Teaching Practices (teaching + practice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Conceptualizing Teaching as Science: John Dewey in Dialogue with the National Research Council

Greg Seals
John Dewey and the National Research Council (NRC) both discuss the problem of translating scientific research into contexts of schooling, but differ about the proper solution to the problem. The NRC would solve it by empirical investigation. Dewey finds value in that approach, but also wants educational theorists to construct general heuristics to guide scientists in creating research agendas of intrinsic interest to education practitioners. Dewey's plan faces an apparently insurmountable difficulty. General heuristics of the sort Dewey needs are not widely recognized to exist. In light of the presumed fact of education's inability to articulate a general framework to guide teaching practice, the NRC plan becomes preferred by default. I propose that Experience and Education provides a frame of reference from which pedagogical practice appears as a field of scientific endeavor in its own right. Conceptualizing teaching as a science suggests ways to rework the NRC plan. [source]

The practitioner perspective on the modeling of pedagogy and practice

S. De Freitas
Abstract The promotion of e-learning in policies internationally has led to questions about how best to employ technology in support of learning. A range of models has since been developed that attempts to relate pedagogy to technology. However, research into the effectiveness of such models in changing teaching practice is sparse, and work that compares these models to practitioners' own representations of their practice is absent. The study described here involved asking practitioners to model their own practice, and to compare these with a model developed by a government organization. Practitioners were adept at using existing models and repurposing them to suit their own context. Our research provided evidence of broad acceptance of the existing model with practitioners, but indicated that practitioners would take this tool and remodel it for their own contexts of learning to make it meaningful, relevant and useful to them. [source]

Using Qualitative Research Methods to Ascertain Elementary Students' Understandings of Food Safety

C.J. Trexler
ABSTRACT: Researchers and educators call for educational programs that teach youth about food safety. In this study, researchers used qualitative research methods (interviews and concept mapping) to ascertain elementary students' understandings of food spoilage and preservation benchmarks based on national science education standards. Constructivist learning theory and its attendant qualitative methods framed the study. Few students understood the causes of spoilage and most were unable to discuss the role of bacteria or germs in meat. Students with an understanding of microorganisms clearly explained methods of preventing spoilage, while students who did not understand the microorganism concept could not. Constructivist research methods were fruitful in unearthing students' conceptions related to food spoilage. This research has implications for university food science faculty members interested in strengthening their teaching practice by focusing on helping students develop conceptual understanding. [source]

Fostering a community of practice through a professional development program to improve elementary teachers' views of nature of science and teaching practice

Valarie L. Akerson
Abstract This study explored the development of a community of learners through a professional development program to improve teachers' views of nature of science (NOS) and teaching practice. The Views of Nature of Science questionnaire and interviews were used to assess teachers' conceptions of NOS three times over the course of the study. Notes and videotapes taken during workshops and classroom observations were used to track influence of the community of learners on classroom practice. The community of practice (CoP) was fostered through an intensive summer workshop, monthly school site workshops, and classroom support to aid teachers in incorporating new techniques and reflecting upon their learning and practice. We found that teachers became aware of their changes in views about NOS once they struggled with the concepts in their own teaching and discussed their struggles within the professional development community. The CoP on its own was not sufficient to change teacher's practice or knowledge, but it created a well-supported environment that facilitated teacher change when paired with NOS modeling and explicit reflection. Cases of three teachers are used to illustrate changes in views and teaching practice common to the teachers in this study. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 46: 1090,1113, 2009 [source]

Data-Driven Learning: Taking the Computer Out of the Equation

Alex Boulton
Despite considerable research interest, data-driven learning (DDL) has not become part of mainstream teaching practice. It may be that technical aspects are too daunting for teachers and students, but there seems to be no reason why DDL in its early stages should not eliminate the computer from the equation by using prepared materials on paper,considerably easier for the novice learner to handle. This article reports on an experiment to see how lower level learners cope with such paper-based corpus materials and a DDL approach compared to more traditional teaching materials and practices. Pretests and posttests show that both are effective compared to control items, with the DDL items showing the greatest improvement, and questionnaire responses are more favorable to the DDL activities. The results are argued to show that printed materials can counter a number of potential barriers and may thus enable DDL to reach a wider audience. [source]

Does teacher thinking match teaching practice?

A study of basic science teachers
Objective, To obtain an understanding of basic science medical teachers' conceptions of learning and their ideas for facilitation of learning. Methods, Teaching staff at a biomedical centre (n = 62) were asked to describe their definitions of learning, their suggestions for how to solve an applied educational problem and their intended activities when teaching students. The research was carried out using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended and fixed-choice questions. Results, Although 1 in 4 teachers endorsed constructivist conceptions of learning, only 1 in 8 actually reported using activating teaching strategies. Conceptions of learning did not co-vary with teaching practice. Conclusions, The assumption that conceptions of learning and teaching practice are aligned was challenged. The current questionnaire could be used as an intervention tool for educational development to map whether or not there is a match between teachers' conceptions and their practice. [source]

Participants' opinions on the usefulness of a teaching portfolio

Dineke E H Tigelaar
Background, Whether teaching portfolios achieve their aim of stimulating teachers' professional development is favourably affected by the incorporation of a balanced structure and effective social interactions, such as coaching. We explored teachers' experiences with a teaching portfolio that was structured by teaching roles, portfolio assignments and conversation protocols. The related social interactions consisted of meetings with peers and personal coaches. Teachers' and coaches' opinions were sought about the benefits and the enabling and disabling factors of the portfolio structure and the social interactions involved. Method, Five teachers and their personal coaches were individually interviewed about their experiences with the portfolio. Protocols were analysed using a top-down strategy. Results, The teaching roles were helpful in analysing teaching, but the assignments and the conversation protocols were too detailed and directive. The social interactions were perceived as very valuable for professional development, particularly the meetings with personal coaches. Conclusions, The portfolio structure and social interactions, especially personal coaching, appeared to be helpful for teachers in analysing their teaching practice. The assignments and protocols, however, were too detailed and directive. This may be resolved by using assignments and conversation protocols more flexibly and enabling adjustment to personal learning needs. The high appreciation of personal coaching might be related to the freedom for teachers to choose their own coach. The results can be used by portfolio designers as guidelines for how to achieve a balanced structure and effective social interactions and how these might be combined to increase the benefits of working with a portfolio to teachers. [source]

Creating a Culturally Responsive Learning Environment for African American Students

Mary F. Howard-Hamilton
This chapter explores the creation of a culturally responsive learning environment for students and faculty. How African American and white students as well as faculty develop a strong identity and healthy interpersonal relationships is translated into teaching practice. [source]

SLOODLE: Connecting VLE tools with emergent teaching practice in Second Life

Jeremy W. Kemp
First page of article [source]

Being a Good Teacher of Black Students?

Unintentional Racism, White Teachers
ABSTRACT This ethnographic study describes the roles adopted by four White teachers in the United States during and after they participated in a seminar on teaching antiracism with colleagues at the Woodson Elementary School, the only African American neighborhood school in a small Midwestern city. Each of these teachers self-identified as a good teacher and identified a central metaphor by which she understood her role as a teacher of Black students. By examining the roles and related practices of these teachers, I highlight the disconnect between what researchers have identified as good practices for teaching students of color and how these teachers understand themselves as good teachers. I describe how the roles that each of these four teachers adopted relate to the perpetuation of Whiteness and how such a relation is embedded in their everyday teaching practices and might function to sustain racist practice and ideology in the schooling of students of color. Findings suggest that the ways that these teachers understood their roles as teachers of Black students are intimately linked to how closely their practice represented what is known as culturally relevant pedagogy. [source]

A pilot study of the use and perceived utility of a scale to assess clinical dental teaching within a UK dental school restorative department

S. Woolley
Abstract Introduction:, Feedback on individual teaching performance gives an important contribution and support to the reflective practices of educators. Unfortunately, feedback is an infrequent exercise provided to dental teachers about their teaching practices. The Effective Clinical Dental Teaching (ECDT) scale has been used previously to assess clinical teachers, but has not been used within the UK. Methods:, This study looks at the use of the ECDT scale in the setting of a UK dental school, as a method of feedback collection and delivery in seven domains of clinical teaching. The ECDT was used to evaluate the teaching of 16 clinical teachers by dental undergraduates, and to investigate the opinions of these clinical teachers and clinical dental students about the utility of this scale. Results:, The study identified that there was a disparity between self and student perception of teaching. The total ECDT scores ranged from a minimum of 55% 66.6/125 to a maximum of 90% 113.8/125, with a mean group score of 73% 91.6/125. Most clinicians evaluated by students scored above 3/5 for all teaching domains, although there appeared to be significant differences between the four teacher groups. The majority of staff and students were in favour of the use of such a scale to support the progression and development of teaching styles. Conclusion:, The ECDT scale is a useful tool for highlighting the areas of strength and deficiency within clinical dental teaching. Its use may complement peer review for individual teachers and identify future topics for staff development sessions. Further research is recommended to identify the individual strengths and weaknesses that different types of teacher may bring to curriculum teaching. [source]

Peer observation of teaching in the online environment: an action research approach

D. Swinglehurst
Abstract This paper describes a collaborative action research approach used to explore peer observation of teaching (POT) within the online environment. Although POT has become familiar in face-to-face teaching contexts, little is understood of its potential role in online settings. We conducted ,virtual' focus groups to explore the experience and views of 28 teachers and subjected our data to a thematic analysis. This informed the implementation of an innovative programme of POT, ,Peer-to-peer Reflection on Pedagogical Practice' (PROPP) among tutors of a Web-based MSc in International Primary Health Care at University College London. Modeled on an action learning set, the programme encourages collaborative reflection on teaching practices, based on participants' specific examples of online teaching. The PROPP model is consistent with Quality Enhancement, which we distinguish from Quality Assurance. Here, we describe the implementation of the PROPP programme within an action research framework and identify the factors that we consider critical to the success of peer observation within online courses. We highlight examples of aspects of teaching that have been discussed within the PROPP programme and offer suggestions of the kinds of evidence that could be incorporated into a portfolio to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an initiative. [source]

National Board Certification (NBC) as a catalyst for teachers' learning about teaching: The effects of the NBC process on candidate teachers' PCK development

Soonhye Park
Abstract This study examined how the National Board Certification (NBC) process, especially the portfolio creation, influenced candidate teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In a larger sense, this study aimed to construct a better understanding of how teachers develop PCK and to establish ecological validity of the National Board assessments. Qualitative research methods, most notably case study, were utilized. Participants were three high school science teachers who were going thorough the NBC process. Data sources included classroom observations, interviews, teachers' reflections, and researcher's field notes. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and enumerative approach. Findings indicated that the NBC process affected five aspects of the candidate teachers' instructional practices that were closely related to PCK development: (a) reflection on teaching practices, (b) implementation of new and/or innovative teaching strategies, (c) inquiry-oriented instruction, (d) assessments of students' learning, and (e) understanding of students. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 812,834, 2008 [source]

Impact of a multiyear professional development intervention on science achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students

Okhee Lee
Abstract This study examined the impact of the 3-year implementation of a professional development intervention on science achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse elementary students. Teachers were provided with instructional units and workshops that were designed to improve teaching practices and foster positive beliefs about science and literacy with diverse student groups. The study involved third, fourth, and fifth grade students at six elementary schools in a large urban school district during the 2001 through 2004 school years. Significance tests of mean scores between pre- and posttests indicated statistically significant increases each year on all measures of science at all three grade levels. Achievement gaps among demographic subgroups sometimes narrowed among fourth grade students and remained consistent among third and fifth grade students. Item-by-item comparisons with NAEP and TIMSS samples indicated overall positive performance by students at the end of each school year. The consistent patterns of positive outcomes indicate the effectiveness of our intervention in producing achievement gains at all three grade levels while also reducing achievement gaps among demographic subgroups at the fourth grade. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 726,747, 2008 [source]

The influence of core teaching conceptions on teachers' use of inquiry teaching practices

Christine Lotter
This article investigates three teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry-based instructional strategies throughout a professional development program. The professional development program consisted of a 2-week summer inquiry institute and research experience in university scientists' laboratories, as well as three academic year workshops. Insights gained from an in-depth study of these three secondary teachers resulted in a model of teacher conceptions that can be used to direct future inquiry professional development. Teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching were established through intensive case,study research that incorporated extensive classroom observations and interviews. Through their participation in the professional development experience, the teachers gained a deeper understanding of how to implement inquiry practices in their classrooms. The teachers gained confidence and practice with inquiry methods through developing and presenting their institute-developed inquiry lessons, through observing other teachers' lessons, and participating as students in the workshop inquiry activities. Data analysis revealed that a set of four core conceptions guided the teachers' use of inquiry-based practices in their classrooms. The teachers' conceptions of science, their students, effective teaching practices, and the purpose of education influenced the type and amount of inquiry instruction performed in the high school classrooms. The research findings suggest that to be successful inquiry professional development must not only teach inquiry knowledge, but it must also assess and address teachers' core teaching conceptions. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 1318,1347, 2007 [source]

Relationships between the constructs of a theory of curriculum implementation

John Rogan
Planned educational change occurs regularly throughout the world. With the enormous political change the 1994 elections brought to South Africa, a complete change in education policies was called for. The new Curriculum 2005 (C2005; Department of Education, RSA, 1997) embraced new teaching and learning approaches such as outcomes-based education and learner-centered teaching practices. To explore the progress of the implementation of C2005, a theoretical framework specifically designed to elucidate curriculum implementation in developing countries was applied to 10 case studies. The framework consists of interrelating constructs with subconstructs which impact on curriculum implementation. It enables one to look at the levels of implementation achieved both in terms of the capacity of the school and the extent to which outside support and pressure is provided. The case studies were carried out in a representative sample of schools in Mpumalanga, one of the nine South African provinces. The aim of this article is to investigate the possible interrelationships of the constructs and the subconstructs. Some predictable relationships emerged from the data while other expected relationships failed to materialize. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 42: 313,336, 2005 [source]

Portraying science in the classroom: The manifestation of scientists' beliefs in classroom practice

Sherry A. Southerland
If the goals of science education reform are to be realized, science instruction must change across the academic spectrum, including at the collegiate level. This study examines the beliefs and teaching practices of three scientists as they designed and implemented an integrated science course for nonmajors that was designed to emphasize the nature of science. Our results indicated that, like public school teachers, scientists' beliefs about the nature of science are manifested in their enactment of curriculum,although this manifestation is clearly not a straightforward or simplistic one. Personal beliefs about the nature of science can differ from those of the course, thus resulting in an enactment that differs from original conceptions. Even when personal beliefs match those of the course, sophisticated understandings of the nature of science are not enough to ensure the straightforward translation of beliefs into practice. Mitigating factors included limited pedagogical content knowledge, difficulty in achieving integration of the scientific disciplines, and lack of opportunity and scaffolding to forge true consensus between the participating scientists. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 40: 669,691, 2003 [source]

Learning to teach science for all in the elementary grades: What do preservice teachers bring?

Elaine V. Howes
Implicit in the goal of recent reforms is the question: What does it mean to prepare teachers to teach "science for all"? Through a teacher research study, I have encountered characteristics that may assist prospective elementary teachers in developing effective, inclusive science instruction. I describe these strengths, link them to requirements for teaching, and suggest how science teacher educators might draw on the strengths of their own students to support teaching practices aimed at universal scientific literacy. My conceptual framework is constructed from scholarship concerning best practice in elementary science education, as well as that which describes the dispositions of successful teachers of diverse learners. This study is based on a model of teacher research framed by the concept of "research as praxis" and phenomenological research methodology. The findings describe the research participants' strengths thematically as propensity for inquiry, attention to children, and awareness of school/society relationships. I view these as potentially productive aspects of knowledge and dispositions about science and about children that I could draw on to further students' development as elementary science teachers. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 39: 845,869, 2002 [source]

Design, validation, and use of an evaluation instrument for monitoring systemic reform

Kathryn Scantlebury
Over the past decade, state and national policymakers have promoted systemic reform as a way to achieve high-quality science education for all students. However, few instruments are available to measure changes in key dimensions relevant to systemic reform such as teaching practices, student attitudes, or home and peer support. Furthermore, Rasch methods of analysis are needed to permit valid comparison of different cohorts of students during different years of a reform effort. This article describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environment dimensions (standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support) using a three-step process that incorporated expert opinion, factor analysis, and item response theory. The instrument was validated with over 8,000 science and mathematics students, taught by more than 1,000 teachers in over 200 schools as part of a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of Ohio's systemic reform initiative. When the new four-factor, 20-item questionnaire was used to explore the relative influence of the class, home, and peer environment on student achievement and attitudes, findings were remarkably consistent across 3 years and different units and methods of analysis. All three environments accounted for unique variance in student attitudes, but only the environment of the class accounted for unique variance in student achievement. However, the class environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and attitude, and appreciable amounts of the total variance in attitudes were common to the three environments. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 646,662, 2001 [source]

The use of interactive video in teaching teachers: an evaluation of a link with a primary school

Heather Kinnear
This paper presents an evaluation of the use of videoconferencing in learning and teaching in a United Kingdom higher education institution involved in initial teacher education. Students had the opportunity to observe naturalistic teaching practices without physically being present in the classroom. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with the co-ordinator of the link, the head of ICT services in Stranmillis University College and the teacher of the classroom being observed. Students were invited to complete an online questionnaire. The views of the students, the co-ordinator of the link, the teacher of the classroom being observed and the head of ICT services in Stranmillis University College were then triangulated to gain an overall view of the effectiveness of the videoconferencing link. Interviews suggested students benefited in terms of pedagogy. In the early stages of the project, the teacher thought it acted as a form of classroom control. Technical problems were encountered initially and camera control was modified in the light of these. The online questionnaire suggested that students viewed this experience in a positive way and were impressed with the content, technical quality, and potential benefits of the use of this example of new technologies. [source]