Tendon Injury (tendon + injury)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Joint moments in the distal forelimbs of jumping horses during landing

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2001
L. S. MEERSHOEK
Summary Tendon injuries are an important problem in athletic horses and are probably caused by excessive loading of the tendons during demanding activities. As a first step towards understanding these injuries, the tendon loading was quantified during jump landings. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected from the leading and trailing forelimbs of 6 experienced jumping horses. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. It was found that the variation of movement and loading patterns was small, both within and between horses. The peak flexor joint moments in the coffin and fetlock joints were larger in the trailing limb (,0.62 and ,2.44 Nm/kg bwt, respectively) than in the leading limb (,0.44 and ,1.93 Nm/kg bwt, respectively) and exceeded literature values for trot by 82 and 45%. Additionally, there was an extensor coffin joint moment in the first half of the stance phase of the leading limb (peak value 0.26 0.18 Nm/kg bwt). From these results, it was concluded that the loading of the flexor tendons during landing was higher in the trailing than in the leading limb and that there was an unexpected loading of the extensor tendon in the leading limb. [source]


Effect of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines on human tenocytes

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 8 2010
Thilo John
Abstract Tendon injury induces a local inflammatory response, characterized by the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of TNF,, IL-6 and IL-10 on key parameters of tendon homeostasis. Cultured primary human tenocytes were treated with the recombinant cytokines IL-6, IL-10, TNF,, or combinations of TNF, with IL-6 and IL-10 (10 ng/mL, 6, 24 h). Expression of type I collagen, elastin, MMP-1, TNF,, IL-1,, IL-6, IL-10, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1, 3) was analyzed with the use of RTD-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis. In response to TNF,, tenocytes reduced their type I collagen deposition but increased their elastin gene expression and highly upregulated their expression for MMP-1, pro-inflammatory (TNF,, IL-1,) and immunoregulatory (IL-6, IL-10) cytokines. TNF, stimulation augmented SOCS1, whereas SOCS3 expression in tenocytes was also induced by IL-6. The treatment of tenocytes with IL-6 and IL-10 had no effect on cytokine expression. Neither IL-6 nor IL-10 modulated the observed effects of TNF, significantly. These results indicate that TNF, strongly activates the tenocytes to amplify their own TNF, expression and, subsequently, that of other regulatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes. However, the impact of IL-6 and IL-10 on tenocytes remains unclear. 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:1071,1077, 2010 [source]


Effect of elbow position on canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon tension

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
Tatsuro Tanaka
Abstract Tendon injury in the finger remains a clinical challenge to hand surgeons. A canine model is commonly used to study biological effects of tendon injuries and their treatment. There is an important anatomical difference between human and canine anatomy that may be overlooked, however, namely that most of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle in dogs takes its origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus, whereas in humans this muscle arises purely from the forearm. Therefore, elbow position can affect the tension of this muscle in dogs, while having no effect in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of elbow position on tendon tension in the canine digit in vitro. Elbow position had a significant effect on tendon tension. Digit motion with the elbow fully flexed resulted in significantly higher tendon tension compared to digit motion with the elbow flexed 90 or fully extended, regardless of digit or wrist position (p < 0.05). The tension with the elbow flexed 90 was also significantly higher than with the elbow fully extended (p < 0.05). The maximum tendon tension with the elbow fully flexed was more than eight times larger than that of the fully extended elbow (p < 0.05). We conclude that, in the canine model, elbow position is an important parameter that affects the passive tension applied to the flexor digitorum profundus, and, by implication, to any repair of that tendon. Dog flexor tendon rehabilitation protocols should therefore specify elbow position, in addition to wrist and digit position. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Influence of track surface on the equine superficial digital flexor tendon loading in two horses at high speed trot

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
N. Crevier-Denoix
Summary Reasons for performing study: Although track surfaces are a risk factor of tendon injuries, their effects on tendon loading at high speed are unknown. Using a noninvasive ultrasonic technique, it is now possible to evaluate the forces in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in exercise conditions. Objectives: To compare the effects of an all-weather waxed track (W) vs. a crushed sand track (S), on the SDFT loading in the trotter horse at high speed. Methods: Two trotter horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device (1 MHz ultrasonic probe, fixed on the palmar metacarpal area of the right forelimb). For each trial, data acquisition was made at 400 Hz and 10 consecutive strides were analysed. In each session, the 2 track surfaces were tested in a straight line. The speed was imposed at 10 m/s and recorded. The right forelimb was also equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe and skin markers. The horse was filmed with a high-speed camera (600 Hz); all recordings were synchronised. Statistical differences were tested using the GLM procedure (SAS; P<0.05). Results: Maximal tendon force was significantly lower on W compared with S. In addition to maximal force peaks around mid-stance, earlier peaks were observed, more pronounced on S than on W, at about 13%(horse 2) and 30% (both horses) of the stance phase. Comparison with kinematic data revealed that these early peaks were accompanied by plateaux in the fetlock angle-time chart. For high tendon forces, the tendon maximal loading rate was significantly lower on W than on S. Conclusions and potential clinical relevance: The all-weather waxed track appears to induce a lesser and more gradual SDFT loading than crushed sand. The SDFT loading pattern at high speed trot suggests proximal interphalangeal joint movements during limb loading. [source]


Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions in racehorses as a sequela to muscle fatigue: A preliminary study

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
M. T. Butcher
Summary Reasons for performing study: Racing and training related lesions of the forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon are a common career ending injury to racehorses but aetiology and/or predisposing causes of the injury are not completely understood. Objectives: Although the injury takes place within the tendon, the lesion must be considered within the context of the function of the complete suspensory system of the distal limb, including the associated muscles. Methods: Both muscle and tendon function were investigated in vivo using implanted strain gauges in 3 Thoroughbred horses walking, trotting and cantering on a motorised treadmill. These data were combined with assessments of muscle architecture and fibre composition to arrive at an overview of the contribution of each muscle-tendon unit during locomotion. Results: The superficial digital flexor muscle has fatigue-resistant and high force production properties that allow its tendon to store and return elastic energy, predominantly at the trot. As running speed increases, deep digital flexor tendon force increases and it stabilises hyperextension of the fetlock, thus reinforcing the superficial digital flexor in limb load support. The deep digital flexor muscle has fast contracting properties that render it susceptible to fatigue. Conclusion: Based on these measurements and supporting evidence from the literature, it is proposed that overloading of the superficial digital flexor tendon results from fatigue of the synergistic, faster contracting deep digital flexor muscle. Potential relevance: Future research investigating distal limb system function as a whole should help refine clinical diagnostic procedures and exercise training approaches that will lead to more effective prevention and treatment of digital flexor tendon injuries in equine athletes. [source]


Magnetic resonance imaging of ankle tendons and ligaments: Part I , Anatomy

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
A Kong
Summary Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent technique for imaging the tendons and the ligaments of the ankle. Owing to the advantage of detailed demonstration of soft-tissue structures and capability for multiplanar demonstration of the ankle ligaments and tendons, MRI has been increasingly used in the evaluation of the ligamentous and the tendon injuries of the ankle. Knowledge of normal anatomy and of MRI appearances are essential to recognize pathological appearances. In this pictorial essay, the first of a three part series, we review the normal MRI appearances of the ankle tendons and ligaments. The anterior, lateral and medial tendon groups, the Achilles tendon and the lateral, the syndesmotic and the medial ligament groups are described and illustrated. Anatomy of the sinus tarsi is also described. Tendon and ligament pathology will be illustrated in the second part of the series, and imaging approach to ankle injuries will be outlined in the final part of this series. [source]


Effect of elbow position on canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon tension

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
Tatsuro Tanaka
Abstract Tendon injury in the finger remains a clinical challenge to hand surgeons. A canine model is commonly used to study biological effects of tendon injuries and their treatment. There is an important anatomical difference between human and canine anatomy that may be overlooked, however, namely that most of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle in dogs takes its origin from the medial epicondyle of the humerus, whereas in humans this muscle arises purely from the forearm. Therefore, elbow position can affect the tension of this muscle in dogs, while having no effect in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of elbow position on tendon tension in the canine digit in vitro. Elbow position had a significant effect on tendon tension. Digit motion with the elbow fully flexed resulted in significantly higher tendon tension compared to digit motion with the elbow flexed 90 or fully extended, regardless of digit or wrist position (p < 0.05). The tension with the elbow flexed 90 was also significantly higher than with the elbow fully extended (p < 0.05). The maximum tendon tension with the elbow fully flexed was more than eight times larger than that of the fully extended elbow (p < 0.05). We conclude that, in the canine model, elbow position is an important parameter that affects the passive tension applied to the flexor digitorum profundus, and, by implication, to any repair of that tendon. Dog flexor tendon rehabilitation protocols should therefore specify elbow position, in addition to wrist and digit position. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Temporal expression of growth factors and matrix molecules in healing tendon lesions

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
Linda A. Dahlgren
Abstract Overuse tendon injuries are common among elite and recreational athletes. Tendon healing may be enhanced at the cellular level through the use of exogenous growth factors; however, little is known about the endogenous expression of growth factors in healing tendon. This study describes the temporal expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-,1 (TGF-,1), and collagen types I and III in healing tendon lesions. Collagenase-induced lesions were created in the tensile region of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of both forelimbs of 14 horses. Tendons were harvested from euthanatized horses 1, 2, 4, 8 or 24 weeks following injury. Gene expression was evaluated using Northern blot analysis (collagen types I and III), real time PCR (IGF-I and TGF-,1), and in situ hybridization. Protein content was assayed by dye-binding assay (collagen types I and III), radioimmunoassay (IGF-I), ELISA (TGF-,1), and immunohistochemistry. Samples were also processed for differential collagen typing. DNA and glycosaminoglycan content, and routine H&E staining. Microscopically, lesions progressed from an amorphous, acellular lesion soon after injury to scar tissue filled with collagen fibers and mature fibroblasts organized along lines of tension. Early lesions were characterized by immediate increases in expression of growth factors and collagen. Message levels for TGF-,1 peaked early in the wound healing process (1 week), while IGF-I peaked later (4 weeks), as the regenerative phase of healing was progressing. In the first 2 weeks after lesion induction, tissue levels of IGF-I protein actually decreased approximately 40% compared to normal tendon. By 4 weeks, these levels had exceeded those of normal tendon and remained elevated through 8 weeks. Message expression for collagen types I and III increased by 1 week following injury and remained elevated throughout the course of the study. Collagen type I represented the major type of collagen in healing tendon at all time points of the study. Based on these results, IGF-I, administered exogenously during the first 2 weeks following injury, may provide a therapeutic advantage by bolstering low endogenous tissue levels and enhancing the metabolic response of individual tendon fibroblasts. 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


The arterial anatomy of the Achilles tendon: Anatomical study and clinical implications

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2009
Tony M. Chen
Abstract The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon in the lower limb and accounts for almost 20% of all large tendon injuries. Despite numerous published studies describing its blood supply, there has been no uniformity in describing its topography. The current study comprises a detailed anatomical study of both the intrinsic and extrinsic arterial supply of the Achilles tendon, providing the detail sought from studies calling for improved planning of surgical procedures where damage to the vascularity of the Achilles tendon is likely. A dissection, microdissection, histological, and angiographic study was undertaken on 20 cadaveric lower limbs from 16 fresh and four embalmed cadavers. The Achilles tendon is supplied by two arteries, the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. Three vascular territories were identified, with the midsection supplied by the peroneal artery, and the proximal and distal sections supplied by the posterior tibial artery. The midsection of the Achilles tendon was markedly more hypovascular that the rest of the tendon. The Achilles tendon is at highest risk of rupture and surgical complications at its midsection. Individuals with particularly poor supply of the midsection may be at increased risk of tendon rupture, and approaches to the tendon operatively should consider the route of supply by the peroneal artery to this susceptible part of the tendon. Clin. Anat. 22:377,385, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


An investigation of the relationship between race performance and superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the Thoroughbred racehorse

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
B. O'MEARA
Summary Reasons for performing study: There is limited information regarding the number of races and the period for evaluation of outcome which is critical for assessment of SDF tendonitis treatments. Objective: To evaluate the re-injury rate and racing performance of Thoroughbred racehorses that sustain SDF tendonitis in relation to matched controls in terms of number of races post treatment and maximum racing performance ratings before and after injury. Study design: Clinical records and racing histories of 401 racehorses with a first occurrence of SDF tendonitis diagnosed by ultrasonography. Controls were of the same age, sex and were horses training in the same establishment at the time of injury as the case horses and where the trainer reported that the horse had not had a previous SDF tendon injury or treatment. Results: Eighty percent of both case and control horses returned to racing after the date of injury, and the re-injury proportion within 3 years of treatment was 53%. The difference in Racing Post Rating(max) (RPR(max)) and the Racing Post Rating in the race immediately before the treatment date was significantly smaller in case horses (mean = 9.6 lbs; range = 0,75) compared to control horses (mean = 17.0 lbs; range = 0,79). No significant decrease in RPR(max) was noted post injury. No difference between case and control horses was found for return to racing and racing 3 times, but control horses were significantly more likely to compete 5 races post treatment date than case horses. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Injury was associated with an individual's pre-injury maximum performance level and return to racing and completion of 3 races are not useful indicator of the outcome of horses with SDF tendonitis. The assessment of the outcome of horses with an SDF injury in a population of racehorses using the number of races post injury requires a minimum of 5 races post injury to be a useful indicator. Further, a re-injury proportion in a population of horses in training for 3 years post treatment. [source]


Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury diagnosis

EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
R. C. MURRAY
Summary Reason for performing study: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. Objectives: To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Methods: Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998,2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chisquared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Results: Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P=0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P=0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P=0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P=0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. Potential relevance: These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries. [source]


Modulation of peritendinous adhesion formation by alginate solution in a rabbit flexor tendon model

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
Jiro Namba
Abstract To examine the antiadhesive effect of an alginate solution following tendon surgery, unilateral subtotal laceration of the flexor digitorum communis tendon was created in one hind limb while the other side was left intact in 32 Japanese white rabbits. The lesion was coated with alginate solution in 16 animals and not coated in the other 16. Degree of adhesion formation was assessed histologically and biomechanically by measuring the flexion angle of the first toe when the flexor digitorum tendon was pulled with a specified force at 4 weeks postoperatively. When compared with the control group, the alginate-treated group demonstrated significantly greater toe flexion, with less scar tissue formation at the repair site. Histologically, complete tendon healing with longitudinal remodeling of collagen fibers was observed in the alginate-treated group, while a random pattern of fibers was observed in the control group. Reduction in adhesion formation using alginate solution represents a novel strategy for the management of tendon injury and repair in the clinical setting. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2007 [source]


Development of the shields for tendon injury repair using polyvinyl alcohol , hydrogel ( PVA-H)

JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, Issue 4 2001
Masanori Kobayashi
Abstract In recent years, marked advances have been made in repair techniques for tendon injury, but the treatment of finger flexor tendon injury is still one of the most difficult and important problems in the orthopedic field. The main problem in tendon repair is adhesion between the tendon and surrounding tissue. To prevent this adhesion and achieve tendon union, we developed adhesion preventive shields for tendon repair using polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel ( PVA-H) with 90% water content, and carried out an implant experiment using the deep flexor tendon of the third toe of domestic fowl. Injured tendons shielded with PVA-H showed union at about 3 weeks after the operation without adhesion to the surrounding tissue and good function such as gliding and range of motion. Neither breakage of the PVA-H shield itself nor infection, nor degeneration in the surrounding tissue were observed. These results confirmed that the tendon itself has repair ability, and the tendon is regenerated by synovial nutrition through PVA-H. High water content PVA-H may have clinically potential and be applicable to adhesion-preventive shields for tendon repair. However, re-rupture was observed, probably due to accidental tendon injury at an early period after the operation. In some cases, tendon immobilization methods to prevent re-rupture might be necessary. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 58: 344,351, 2001 [source]


Tendon-derived stem/progenitor cell aging: defective self-renewal and altered fate

AGING CELL, Issue 5 2010
Zuping Zhou
Summary Aging is a major risk factor for tendon injury and impaired tendon healing, but the basis for these relationships remains poorly understood. Here we show that rat tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) differ in both self-renewal and differentiation capability with age. The frequency of TSPCs in tendon tissues of aged animals is markedly reduced based on colony formation assays. Proliferation rate is decreased, cell cycle progression is delayed and cell fate patterns are also altered in aged TSPCs. In particular, expression of tendon lineage marker genes is reduced while adipocytic differentiation increased. Cited2, a multi-stimuli responsive transactivator involved in cell growth and senescence, is also downregulated in aged TSPCs while CD44, a matrix assembling and organizing protein implicated in tendon healing, is upregulated, suggesting that these genes participate in the control of TSPC function. [source]


Changes in gene expression of individual matrix metalloproteinases differ in response to mechanical unloading of tendon fascicles in explant culture

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 10 2008
Diane R. Leigh
Abstract Immobilization of the tendon and ligament has been shown to result in a rapid and significant decrease in material properties. It has been proposed that tissue degradation leading to tendon rupture or pain in humans may also be linked to mechanical unloading following focal tendon injury. Hence, understanding the remodeling mechanism associated with mechanical unloading has relevance for the human conditions of immobilization (e.g., casting), delayed repair of tendon ruptures, and potentially overuse injuries as well. This is the first study to investigate the time course of gene expression changes associated with tissue harvest and mechanical unloading culture in an explant model. Rat tail tendon fascicles were harvested and placed in culture unloaded for up to 48 h and then evaluated using qRT-PCR for changes in two anabolic and four catabolic genes at 12 time points. Our data demonstrates that Type I Collagen, Decorin, Cathepsin K, and MMP2 gene expression are relatively insensitive to unloaded culture conditions. However, changes in both MMP3 and MMP13 gene expression are rapid, dramatic, sustained, and changing during at least the first 48 h of unloaded culture. This data will help to further elucidate the mechanism for the loss of mechanical properties associated with mechanical unloading in tendon. 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1306,1312, 2008 [source]


The need for patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty: a literature review

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 4 2010
John D. Swan
Abstract The controversy over whether or not to routinely resurface the patella during a total knee arthroplasty has persisted despite three decades of successful joint replacement procedures. Advocates for routine patellar resurfacing admit the occasional need for secondary patellar resurfacing and declare increased incidence of anterior knee pain in patients with non-resurfaced patellae as a cause for worry. Surgeons that leave the patella unresurfaced cite avoidance of complications that include patellar fracture, avascular necrosis, patellar tendon injury and instability. This review discusses the available literature on patellar resurfacing through an evidence-based analysis of randomized and pseudo-randomized controlled trials and published meta-analyses to date. The published literature seems to favour resurfacing the patellar routinely. Selective patellar resurfacing would be the ideal solution if sound pre-operative criteria could be established. So far, a method for accurately predicting which patients can avoid patellar resurfacing has not been found. Future research looking at patellar resurfacing should concentrate on developing criteria for selecting those patients that would benefit from patellar resurfacing and those that would do as well without resurfacing, and thus, limiting potential surgical complications. [source]