Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Temperament

  • avoidance temperament
  • child temperament
  • difficult temperament
  • infant temperament

  • Terms modified by Temperament

  • temperament characteristic
  • temperament dimension
  • temperament inventory
  • temperament questionnaire
  • temperament trait

  • Selected Abstracts

    Brain responses to surprising sounds are related to temperament and parent,child dyadic synchrony in young children

    Anu-Katriina Pesonen
    Abstract This study investigated the relationship between temperament characteristics, parent,child dyadic synchrony and auditory event-related potentials (ERP) in 15 two-year-old children. Temperament was assessed with the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and parent,child dyadic synchrony was analyzed from video-taped play situations. Involuntary switching of attention toward surprising sounds was measured with auditory ERPs by quantifying the P3a response for repeated and nonrepeated novel, naturally varying sounds, presented in a continuous repetitive sound sequence. Lower negative emotionality, higher effortful control and higher dyadic synchrony were associated with larger P3a responses to repeated novel sounds. The results demonstrate that temperament is related to P3a responses in early childhood, and that parent,child synchrony associates with both temperament and P3a responses in a theoretically meaningful way. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 513,523, 2010. [source]

    Interactions of Temperament and Culture: The Organization of Diversity in Samoan Infancy

    ETHOS, Issue 2 2009
    Harold L. Odden
    Although most are minor adaptations, some culturally patterned adjustments can have profound organizational effects on the niche and the child's developmental trajectory. Research conducted in Samoa suggests at least two distinct adaptations of the modal developmental niche for infants and toddlers keyed to different temperamental profiles: interpersonally assertive and behaviorally restrained. I argue that these two different variants of the modal niche emerge from dynamic interplay of different temperamental profiles, ethnotheories of child development, and child-rearing practices. These different niches can be developmentally significant in that they channel the individual's development in contrastive ways and introduce different future developmental challenges and opportunities. My larger point is that these different manifestations of the developmental niche represent one way in which social, cultural, and ecological factors on the one hand, and individual diversity on the other hand, interact to organize and constrain individual diversity. [Child development, temperament, infancy, developmental niche, Samoa] [source]

    Cognitive and behavioural characteristics are associated with personality dimensions in patients with eating disorders

    M. Vervaet
    DSM-IV categorizes eating disorders according to behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Based on personality-related and biological research, hypotheses have been formulated to explain differences in the symptomatology between the various types of eating disorders. Therefore, the study of the association between personality-related characteristics and behavioural and cognitive characteristics may contribute to our understanding of the causes and course of eating disorders. This study aimed, first, at describing personality characteristics (using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory) in a group of eating disordered patients (n,=,272) according to the type of eating disorder. Three groups were compared: restricting anorexics (n,=,71), purging anorexics (n,=,84) and bulimics (n,=,118). Secondly, the association between personality characteristics and cognitive and behavioural aspects, using the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, was measured. In bulimics, positive correlations were found between novelty seeking on the one hand and external and emotional eating and bulimia on the other. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant correlation between novelty seeking and body dissatisfaction in bulimics. The significant difference between the restricting and purging type of anorexics regarding self-directedness, and restrained and emotional eating and drive for thinness corresponded with the significant negative correlation between these characteristics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with dental anxiety

    Maud Bergdahl
    The aim of the present study was to investigate character and temperament dimensions of personality in six men and 31 women (aged 20,57 yr) with severe dental anxiety, and to evaluate whether these dimensions were associated with the level of dental anxiety. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were used. High ratings in novelty seeking and female gender predicted high DAS scores. Compared with controls, the patients scored significantly higher on the temperament dimension, novelty seeking. For character dimensions, the patients scored lower on cooperativeness and higher on self-transcendence than controls. Our results indicated that patients with dental anxiety are neurotic extravert (i.e. novelty seekers who experience brief dissociative periods and magical thinking). Furthermore, the combination of the inherited temperament dimension novelty seeking and the social learned character dimension cooperativeness and self-transcendence seem to form a vulnerable personality to develop dental anxiety. [source]

    The listener's temperament and perceived tempo and loudness of music

    Joanna Kantor-MartynuskaArticle first published online: 8 JUL 200
    Abstract The relationship between the listener's temperament and perceived magnitude of tempo and loudness of music was studied using the techniques of magnitude production, magnitude estimation scaling and cross-modal matching. Four piano pieces were presented at several levels of tempo and loudness. In Study 1, participants adjusted tempo and loudness of music to their subjective level of comfort. In Study 2, participants estimated these parameters on a numerical scale and matched the length of a line segment to the estimates of these musical features. The results showed significant correlations of selected aspects of perceived tempo with perseveration and endurance as well as of selected aspects of perceived loudness with endurance and emotional reactivity. Perceived tempo and loudness, as measured by magnitude production and cross-modal matching tasks, do not seem to systematically correlate with the six formal characteristics of behaviour distinguished in the most recent version of the Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT). Additionally, there is some evidence that they are selectively associated with reactivity and activity, the dimensions of a previous version of the RTT. The study extends the methodology of research on music preferences and the stimulatory value of music. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Temperament and the Quality of Best Friendships: Effect of Same-Sex Sibling Relationships,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2002
    J. Kelly McCoy
    The authors examined whether early adolescents' sibling relationships ameliorate the effects of a difficult temperament on best friendships, exploring whether qualities of early adolescents' sibling relationships would moderate the link between temperamental difficulties and best friendship quality. Data were collected at two points. At first collection, parents provided temperament ratings for 73 later-born siblings (M= 7 years). Five years later, adolescents provided information about support and discord present in their best friendships and older siblings provided information about the warmth and conflict in their same-sex sibling dyads. The hypothesized moderating effect of the sibling relationship was found only for early adolescent girls. Support and discord in girls' best friendships was negatively and positively predicted, respectively, by level of temperamental difficulty only when relationships with their older sisters were lower in warmth or higher in conflict. Implications for understanding and improving early adolescents' closest friendships are discussed. [source]

    BDNF variability in opioid addicts and response to methadone treatment: preliminary findings

    R. De Cid
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways have been shown to be essential for opioid-induced plasticity. We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate BDNF variability in opioid addict responders and nonresponders to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We analyzed 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the BDNF genomic region. Responders and nonresponders were classified by means of illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. Patients were assessed by a structured interview (Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM)-DSM-IV) and personality was evaluated by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. No clinical, environmental and treatment characteristics were different between the groups, except for the Cooperativeness dimension (P < 0.001). Haplotype block analysis showed a low-frequency (2.7%) haplotype (13 SNPs) in block 1, which was more frequent in the nonresponder group than in the responder group (4/42 vs. 1/135; Pcorrected = 0.023). Fine mapping in block 1 allows us to identify a haplotype subset formed by only six SNPs (rs7127507, rs1967554, rs11030118, rs988748, rs2030324 and rs11030119) associated with differential response to MMT (global P sim = 0.011). Carriers of the CCGCCG haplotype had an increased risk of poorer response, even after adjusting for Cooperativeness score (OR = 20.25 95% CI 1.46,280.50, P = 0.025). These preliminary results might suggest the involvement of BDNF as a factor to be taken into account in the response to MMT independently of personality traits, environmental cues, methadone dosage and psychiatric comorbidity. [source]

    Cloninger's temperament dimensions and epidermal growth factor A61G polymorphism in Finnish adults

    L. Keltikangas-Järvinen
    This study examines a link between human temperament and epidermal growth factor (EGF). There is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system has a role in temperament, especially in novelty seeking. Functional polymorphism in EGF gene has an impact on EGF production, and EGF, in turn, appears to affect the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Epidermal growth factor gene A61G polymorphisms were studied in a randomly selected sample of 292 Finnish adults. Their temperaments were assessed twice (with a 4-year test,retest interval) with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory consisting of four dimensions, i.e. novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (P). The findings on men showed a significant association between a presence of the G/G polymorphism and scoring in the highest tertile on NS in both test and retest. The same was true with men who scored high on RD, especially on sensitivity, in both tests. Among women, G/G polymorphism was associated with a stable high level of P. Importantly, temperament dimensions, as assessed with one test only, did not provide replicable associations with EGF polymorphism across the two measurements. Our results demonstrate the importance of reliable phenotype assessment and lend support to the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity is one factor underlying stable temperament. [source]

    Child, Caregiver, and Temperament Contributions to Infant Joint Attention

    INFANCY, Issue 4 2003
    Amy Vaughan
    Little is known about variables that may contribute to individual differences in infant joint attention, or the coordination of visual attention with a social partner. Therefore, this study examined the contributions of caregiver behavior and temperament to infant joint attention development between 9 and 12 months. Data were collected from 57 infants using a caregiver,infant paradigm, an infant,tester paradigm, and a parent report of infant temperament. Nine-month measures of caregiver scaffolding and infant initiating joint attention (IJA) with testers were significantly related to 12-month infant IJA with testers. A temperament measure of positive emotional reactivity was related to 9-month IJA, and a measure of negative emotional reactivity was related to 12-month IJA. Temperament and caregiver scaffolding measures, however, were not associated with the development of infant responding to joint attention. These results further the understanding of the multiple processes that contribute to joint attention development in infancy, and support the hypothesis that initiating and responding measures tap different aspects of joint attention development. [source]

    Temperament at 7, 12, and 25 months in children at familial risk for ADHD

    Judith G. Auerbach
    Abstract As part of a longitudinal investigation of infants at familial risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mothers and fathers independently completed temperament ratings on their infants. In this paper, we examine the 7-, 12-, and 25-month temperament of 58 boys, 36 of whom were considered at familial risk for ADHD and 22 of whom were in the comparison group. Risk for ADHD was based on self-reported ADHD symptoms in the father. In addition, the influence of informant gender on temperament ratings was examined. The ADHD risk group received significantly higher scores for activity level and anger and lower scores for attentional shift, appropriate allocation of attention and inhibitory control. Their scores were also significantly lower on a composite measure of effortful control. Taken together, these findings offer support for the view of a link between early temperament and risk for ADHD. The only informant gender difference was for the activity level; mothers rated their sons as more active than did fathers. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Child temperament in three U.S. cultural groups,

    Marc H. Bornstein
    Temperament among children (N = 111 20-month-olds) from three cultural backgrounds in the United States (Latin American, Japanese American, and European American) was investigated. In accord with a biobehavioral universalist perspective on the expression of early temperament, few significant group differences in child temperament were found, regardless of cultural background; however, factors associated with maternal reports of child temperament differed by cultural group. The findings provide insight into the nature of child temperament generally and temperament of children in immigrant families specifically as well as parenting in immigrant families. [source]

    Personality traits after recovery from eating disorders: Do subtypes differ?

    Angela Wagner MD
    Abstract Objective: We compared individuals recovered from anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) to determine characteristics that are shared by or distinguish eating disorder (ED) subtypes. Method: Sixty women recovered for , 1 year from AN or BN were compared with 47 control women (CW). Assessments included the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Results: Individuals recovered from an ED had similar scores for mood and personality variables that were significantly higher than the scores for CW. Few recovered subjects had Cluster B personality disorder. Most individuals recovered within 6 years of their ED onset. A latent profile analysis identified an "inhibited" and "disinhibited" cluster based on personality traits. Conclusion: A wide range of symptoms persist after recovery and do not differ between subtypes of ED. These findings may aid in identifying traits that create vulnerabilities for developing an ED. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006. [source]

    Girls with anorexia nervosa as young adults: Personality, self-esteem, and life satisfaction

    Inger Halvorsen MD
    Abstract Objective: The current study evaluated personality, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in former patients with different outcomes of childhood and adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: Forty-four female patients with AN were assessed 8.5 ± SD 3.4 years after treatment start with a clinical interview and questionnaires including the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Self-esteem and general life satisfaction in former patients were compared with women in a large population study. Results: Former AN patients with no eating disorder and normal eating attitudes at follow-up (n = 21 [48%]) had similar TCI profiles and self-esteem as samples from normal populations, whereas participants with poorer outcome had significantly lower TCI Self Directedness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction scores. Life satisfaction was reduced in all outcome groups and was strongly associated with self-esteem. Conclusion: Personality, self-esteem, and life satisfaction varied significantly between outcome groups. The results indicate that young patients with AN with a good outcome may have normal personality and self-esteem features in young adulthood. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Int J Eat Disord, 2006 [source]

    Personality dimensions measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO-FFI on a Polish sample

    ajczyk, bieta Miko
    Abstract The results of two self-administered, paper-and-pencil tests based on biosocial theory of personality have been compared simultanously: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The stability of the personality dimensions was assessed across age, sex and education level samples in a group of 406 Polish adults with major mental diseases excluded by use of PRIME-MD questionnaire. Significant effects of age, sex, and education have been found while comparing personality dimensions in both temperamental (novelty seeking, NS; harm avoidance, HA; reward dependence, RD; persistence, P) and character scales (cooperativeness, C; self-transcendence, ST) in TCI. Among subscales of temperament only NS1, RD4 were stable according to concerning factors. All converted to their age and sex norms NEO-FFI dimensions were stable according to sex. Extraversion scale was changeable depending on age (p = 0.04). Neuroticism dimension was a little higher in lower educated group (p = 0.035). To sum up, it was concluded that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Polish version of TCI are necessary considering the established significant differences. Particular personality genetic studies should account for age, sex and also educational differences in their methods of associative studies. Conclusions: In the exploration of personality dimensions on healthy volunteers the Polish version of NEO-FFI corresponds better than TCI to theory of stability and genetic determinants of human personality. As the study included persons with excluded major mental diseases, the sample is appropriate to provide a control group in the reaserch of psychiatric patients using both TCI and NEO-FFI. Significant Outcomes: TCI scores for persons with excluded mental disease are highly changeable depending on age, sex and education. Adjusted to sex and age scores NEO-FFI corresponded better than TCI to stability and genetic determinants of human personality. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reliability and validity of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory

    Klaus Schmeck
    Abstract The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) was developed to assess the temperament (,novelty seeking', ,harm avoidance', ,reward dependence', ,persistence') and character (,self-directedness', ,cooperativeness', ,self-transcendence') dimensions of Cloninger's biosocial model of personality in children and adolescents. The psychometric properties of the JTCI are presented. We used the German version of JTCI in a clinical sample of 188 adolescent psychiatric patients (aged 12 to 18 years) and in a non-referred sample of 706 German adolescents of the same age range. Aspects of reliability and validity are discussed. We subjected the JTCI to confirmatory factor analysis and were able to replicate the temperament and character scales of the original TCI. The internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory with the exception of ,reward dependence' and ,persistence'. Construct validity was supported by good correspondence of JTCI dimensions with related constructs. Psychometric properties of the German version of JTCI are very promising. Results yield strong support for Cloninger's psychobiological theory. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Dental fear/anxiety and dental behaviour management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychological factors

    Objectives., The objectives of this article were to examine the literature published from 1982 to 2006 and to evaluate prevalence of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) and dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) in children and adolescents, and their relationships to age, sex, general anxiety, temperament, and general behavioural problems. Methods., A broad search of the PubMed database was performed using three combinations of search terms. Results., A large proportion of the identified articles could not be used for the review owing to inadequate endpoints, measures or poor study design. Thirty-two papers of acceptable quality were identified and reviewed. The prevalence of both DFA and DBMP were estimated to 9%, with a decrease in prevalence with age. DFA/DBMP were more frequent in girls. DFA/DBMP were related to general fear and both internalizing and externalizing behavioural problems, although these relationships were not clear-cut. Temperament was related to both DFA and DBMP but with different temperamental characteristics, while general behavioural problems mainly correlated with DBMP. Conclusions., DFA/DBMP are common, and several psychological factors are associated with the development of these problems. In order to better understand these relationships, a number of issues concerning design of research and measurement of DFA/DBMP have to be dealt with. [source]

    Predictors of gambling problems among male adolescents

    Arne Gerdner
    The study concerns prediction of gambling problems in 178 male adolescents (aged 16 and 18 years) who completed a questionnaire, which included the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a number of questions concerning social background, emotional and life-style factors. About 27% of the boys gamble at least weekly. As many as 16% qualify as probable pathological gamblers according to the SOGS. Another 7% are at risk. None of the social background factors are related to severity of gambling problems. The only significant family factor is parental substance misuse. The optimal multivariate model predicts about 30% of the variance in gambling problems. The strongest factor is frequency of alcohol drinking. Several factors indicate a personality with problems in relations to others. Another factor indicates a dreamy personality. Unexpectedly, impulsiveness is not related to gambling. In conclusion, problem gambling among male adolescents is related to life-style and personality, especially in relation to others, but not to usual social background factors. Gamblers are asocial rather than impulsive. The nature of this finding should be further explored, since an asocial personality may point at genetics as well as to early social influences, as may the finding on the relation between gambling and parental drinking. [source]

    Pain-Sensitive Temperament and Postoperative Pain

    Charmaine Kleiber
    PURPOSE.,To describe the relationship between pain-sensitive temperament and self-report of pain intensity following surgery. DESIGN AND METHODS.,Fifty-nine adolescents and young adults (average age 14 years) undergoing spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis completed the Sensitivity Temperament Inventory for Pain,Child version (STIP-C). The Pearson correlation between STIP-C scores and the highest pain intensity for each of the first three postoperative days was investigated. RESULTS.,There was a small but significant correlation between the Perceptual Sensitivity and Symptom Reporting subscales of the STIP-C and pain intensity measured on the third postoperative day. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,Aspects of the pain-sensitive temperament may be important in understanding the variability in postoperative pain. This is the first investigation of the relationship between pain-sensitive temperament and surgical pain. More research is needed in this area. [source]

    Planning a Temperament-Based Parenting Program for Inner-City Families

    Sandee McClowry PhD

    Temperament and character associated with depressive symptoms in women: analysis of two genetically informative samples,

    Jongil Yuh
    Abstract Although previous research has explored associations between personality and depressive symptoms, a limited number of studies have assessed the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association. This study investigated how temperament and character were associated with depressive symptoms in 131 pairs of twin and sibling women in early adulthood, as well as 326 pairs of twin women in middle adulthood. Results indicated that genetic influences accounted for a moderate to substantial percentage of the association between these personality features and depressive symptoms, emphasizing the role of genetic influences. Nonshared environmental influences made important contributions to the association between character and depressive symptoms, particularly in the sample of middle-aged twin women. These findings suggest that unique social experiences and relationships with a partner in adulthood may play an important role in these associations between character and depressive symptoms. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,19, 2009. [source]

    Temperament, character, and dissociation among detoxified male inpatients with alcohol dependency

    Cuneyt Evren
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships of pathological dissociation with temperament, character, and concurrent psychopathological features in a consecutive series of male alcohol-dependent patients. Fifty-eight patients with pathological dissociation were compared with 118 nondissociative patients classified by dissociative taxon membership. Beside higher scores on anxiety, depression, and alcoholism scales, a larger proportion of dissociative group reported childhood abuse, suicide attempts, and self-mutilation than did the nondissociative group. They also had higher scores of novelty seeking and harm avoidance, but lower scores of persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Trait anxiety, depression, and severity of alcoholism predicted dissociative experiences; however, none of the temperament or character measures did. Rather than being a derivative of temperament or character features, dissociative experiences of male alcohol-dependent patients are associated with overall concurrent psychopathology. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 64:717,727, 2008. [source]

    Study on the relations between temperament, aggression, and anger in children

    Miguel Ángel Carrasco Ortiz
    Abstract The present work analyzes the relationships between the dimensions of temperament and the exteriorized emotions of aggression and anger. Temperament was assessed by mothers using the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised, while aggression and anger were self-reported by the children using the Scale of physical and Verbal Aggression and the State,Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children. The sample studied was made up of 293 children (49.83% boys; 50.17% girls) with a mean age of 11.13 years. The results showed that temperamental difficulties give rise to exteriorized emotions, especially anger. Predictive values of temperament on aggression and anger ranged from 1% to 7% of explained variance. Aggr. Behav. 32:207,215, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Approach and Avoidance Temperament as Basic Dimensions of Personality

    Andrew J. Elliot
    ABSTRACT This research comprises 6 studies designed to examine approach and avoidance temperament as basic dimensions of personality. In Study 1, we developed direct measures of approach and avoidance temperament. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the approach and avoidance temperament variables are not epiphenomena of response biases. In Study 3, we documented the test-retest stability of the temperament variables. In Study 4, we documented that approach and avoidance temperament are separate from other like-valenced variables and may be construed as the core of these variables. In Study 5, we documented that approach and avoidance temperament are separate from chronic promotion and prevention foci. In Study 6, we distinguished the temperament variables from achievement goal variables and documented the temperament variables as antecedents of achievement goals and achievement goals as proximal predictors of performance. Approach and avoidance temperament are discussed as an ideal foundation for a strong, enduring structure of personality. [source]

    Predicting Depression From Temperament, Personality, and Patterns of Social Relations

    John F. Finch
    The present study used a levels-of-analysis perspective (McAdams, 1995) to link temperament to depression. We hypothesized a mediational role for three personality variables (Agreeableness, Extraversion Neuroticism) and two interpersonal variables (social support and negative social exchange) in channeling the effects of temperament. A structural equation modeling approach supported the hypothesis that these three personality variables were mediators of the link between temperament and depression. The patterns of mediation differed for Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. In addition to the three personality variables, social support and negative social exchange were also found to mediate the effects of temperament. There was no evidence that patterns of relations among the variables differed between males and females. Results are discussed in terms of a levels-of-analysis approach to the examination of the effects of temperament and personality on adaptation outcomes. [source]

    Temperament and character profile of patients with psoriasis


    Abstract Background, Psychosocial factors have been implicated as being important in the onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis.1 The aim of this study is to examine both the personality factors of patients with psoriasis and the correlations between temperament and character dimensions. Material and methods, A total number of 105 psoriasis patients and 109 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were administered individually. Both groups were evaluated in terms of depression, anxiety and characteristic features by using these psychological tests and compared statistically. The relationship between psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score and the BDI, BAI and TCI scales were also evaluated. Results, The mean BDI score of the psoriasis group were significantly higher than the control group. The psoriasis group had significantly higher scores of harm avoidance and lower scores of being self-directedness than the control group. The duration of psoriasis and the PASI scores were not correlated with BDI and BAI scores. Conclusion, The current study shows that psoriasis patients have distinctive temperament and character dimensions when compared with the control group. We suggest that evaluation and treatment of psoriasis should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. [source]

    A four-fold humanity: Margaret Mead and psychological types

    Gerald SullivanArticle first published online: 19 MAR 200
    Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    "Arapesh Warfare": Reo Fortune's Veiled Critique of Margaret Mead's Sex and Temperament

    Lise M. Dobrin
    ABSTRACT, In Sex and Temperament (1935), Margaret Mead depicted the Mountain Arapesh as a nurturing, peace-loving people. But Mead's second husband and fieldwork partner, Reo Fortune, disagreed with this in a 1939 article, "Arapesh Warfare," which presented evidence that before pacification Arapesh society countenanced warfare. Here we show that "Arapesh Warfare" also contains a submerged argument against Mead's personal integrity and ethnographic authority. Sex and Temperament had its own personal subtext, and Fortune responded to it by mobilizing rhetorical strategies drawn from an Arapesh framework of speaking. Our analysis provides insight into Fortune's position in an anthropological disagreement that has been seen primarily from Mead's perspective,when it has been seen at all. Fortune's peculiar approach also speaks to a limitation on reflexivity in anthropology: the illegitimacy of criticizing personal motives in cases of ethnographic dispute, although we know scholarly works are always suffused with their authors' personal histories and perspectives. [source]

    The influence of temperament on the development of coping: The role of maturation and experience

    M. Rosario Rueda
    Temperament refers to individual differences in two broad aspects of behavior: (1) emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and (2) self-regulatory processes that modulate such reactivity. These individual differences are grounded in people's constitution and influence both stress reactions and patterns of coping. In this chapter, we examine how individual differences in temperament are conceptually linked to the development of coping and how this association is modulated by the maturation of brain systems underlying temperament. Finally, we argue about the possibility of improving children's coping abilities through intervention programs designed to foster self-regulation. [source]

    No association between polymorphism in tyrosine hydroxylase and personality traits in healthy Japanese subjects

    Shoko Tsuchimine MSc
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is an association between the (TCAT)n repeat polymorphism in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and personality. The (TCAT)n repeat polymorphism in the TH gene was genotyped in 898 healthy Japanese subjects. Personality traits were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). There was no significant difference in the TCI scores of subjects with and without the T9 allele. Furthermore, no significant association was found between each genotype and the TCI scores, even when the TCI scores were compared with the homozygous genotype. These findings suggest that the (TCAT)n repeat polymorphism in the TH gene does not contribute to the personality traits evaluated on the TCI in healthy Japanese subjects. [source]

    Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: Comparison study of eating disorder subgroups

    Isabel Krug phd
    Aim:, To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa,restrictive; anorexia nervosa,binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). Method:, A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory,Revised. Results:, Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa,restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa,binge eating/ purging patients (P < 0.01). For family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P < 0.001). But family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Conclusion:, Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over. [source]