Teacher Assessments (teacher + assessment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Students' and Teachers' Assessments of the Need for Accuracy in the Oral Production of German as a Foreign Language

MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
MONIKA CHAVEZ
Previous research indicates that foreign language learners are much more focused on accuracy, particularly grammatical accuracy, than their teachers are. The purpose of the current study was to gain a more detailed understanding of American learners' views of the need for accuracy in the oral production of a foreign language (German) by (a) distinguishing among 4 different purposes of language use (deriving a personal sense of accomplishment; being comprehensible to a native speaker [NS]; being pleasant to an NS; receiving an A in the course); (b) specifying 19 different language forms (grammatical, phonological, lexical, and pragmatic) of German; (c) asking the learners to assess the likelihood of ever attaining 90% or higher accuracy in each of these features; (d) examining learners in 4 different years of instruction; and (e) comparing the learners' beliefs to those of their teachers. The results revealed that (a) the learners in this study were not universally motivated toward accuracy in oral production generally or toward grammatical accuracy specifically; (b) they assumed that the grade requirements demanded much higher levels of accuracy than were necessary (as reported by the teachers) and were needed for communication with NSs or for their personal sense of accomplishment; (c) the year of instruction distinguished ratings of needed accuracy in specific forms, but not ratings of the overall degree of needed accuracy; and (d) the views of beginning learners especially and their teachers differed on the degree of accuracy needed to obtain a grade of A in the course, to derive a sense of accomplishment, and in the usage of specific language forms. Here, the learners appeared to construct unwarranted equivalencies between form-meaning relationships in the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) when they perceived that a low degree of accuracy was needed in certain German forms, particularly case endings and suprasegmental features. These findings suggest that judgments of required accuracy: (a) interact with the specific language-use purpose and specific language forms; (b) may vary by specific L1,L2 pairings; and (c) may have reflected in previous research the learners' perceptions of grade requirements rather than their true personal motivations. [source]


Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 7 2007
Robert Savage
Background:, Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Method:, Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Results:, Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Conclusions:, Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6. [source]


Developmental outcomes in early compared with delayed surgery for glue ear up to age 7 years: a randomised controlled trial

CLINICAL OTOLARYNGOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
A.J. Hall
Objectives:, To investigate whether early versus delayed surgery for children severely affected by otitis media with effusion (OME) results in improved performance on developmental tests up to age 7 years. Design:, Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Setting:, University of Bristol. Participants:, One hundred and eighty-two children (mean age 35 months) with persistent OME, hearing loss and speech, language or behaviour problems who were originally eligible and randomised to either early surgery or delayed surgery after a period of watchful waiting were followed-up as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 4 and 7,8 years. Main outcome measures:, Measures included behaviour, language, educational attainment tests, hearing, reading, cognition and coordination. Results:, Of the original randomised trial, 88 of 92 of the early surgery and 74 of 90 of the watchful waiting group were still participating in ALSPAC. Analysis was by intention to treat. At age 4 years there were significant differences in teacher assessment of language (adj OR 3.45, 95% CI: 1.42,8.39) and writing (adj OR 3.74, 95% CI: 1.51,9.27), in favour of early surgery. At age 7,8 years, there was a significant difference on teacher report of emotional problems (adj OR 4.11, 95% CI: 1.15,14.64) in favour of early surgery. There were no other significant differences. Conclusions:, Early surgery for the child severely affected by OME may be associated with subtle benefits at age 4 years. This may continue to 7,8 years but the small study size makes it difficult to distinguish these effects from chance. A larger study is recommended. [source]


Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 7 2007
Robert Savage
Background:, Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Method:, Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Results:, Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Conclusions:, Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6. [source]


Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2007
Herbert W. Marsh
Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N= 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport performance (performance-based measures and teacher assessments), prior sport self-concept had positive effects on subsequent sport performance in both Grade 4 and Grade 6 and for both boys and girls. Coupled with previous REM studies of adolescents in the academic domain, this first test for preadolescents in the sport domain supports the generalizability of REM predictions over gender, self-concept domain, preadolescent ages, and the transition from primary to secondary school. [source]


School experiences after treatment for a brain tumour

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2006
P. Upton
Abstract Background Children surviving a brain tumour face major difficulties including learning problems, lengthy school absences and psychosocial problems, all of which can impact on school functioning. Our aims were to provide information for parents and teachers about the skills and resources of this group. Specifically, we aimed to: ,,describe the special educational needs of these children; ,,document the impact of diagnosis and treatment on school attendance; ,,compare parent and teacher assessments of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Methods Forty families agreed to participate (response rate = 58.82%). The children (19 males and 21 females) were aged from 6 to 16 years and had completed treatment at least 2 years previously (range = 2 years,12 years 5 months). Questionnaires (Strengths and Difficulties and school experience) were completed by mothers and teachers. Results Survivors were experiencing a wide range of physical, learning and interpersonal difficulties, according to parent and teacher reports. Almost half the children (n = 19) had ongoing neurological problems that were significant enough to require special help at school. Literacy and numeracy were the most common learning difficulties. Parents also rated brain tumour survivors as having more behavioural and emotional problems than would be expected from population norms. For example, survivors were rated as having more Total Difficulties (t = 6.86, P < 0.001), Emotional Symptoms (t = 8.82, P < 0.001), Hyperactivity (t = 2.25, P = 0.03), Peer Relationship Problems (t = 7.58, P < 0.001) and poorer Pro-social Behaviour (t = ,3.34, P = 0.002) than would be expected from population norms. These problems were also seen to be having a significant impact on the child's functioning (t = 3.95, P < 0.001). Teachers rated these problems as less serious than parents. Conclusion These children experience significant problems in school some time after diagnosis and when they are considered medically cured. Closer school,hospital liaison is essential to maximize integration and achievement in these children. [source]