Tenfold Increase (tenfold + increase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inheritance of resistance and cross resistance pattern in indoxacarb-resistant diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L.

Abstract Leaf-dip assay of Plutella xylostella against indoxacarb showed that the concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50) of indoxacarb ranged from 20.1 to 11.9 ppm, with highest in Nasik and lowest levels in Coimbatore strains. In selection studies, the LC50 of indoxacarb was 18.5 ppm at generation 1 (G1), which increased to 31.3-fold (167.8 ppm) resistance after ten exposed generations (G10) as compared to unexposed. The LC50 of quinalphos was 74.4 ppm, which increased to 10.0-fold (631.5 ppm) resistance after G10. The LC50 of cypermethrin resistant strain resulted in an 11.5-fold increase in resistance after G10. In P. xylostella, heritability (h2) after ten generations of selection was estimated at 0.4. The number of generations required for tenfold increase in LC50 (1/R) were 6.7. The response to indoxacarb selection in P. xylostella was 0.2 and the selection differential was estimated as 0.4. The phenotypic standard deviation was 0.2. Reciprocal crosses between indoxacarb-resistant and susceptible strains showed that the inheritance of indoxacarb resistance was autosomal. The degree of heritability (DLC) (0.4, 0.4) indicated incomplete recessive inheritance of indoxacarb resistance. [source]

Nitrogen-Enriched Nonporous Carbon Electrodes with Extraordinary Supercapacitance

Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova
Abstract Nitrogen-enriched nonporous carbon materials derived from melamine,mica composites are subjected to ammonia treatment to further increase the nitrogen content. For samples preoxidized prior to the ammonia treatment, the nitrogen content is doubled and is mainly incorporated in pyrrol-like groups. The materials are tested as electrodes for supercapacitors, and in acidic or basic electrolytes, the gravimetric capacitance of treated samples is three times higher than that of untreated samples. This represents a tenfold increase of the capacitance per surface area (3300,F,cm,2) in basic electrolyte. Due to the small volume of the carbon materials, high volumetric capacitances are achieved in various electrolytic systems: 280,F,cm,3 in KOH, 152,F,cm,3 in H2SO4, and 92,F,cm,3 in tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate/propylene carbonate. [source]

Differential regulation of platelet-derived growth factor stimulated migration and proliferation in osteoblastic cells,

Meenal Mehrotra
Abstract Osteoblastic migration and proliferation in response to growth factors are essential for skeletal development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair, as well as pathologic processes, such as metastasis. We studied migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml) in a wounding model. PDGF stimulated a twofold increase in migration of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and murine calvarial osteoblasts over 24,48 h. PDGF also stimulated a tenfold increase in 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Migration and DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation, could be stimulated in the same cell. Blocking DNA replication with aphidicolin did not reduce the distance migrated. To examine the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in migration and proliferation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). For these signaling studies, proliferation was measured by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by SB203580 and SB202190 blocked PDGF-stimulated migration but had no effect on proliferation. Inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 and U0126 inhibited proliferation but did not inhibit migration. Inhibition of JNK activity by SP600125 inhibited both migration and proliferation. Hence, the stimulation of migration and proliferation by PDGF occurred by both overlapping and independent pathways. The JNK pathway was involved in both migration and proliferation, whereas the p38 pathway was predominantly involved in migration and the ERK pathway predominantly involved in proliferation. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of instrument tuning on the detectabilityof biopolymers in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Herbert Oberacher
Abstract Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of multiply charged biopolymer ions of different molecular size revealed a strong influence of tuning parameters on their detectability in quadrupole ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Hence, after optimizing the ion optical parameters with the signal of the 4, charge state of (dT)24 (low charge state tuning), a tenfold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio for a mixture of oligodeoxythymidylic acids (n = 12,18) was obtained compared with the results achieved with tune parameters optimized with a synthetic 80-mer oligodeoxynucleotide. By contrast, a detection limit in the upper femtomole region could only be reached for a 104-mer oligodeoxynucleotide utilizing the 24, charge state of the 80-mer (high charge state tuning). The same effect was observed for proteins investigated in the positive ion mode using low and high charge states of cytochrome c and carbonic anhydrase, respectively, for instrument tuning. By comparing the settings for low and high charge state tuning, it became obvious that the most significant difference was observed in the potential applied to the heated metal capillary used to transfer ions from the atmospheric pressure to the vacuum region of the ion source. Taking advantage of the optimized tuning procedure, the molecular mass of a 61 base pair product of polymerase chain reaction was accurately determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on-line interfaced to ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prognosis in pediatric hematologic malignancies is associated with serum concentration of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2)

Aina Zehnder MD
Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) are key components of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Their serum concentrations show a wide interindividual variability. This study investigated whether the concentration of MBL and MASP-2 is associated with prognosis in pediatric patients with cancer. Methods In this retrospective multicenter study, MBL and MASP-2 were measured by commercially available ELISA in frozen remnants of serum taken at diagnosis. Associations of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) with MBL and MASP-2 were assessed by multivariate Cox regression accounting for prognostically relevant clinical variables. Results In the 372 patients studied, median serum concentration of MBL was 2,808 g/L (range, 2,10,060) and 391 g/L (46,2,771) for MASP-2. The estimated 4-year EFS was 0.60 (OS, 0.78). In the entire, heterogeneous sample, MBL and MASP-2 were not significantly associated with OS or EFS. In patients with hematologic malignancies, however, higher MASP-2 was associated with better EFS in a significant and clinically relevant way (hazard ratio per tenfold increase (HR), 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09,0.54; P,=,0.001). This was due to patients with lymphoma (HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03,0.47; P,=,0.003), but less for those with acute leukemia (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.11,1.15; P,=,0.083). Conclusion In this study, higher MASP-2 was associated with better EFS in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies, especially lymphoma. Whether MASP-2 is an independent prognostic factor affecting risk stratification and anticancer therapy needs to be assessed in prospective, disease-specific studies. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:53,57. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of phosphine dose on sorption in wheat

Gregory J Daglish
Abstract BACKGROUND: In spite of the extensive use of phosphine fumigation around the world to control insects in stored grain, and the knowledge that grain sorbs phosphine, the effect of concentration on sorption has not been quantified. A laboratory study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate the effect of phosphine dose on sorption in wheat. Wheat was added to glass flasks to achieve filling ratios of 0.25,0.95, and the flasks were sealed and injected with phosphine at 0.1,1.5 mg L,1 based on flask volume. Phosphine concentration was monitored for 8 days at 25 C and 55% RH. RESULTS: When sorption occurred, phosphine concentration declined with time and was approximately first order, i.e. the data fitted an exponential decay equation. Percentage sorption per day was directly proportional to filling ratio, and was negatively correlated with dose for any given filling ratio. Based on the results, a tenfold increase in dose would result in a halving of the sorption constant and the percentage daily loss. Wheat was less sorptive if it was fumigated for a second time. CONCLUSIONS: The results have implications for the use of phosphine for control of insects in stored wheat. This study shows that dose is a factor that must be considered when trying to understand the impact of sorption on phosphine concentration, and that there appears to be a limit to the capacity of wheat to sorb phosphine. Copyright The State of Queensland (through the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries) 2008. [source]

Genetic susceptibility to viral exposure may increase the risk of cerebral palsy

Michael DJUKIC
Aim: Cytokine polymorphisms may alter the fetal inflammatory response, increasing susceptibility to cerebral palsy (CP). This study investigates associations between selected inflammatory mediator and cytokine gene polymorphisms (Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) Asp299Gly, interleukin-6 G-174C and interleukin-4 C-589T) and CP from 443 CP infants and 883 control infants. Results were correlated with viral nucleic acids in the same samples. Results: At all gestational ages (GA), TLR-4 was associated with a decreased risk of developing CP (homozygous/heterozygous odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50,0.98) and interleukin (IL)-6 was associated with an increased risk of developing hemiplegia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05,1.83). For infants born 32,36 weeks GA, there was a tenfold increase in the risk of quadriplegic CP with homozygous/heterozygous IL-6 (OR 10.42, 95% CI 1.34,80.82). Viral exposure in combination with IL-4 in preterm infants was associated with a fourfold increased risk of quadriplegia (homozygous/heterozygous OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.21,14.95). In very preterm infants, the absence of detectable viral exposure in combination with IL-4 decreased the risk of developing CP (homozygous/heterozygous OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13,0.76). Conclusion: Polymorphisms in TLR-4 may be associated with a decreased risk of CP. Polymorphisms in IL-6 or IL-4 may act as susceptibility genes, in the presence of viral exposure, for the development of hemiplegic and quadriplegic CP. These associations require confirmation but they suggest a hypothesis for CP causation due to double jeopardy from neurotropic viral exposure and genetic susceptibility to infection. [source]