Connective Tissues

Hazel R. C. Screen
Abstract Mechanotransduction is the fundamental process by which cells detect and respond to their mechanical environment, and is critical for tissue homeostasis. Understanding mechanotransduction mechanisms will provide insights into disease processes and injuries, and may support novel tissue engineering research. Although there has been extensive research in mechanotransduction, many pathways remain unclear, due to the complexity of the signaling mechanisms and loading environments involved. This study describes the development of a novel hydrogel-based fiber composite material for investigating mechanotransduction in fibrous tissues. By encapsulating poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) rods in a bulk poly(ethylene glycol) matrix, it aims to create a micromechanical environment more representative of that seen in vivo. Results demonstrated that collagen-coated rods enable localized cell attachment, and cells are successfully cultured for one week within the composite. Mechanical analysis of the composite indicates that gross mechanical properties and local strain environments could be manipulated by altering the fabrication process. Allowing diffusion between the rods and surrounding matrix creates an interpenetrating network whereby the relationships between shear and tension are altered. Increasing diffusion enhances the shear bond strength between rods and matrix and the levels of local tension along the rods. Preliminary investigation into fibroblast mechanotransduction illustrates that the fiber composite upregulates collagen I expression, the main protein in fibrous tissues, in response to cyclic tensile strains when compared to less complex 2D and 3D environments. In summary, the ability to create and manipulate a strain environment surrounding the fibers, where combined tensile and shear forces uniquely impact cell functions, is demonstrated. [source]

Fully Flexible Solution-Deposited ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

Keunkyu Song
Solution-processed, fully flexible ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) on semitransparent substrates are demonstrated. Our devices show exceptional and unprecedented stablity against various bending stresses, i.e., bending, rolling, wearing, and folding, exhibiting no degradation at tensile strains up to 6.35%. [source]

Masticatory stress and the mechanics of "wishboning" in colobine jaws

David J. Daegling
Abstract Cercopithecoid monkeys experience relatively high strains along the lingual aspect of the mandibular symphysis because of lateral transverse bending of the mandibular corpora ("wishboning") during mastication. Hylander (Am J Phys Anthropol 64 (1984) 1,46; Am Zool 25 (1985) 315,330) demonstrated that the distribution of strains arising from wishboning loads is comprehensible with reference to the mechanics of curved beams. Theory of curved beams suggests that lingual tensile strains are some multiple of labial compressive strains, yet limitations of experimental methods and uncertainty in estimating parameters needed for theoretical calculations have confounded attempts to characterize the magnitude of this disparity of normal strains. We evaluate the theoretical disparity of normal strains in wishboning in comparison to in vitro strains collected under controlled loads for a sample of mandibles representing two colobine species (N = 6). These data suggest that in colobine monkeys, maximum normal lingual strains should be at least twice maximum labial strains. In addition, we reexamine the distribution of symphyseal stress under an assumption of asymmetric bending, a general approach for calculation of stress appropriate for members that lack a plane of symmetry and are bent along an axis that is not coincident with the member's principal axes. Under asymmetric bending in colobine mandibles, the effect of symphyseal inclination on lingual strain is mitigating at the superior transverse torus and exacerbating at the inferior transverse torus. Relative compliance of colobine mandibular bone further supports the hypothesis that the structural and material properties of the colobine mandibular symphysis do not represent a morphological strategy for minimizing masticatory strain. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]