Teaching Strategies (teaching + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Going Public: Teaching Students to Speak Out in Public Contexts

Judith Baxter
Abstract Many students find speaking in large group, whole class or ,public' contexts intimidating. Over the last 30 years, a model of collaborative talk in small groups has been favoured within English teaching in British education but, with the new generation of GCSE syllabuses, students are required to speak effectively to larger audiences. This article explores what constitutes an effective ,public' speaker at GCSE level, and suggests various teaching strategies as starting points. [source]

Boys' Lack of Interest in Fine Arts in a Coeducational Setting: A Review of Sex-Related Cognitive Traits Studies

Alain Savoie
Fine arts teachers' concerns about male underachievement in a Quebec coeducational high school, and a related survey showing boys' negative perceptions of fine arts motivated this interdisciplinary literature review. Referring to biology and cognitive science, the article explores concepts of sex-related cognitive traits to help in designing sex-adapted approaches to individual learning in art education. The nature-nurture controversy still surrounds sex-based cognitive differences studies, though science agrees that natural and socio-cultural factors are somehow closely interwoven in the complex gender identity construction process. Sex-related biological predispositions influencing cognition are proposed notably in ,instrumentality-expressiveness' and ,empathising-systemising (E-S)' theories. The article suggests that in the context of art education, these sex-related cognitive models deserve study, because they could initiate sex-adapted teaching strategies with the necessary flexibility and wider scope to overcome gender-stereotyped biases and stimulate boys' interest in the arts. This suggested approach should not be confused with stereotype-based pedagogy, which merely strengthens learned gender characteristics, producing or maintaining academic underachievement. [source]

A clinical teaching guide for psychiatric mental health nursing: a qualitative outcome analysis project

S. Melrose phdrn
Limited curriculum enhancement resources are available to psychiatric nurse educators. This article provides a clinical teaching guide for novice instructors teaching an introductory psychiatric nursing course. The investigation is grounded in a constructivist theoretical framework and extends a previous case study project that explored how students learn during a mental health practicum (Melrose 1998, Melrose & Shapiro 1999). The guide was tested and modified by applying a qualitative outcome analysis methodology. Insight into interpreting student behaviour and providing appropriate and stage-specific teaching tools is revealed. Theoretical components, assessment questions for teachers, student behavioural signs and teaching strategies are identified and discussed to describe significant features in creating personally meaningful learning experiences. [source]

The relative effects and equity of inquiry-based and commonplace science teaching on students' knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation

Christopher D. Wilson
Abstract We conducted a laboratory-based randomized control study to examine the effectiveness of inquiry-based instruction. We also disaggregated the data by student demographic variables to examine if inquiry can provide equitable opportunities to learn. Fifty-eight students aged 14,16 years old were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups of students were taught toward the same learning goals by the same teacher, with one group being taught from inquiry-based materials organized around the BSCS 5E Instructional Model, and the other from materials organized around commonplace teaching strategies as defined by national teacher survey data. Students in the inquiry-based group reached significantly higher levels of achievement than students experiencing commonplace instruction. This effect was consistent across a range of learning goals (knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation) and time frames (immediately following the instruction and 4 weeks later). The commonplace science instruction resulted in a detectable achievement gap by race, whereas the inquiry-based materials instruction did not. We discuss the implications of these findings for the body of evidence on the effectiveness of teaching science as inquiry; the role of instructional models and curriculum materials in science teaching; addressing achievement gaps; and the competing demands of reform and accountability. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47:276,301, 2010 [source]

National Board Certification (NBC) as a catalyst for teachers' learning about teaching: The effects of the NBC process on candidate teachers' PCK development

Soonhye Park
Abstract This study examined how the National Board Certification (NBC) process, especially the portfolio creation, influenced candidate teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In a larger sense, this study aimed to construct a better understanding of how teachers develop PCK and to establish ecological validity of the National Board assessments. Qualitative research methods, most notably case study, were utilized. Participants were three high school science teachers who were going thorough the NBC process. Data sources included classroom observations, interviews, teachers' reflections, and researcher's field notes. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and enumerative approach. Findings indicated that the NBC process affected five aspects of the candidate teachers' instructional practices that were closely related to PCK development: (a) reflection on teaching practices, (b) implementation of new and/or innovative teaching strategies, (c) inquiry-oriented instruction, (d) assessments of students' learning, and (e) understanding of students. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 812,834, 2008 [source]

A meta-analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States

Carolyn M. Schroeder
This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. The six phases of the project included study acquisition, study coding, determination of intercoder objectivity, establishing criteria for inclusion of studies, computation of effect sizes for statistical analysis, and conducting the analyses. Studies were required to have been carried out in the United States, been experimental or quasi-experimental, and must have included effect size or the statistics necessary to calculate effect size. Sixty-one studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The following eight categories of teaching strategies were revealed during analysis of the studies (effect sizes in parentheses): Questioning Strategies (0.74); Manipulation Strategies (0.57); Enhanced Material Strategies (0.29); Assessment Strategies (0.51); Inquiry Strategies (0.65); Enhanced Context Strategies (1.48); Instructional Technology (IT) Strategies (0.48); and Collaborative Learning Strategies (0.95). All these effect sizes were judged to be significant. Regression analysis revealed that internal validity was influenced by Publication Type, Type of Study, and Test Type. External validity was not influenced by Publication Year, Grade Level, Test Content, or Treatment Categories. The major implication of this research is that we have generated empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of alternative teaching strategies in science. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 1436,1460, 2007 [source]

Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work

R. Taconis
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to positive effects unless combined with other variables, such as guidelines and feedback. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 442,468, 2001 [source]

Does teacher thinking match teaching practice?

A study of basic science teachers
Objective, To obtain an understanding of basic science medical teachers' conceptions of learning and their ideas for facilitation of learning. Methods, Teaching staff at a biomedical centre (n = 62) were asked to describe their definitions of learning, their suggestions for how to solve an applied educational problem and their intended activities when teaching students. The research was carried out using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended and fixed-choice questions. Results, Although 1 in 4 teachers endorsed constructivist conceptions of learning, only 1 in 8 actually reported using activating teaching strategies. Conceptions of learning did not co-vary with teaching practice. Conclusions, The assumption that conceptions of learning and teaching practice are aligned was challenged. The current questionnaire could be used as an intervention tool for educational development to map whether or not there is a match between teachers' conceptions and their practice. [source]

Competence in the musculoskeletal system: assessing the progression of knowledge through an undergraduate medical course

Subhashis Basu
Background, Professional bodies have expressed concerns that medical students lack appropriate knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine despite its high prevalence of use within the community. Changes in curriculum and teaching strategies may be contributing factors to this. There is little evidence to evaluate the degree to which these concerns are justified. Objectives, To design and evaluate an assessment procedure that tests the progress of medical students in achieving a core level of knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine during the course. Participants and Setting, A stratified sample of 136 volunteer students from all 5 years of the medical course at Sheffield University. Methods, The progress test concept was adapted to provide a cross-sectional view of student knowledge gain during each year of the course. A test was devised which aimed to provide an assessment of competence set at the standard required of the newly qualified doctor in understanding basic and clinical sciences relevant to musculoskeletal medicine. The test was blueprinted against internal and external guidelines. It comprised 40 multiple-choice and extended matching questions administered by computer. Six musculoskeletal practitioners set the standard using a modified Angoff procedure. Results, Test reliability was 0.6 (Cronbach's ,). Mean scores of students increased from 41% in Year 1 to 84% by the final year. Data suggest that, from a baseline score in Year 1, there is a disparate experience of learning in Year 2 that evens out in Year 3, with knowledge progression becoming more consistent thereafter. All final year participants scored above the standard predicted by the Angoff procedure. Conclusions, This short computer-based test was a feasible method of estimating student knowledge acquisition in musculoskeletal medicine across the undergraduate curriculum. Tested students appear to have acquired a satisfactory knowledge base by the end of the course. Knowledge gain seemed relatively independent of specialty-specific clinical training. Proposals from specialty bodies to include long periods of disciplinary teaching may be unnecessary. [source]

Teaching and learning in the clinical setting: a qualitative study of the perceptions of students and teachers

Patsy Stark
Objective, To describe the perceptions of medical students and clinical teachers of teaching and learning in the clinical setting. Design, Qualitative study of focus groups with undergraduate medical students and semistructured interviews with hospital consultant clinical teachers. Setting, The School of Medicine, University of Leeds and the Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, UK. Participants, Fourth year medical students and consultant clinical teachers. Main outcome measures, Analysis of narratives to identify students' perceptions of clinical teaching and consultants' views of their delivery of undergraduate clinical teaching. Results, Students believed in the importance of consultant teaching and saw consultants as role models. However, they perceived variability in the quality and reliability of teaching between physicians and surgeons. Some traditional teaching venues, especially theatre, are believed to be of little clinical importance. Generally, consultants enjoyed teaching but felt under severe pressure from other commitments. They taught in a range of settings and used various teaching strategies, not all of which were perceived to be ,teaching' by students. Conclusions, While students and teachers are educational partners, they are not always in agreement about the quality, quantity, style or appropriate setting of clinical teaching. To enable teachers to provide more high quality teaching, there needs to be support, opportunities and incentives to understand curricular developments and acquire teaching skills. [source]

The Transition From Classroom to Online Teaching

NURSING FORUM, Issue 3 2002
Norma Cuellar
TOPIC.Online teaching. PURPOSE. To describe the pedagogical transition that needs to be considered before putting a class online. SOURCES.Published literature. CONCLUSIONS.Advances in technology will continue to alter teaching strategies. The changing paradigm of online education needs further research to advance the science of nursing education. [source]

The Use of Simulation in the Development of Individual Cognitive Expertise in Emergency Medicine

William Bond MD
Abstract This consensus group from the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare: Defining and Developing Clinical Expertise," held in Washington, DC, May 28, 2008, focused on the use of simulation for the development of individual expertise in emergency medicine (EM). Methodologically sound qualitative and quantitative research will be needed to illuminate, refine, and test hypotheses in this area. The discussion focused around six primary topics: the use of simulation to study the behavior of experts, improving the overall competence of clinicians in the shortest time possible, optimizing teaching strategies within the simulation environment, using simulation to diagnose and remediate performance problems, and transferring learning to the real-world environment. Continued collaboration between academic communities that include medicine, cognitive psychology, and education will be required to answer these questions. [source]

Interactive reflection as a creative teaching strategy

Allison Patten McGuire
The purpose of this article is to present interactive reflection as a creative teaching strategy and demonstrate its role in teaching conflict resolution. The article discusses examples of interactive reflection in action and identifies potential barriers or roadblocks to using such a strategy. [source]

Modifying First-Year Textbook Dialogues along a Hymesian Model of Meaning: A Theory of In-Depth Language Processing for the L2 Classroom

Lana Rings
Speakers' "scripts" (established patterns of discourse) and "world" knowlege (the often culture-specific understanding of verbal and nonverbal constructs) are important features of any meaningful exchange of discourse. This article contends that foreign language learners will produce a higher level of language if they are made aware of , and given the opportunity to manipulate , such extralinguistic variables with regard to the texts they study. Whenever possible, teaching materials (e.g., textbook dialogues, autotaped or videotaped texts) should include the context-based information necessary for higher-level language processing. The author also describes a "stop-gap" teaching strategy by which students imagine and describe the full import of "decontextualized" examples of the foreign language. Finally, a tentative model for research on context-based language learning is presented. [source]

Relationship between the curriculum system and the understanding of nutritional terms in elementary school children

Yoko Suzuki
Abstract To clarify the relation between the curriculum system and the understanding of nutrition terms, 944 students aged 8,12 years living in Japan, the USA and the UK, were asked about the recognition, medium for recognition, and understanding of nutrition terms. The effect of nutrition education from an early stage in elementary schools in the UK and the USA was confirmed. These results suggest the possibility of beginning nutrition education earlier in the elementary school in Japan. American students had paid attention to food labels. These results showed that a learning and teaching strategy founded on comprehensively based subjects in the USA had influenced good behaviour for dietary life. On the other hand, there was not a relationship between an understanding of nutrition terms and a developmental stage. Many students in three countries were influenced by television commercials to buy candy or soda. We think that it is important to develop a curriculum that includes practical learning and ensures hours of teaching for the purpose of acquirement of nutritional knowledge. It is also necessary to encourage critical thinking skills to evaluate television commercial messages through school lessons. [source]

An Educational Strategy for Teaching Standardized Nursing Languages

Arlene T. Farren RN, CTN-A
PURPOSE., The aim of this paper is to describe an educational strategy for teaching standardized nursing languages (SNL) used in both the classroom and clinical components of a psychiatric,mental health nursing course at the associate degree level. DATA SOURCES., Data included a review of the relevant literature, teaching experiences, and faculty and student experiences. DATA SYNTHESIS., Enhancing associate degree student nurses' competency regarding diagnosis and interventions is essential to influence positive health outcomes. Use of diagnostic, outcome, and intervention classifications for learning nursing care promotes critical thinking, individualization of nursing care, and students' fluency with SNL. One possible teaching strategy to assist students to learn and use SNL was implemented through the use of a faculty-developed Student Nurse Documentation Packet. CONCLUSIONS., The educational strategy provided students opportunities to enhance their experience with the SNL to plan and document care of individuals experiencing psychiatric,mental health problems. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING., The educational strategy used in this program was judged to be successful. Research is needed to provide empirical evidence of the efficacy of this pedagogical strategy for increasing knowledge and enhancing students' competency. [source]

Evidence-based practice-focused interactive teaching strategy: a controlled study

Son C. Kim
Abstract Title.,Evidence-based practice-focused interactive teaching strategy: a controlled study. Aim., This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the evidence-based practice (EBP)-focused interactive teaching (E-FIT) strategy. Background., Although EBP is a mandatory competency for all healthcare professionals, little is known about the effectiveness of E-FIT in nursing. Methods., A quasi-experimental, controlled, pre- and post-test study involving senior, 4th-year nursing students (N = 208) at two nursing schools in the USA was carried out from August 2007 to May 2008. The experimental group (n = 88) received the E-FIT strategy intervention and the control group (n = 120) received standard teaching. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire for Evidence-Based Practice was used to assess the effectiveness of the E-FIT strategy. Results., Independent t -tests showed that the experimental group had statistically significant higher post-test Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge (mean difference = 0·25; P = 0·001) and Evidence-Based Practice Use (mean difference = 0·26; P = 0·015) subscale scores compared to the control group, but showed no statistically significant differences in Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Practice and Future Use of Evidence-Based Practice (mean difference = ,0·12; P = 0·398 and mean difference = 0·13; P = 0·255 respectively). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of the post-test data indicated that the intervention explained 7·6% and 5·1% of variance in Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge and Evidence-Based Practice Use respectively. Conclusion., The EBP-focused interactive teaching strategy was effective in improving the knowledge and use of EBP among nursing students but not attitudes toward or future use of EBP. [source]

Factors that prevent learning in electrochemistry

Hans-Jürgen Schmidt
Electrochemistry plays an important role in curricula, textbooks, and in everyday life. The purpose of the present study was to identify and understand secondary-school students' problems in learning electrochemistry at an introductory chemistry level. The investigation covered four areas: (a) electrolytes, (b) transport of electric charges in electrolyte solutions, (c) the anode and the cathode, and (d) the minus and plus poles. Written tests were given to high-school students in five cycles. The population from which random samples were drawn totalled 15,700 subjects. Students were asked to select the correct answers and to justify their choices. It was found that students based their reasoning on four alternative concepts: (a) During electrolysis, the electric current produces ions; (b) electrons migrate through the solution from one electrode to the other; (c) the cathode is always the minus pole, the anode the plus pole; and (d) the plus and minus poles carry charges. The results suggest a teaching strategy in which students first experience and learn about electrochemistry concepts. In the second step, appropriate concept terms are added, and students then are confronted with the alternative concepts described in this article. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 258,283, 2007 [source]

Schooling as a Knowledge System: Lessons from Cramim Experimental School

David Chen
This article describes an experiment utilizing a research and development strategy to design and implement an innovative school for the future. The development of Cramim Elementary School was a joint effort of researchers from Tel-Aviv University and the staff of the school. The design stage involved constructing a new theoretical framework that defined school as a knowledge system, based on the state of the art, interdisciplinary study of the nature of humans, and the nature of knowledge. A new school design emerged based on this theoretical framework and the school was opened in 1995. Action research followed for 8 years and the results indicated that the school has emerged as a learning organization and successfully integrated knowledge technologies into the learning processes of both students and teachers. Differentiated teaching strategy resulted in a significant increase in achievements (+11% in maths, literacy, and science; +10% in literacy in kindergarten; persistence of higher achievement in junior high schools). The greatest beneficiaries were low-achieving students. As the school is a highly complex system, individual variables contributing to the increased effectiveness could not be isolated. The article's conclusion is that experimental schools are a productive strategy to bring about changes, but unless these schools are part and parcel of the culture of the mainstream education system culture, they are destined to remain isolated cases. [source]

E-learning: Is This Teaching at Students or Teaching With Students?

NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2007
Robert John Muirhead BN
The development of e-learning as a teaching strategy in higher education has implications relating to student learning, the role of the teacher, and the institution of higher education. This paper debates the andragogical and pedagogical theories that support the development of e-learning to date. Leading to a discussion on how the process of e-learning may be contributing to the "stamp-me-smart" culture and restricting the development of critical thinking within student nurses. Concluding that e-learning has a top-down institution-led development that is contrary to the student-led development espoused by universities. [source]

Australian food regulations public consultation process: Teaching postgraduate dietetics students to participate

Shawn Somerset
Abstract Objective:, To assess a teaching strategy to develop competency, familiarity and willingness of dietetic students to participate in food regulation development. Design:, Qualitative evaluation of self-perceived learning outcomes. Subjects/Setting:, Two consecutive cohorts (n = 39) of postgraduate dietetics students from Griffith University. Intervention:, Preparation and presentation of a formal response to a call for comment by Australia's food regulatory body (Food Standards Australia New Zealand) during the period 1999,2001. Main outcome measures:, Self-reported descriptions of confidence, familiarity and willingness to participate in the public consultation process. Results:, Following the assignment, students generally reported being more familiar with the regulatory process and more confident to participate. Most students identified the importance of reference material on Food Standards Australia New Zealand procedures that they could use for review should the opportunity for participation arise at a later date. A major issue identified was the potential for cynicism towards the process. This issue was seen as a potential barrier to participation by students after graduation. Applications/Conclusions:, This issues-based approach to teaching of a food regulation system has potential to enhance participation in regulatory development by a broader cross-section of dietitians. [source]

Assessment of online continuing dental education in North Carolina

Ms. Bonnie Francis RDH
Abstract Background: Dental professionals are discovering the unique advantages of asynchronous lifelong learning through continuing dental education (CDE) opportunities offered online. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the process and outcomes of online CDE in North Carolina. The assessment was designed to provide a better understanding of practicing dental professionals experiences with online CDE and to determine the effectiveness of this learning strategy. Methods: Dental professionals from four North Carolina Area Health Education Centers regions evaluated two pilot online CDE modules in 1998. Thirty-one participants were recruited and subsequently enrolled with 23 completing at least one module. Each module included objectives, a multiple-choice pretest, interactive core material, and a post-test. Participants completed three online surveys measuring individual demographics and computer skill level, module design, and use and overall reaction to online learning. Results: Most participants agreed that the modules were comprehensive, were pleasing in appearance, provided clear instructions, provided adequate feedback, and were easy to navigate. Most participants agreed that knowledge of the material increased. This was validated by a significant increase in mean pre- to post-test scores (p =.0001). Participants agreed that convenience was a definite advantage, and they would choose online courses again to meet their CDE needs. The least-liked aspects included technical and formatting issues. Implications: Participants were enthusiastic about online learning and learned effectively with this teaching strategy, but desired much more interactivity than existed in the current design. [source]

Medical and midwifery students: how do they view their respective roles on the labour ward?

Julie A Quinlivan
ABSTRACT Background It has been suggested that much of the medical and midwifery student curricula on normal pregnancy and birth could be taught as a co-operative effort between obstetric and midwifery staff. One important element of a successful combined teaching strategy would involve a determination of the extent to which the students themselves identify common learning objectives. Aim The aim of the present study was to survey medical and midwifery students about how they perceived their respective learning roles on the delivery suite. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey study was undertaken. The study venue was an Australian teaching and tertiary referral hospital in obstetrics and gynaecology. Survey participants were medical students who had just completed a 10 week clinical attachment in obstetrics and gynaecology during the 5th year of a six year undergraduate medical curriculum and midwifery students undertaking a one year full-time (or two year part-time) postgraduate diploma in midwifery. Results Of 130 and 52 questionnaires distributed to medical and midwifery students, response rates of 72% and 52% were achieved respectively. The key finding was that students reported a lesser role for their professional colleagues than they identified for themselves. Some medical students lacked an understanding of the role of midwives as 8%, 10%, and 23% did not feel that student midwives should observe or perform a normal birth or neonatal assessment respectively. Of equal concern, 7%, 22%, 26% and 85% of student midwives did not identify a role for medical students to observe or perform a normal birth, neonatal assessment or provide advice on breastfeeding respectively. Summary Medical and midwifery students are placed in a competitive framework and some students may not understand the complementary role of their future colleagues. Interdisciplinary teaching may facilitate co-operation between the professions and improve working relationships. [source]