Terpolymers

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Terpolymers

  • diene terpolymer
  • star terpolymer
  • triblock terpolymer


  • Selected Abstracts


    Reversible Hydrogels from an Ampholytic An(B -b- C)n Heteroarm Star Block Terpolymer

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 21 2008
    Nikoletta Stavrouli
    Abstract An asymmetric, amphiphilic, An(B- b -C)n heteroarm star block terpolymer bearing polystyrene and poly(2-vinyl pyridine)- block -poly(acrylic acid) arms, was synthesized by anionic polymerization, using an extending "in-out" method and a post polymerization deprotection reaction. Due to the pH-dependent protonation/deprotonation equilibrium of the P2VP/PAA blocks, a rich phase behavior was observed as a function of pH. At pH,=,2, the star terpolymers form a physical hydrogel through a solvent-induced sol/gel transition in a DMF/water solvent mixture. The gelation mechanism was attributed to a jamming effect mediated by increasing the dielectric permittivity of the medium. [source]


    Waste and Virgin LDPE/PET Blends Compatibilized with an Ethylene-Butyl Acrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate (EBAGMA) Terpolymer, 1

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2005
    Mustapha Kaci
    Abstract Summary: This work is aimed at studying the morphology and the mechanical properties of blends of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (10, 20, and 30 wt.-% of PET), obtained as both virgin polymers and urban plastic waste, and the effect of a terpolymer of ethylene-butyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EBAGMA) as a compatibilizer. LDPE and PET are blended in a single screw extruder twice; the first extrusion to homogenize the two components, and the second to improve the compatibilization degree when the EBAGMA terpolymer is applied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that the fractured surface of both the virgin polymer and the waste binary blends is characterized by a gross phase segregation morphology that leads to the formation of large PET aggregates (10,50 µm). Furthermore, a sharp decrease in the elongation at break and impact strength is observed, which denotes the brittleness of the binary blends. The addition of the EBAGMA terpolymer to the binary LDPE/PET blends reduces the size of the PET inclusions to 1,5 µm with a finer dispersion, as a result of an improvement of the interfacial adhesion strength between LDPE and PET. Consequently, increases of the tensile properties and impact strength are observed. SEM micrographs of the fracture surface of a waste 70/30 LDPE/PET blend (R30) and of its blend with 15 pph of EBAGMA (R30C). Magnification,×,1,000. [source]


    Original Fuel-Cell Membranes from Crosslinked Terpolymers via a "Sol,gel" Strategy

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 7 2010
    Ozlem Sel
    Abstract Hybrid organic/inorganic membranes that include a functionalized (-SO3H), interconnected silica network, a non-porogenic organic matrix, and a -SO3H-functionalized terpolymer are synthesized through a sol,gel-based strategy. The use of a novel crosslinkable poly(vinylidene fluoride- ter -perfluoro(4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene sulfonyl fluoride)- ter -vinyltriethoxysilane) (poly(VDF- ter -PFSVE- ter -VTEOS)) terpolymer allows a multiple tuning of the different interfaces to produce original hybrid membranes with improved properties. The synthesized terpolymer and the composite membranes are characterized, and the proton conductivity of a hybrid membrane in the absence of the terpolymer is promising, since 8,mS cm,1 is reached at room temperature, immersed in water, with an experimental ion-exchange-capacity (IECexp) value of 0.4,meq g,1. Furthermore, when the composite membranes contain the interfaced terpolymer, they exhibit both a higher proton conductivity (43,mS cm,1 at 65 °C under 100% relative humidity) and better stability than the standard hybrid membrane, arising from the occurrence of a better interface between the inorganic silica and the poly[(vinylidene fluoride)- co -hexafluoropropylene] (poly(VDF- co -HFP)) copolymer network. Accordingly, the hybrid SiO2 -SO3H/terpolymer/poly(VDF- co -HFP) copolymer membrane has potential use as an electrolyte in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures. [source]


    Self-Assembled Nanoscale Ring Arrays from a Polystyrene- b -polyferrocenylsilane- b -poly(2-vinylpyridine)Triblock Terpolymer Thin Film

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 37 2009
    Vivian P. Chuang
    Hollow ring arrays with an outer and inner diameter of 33 and 11,nm, respectively, are formed from a thin film of poly-(styrene- b -ferrocenylethylmethylsilane- b -2-vinyl pyridine) (PS- b -PFS- b -P2VP) triblock terpolymer with a core/shell cylindrical morphology. The PS minority block forms a core surrounded by a PFS shell in a P2VP matrix; the core/shell structure is oriented perpendicularly to the film surface. The PS core and P2VP matrix blocks are partly removed using oxygen reactive ion etching, leaving ring patterns made from oxidized PFS. [source]


    Ferroelectric, Electroactive, and Dielectric-Relaxation Behavior of Fluoropolymers

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 12 2004
    C. Ang
    The discovery of piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymers and related co- and terpolymers has led to much interest in the physics of these materials because of their great potential for many actuator applications. The electroactive strain, ferroelectric polarization, and dielectric behavior of an irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride,trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF,TrFE)) copolymer and non-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride,trifluoroethylene,chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF,TrFE,CTFE)) terpolymer are reported here, with special attention given to the analysis of the complex permittivity. [source]


    Comparison of polyamide 66,organoclay binary and ternary nanocomposites

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Miray Mert
    Abstract Polyamide 66,Lotader® 2210 blends (95/5 w/w), polyamide 66,Cloisite® 15A binary nanocomposites (98/2 w/w), and polyamide 66,Lotader® 2210,Cloisite® 15A ternary nanocomposites (93/5/2 w/w) were prepared by twin-screw extrusion, and the changes in mechanical properties, morphology, and flow properties of the materials prepared by different mixing sequences were investigated in this study. Lotader® 2210, which is a random terpolymer of ethylene, butyl acrylate, and maleic anhydride, was used as the impact modifier for polyamide 66 blends as well as polyamide 66 based nanocomposites. The best dispersion level, highest mechanical properties, highest viscosity values, and smallest elastomeric domain sizes were obtained for the mixing sequence in which all the components forming the ternary nanocomposites were compounded simultaneously. Incorporation sequence of either the organoclay or the impact modifier into the polymeric matrix was varied in the other mixing sequences, and this resulted in poorer distribution of the organoclay platelets and elastomeric domains in the matrix owing to insufficient shear intensity applied on the components in a single extrusion step. Toughness values of the ternary nanocomposites were improved compared with the binary nanocomposites upon addition of the impact modifier into polymer,organoclay combination. It was concluded that the compounding sequence of the components plays a significant role in the dispersion of organoclay and the properties of the nanocomposites, because it directly affects the interaction between the different phases. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:155,164, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20158 [source]


    Well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers for KrF lithography

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Ting-Yu Lee
    Abstract One of the major components of a photoresist formulation is polymer resin. Well-defined diblock and random copolymer of tert -butyl acrylate (tBA) and 4-acetoxystyrene (StyOAc), as well as triblock and random tertpolymer of tBA, StyOAc, and Sty were prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) process. The polymers all possess Mw about ten thousand and PDI less than 1.23. After hydrolysis under basic condition, the hydroxystyrene (StyOH) analogs are obtained and then are formulated as photoresist. Lithographic evaluation under KrF excimer laser shows that random copolymer based photoresist exhibits better S/L patterns according to SEM images. However, the lithographic performance of the terpolymer based resists is similar. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Structures and properties of ternary blends of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/bisphenol-A polycarbonate/(E/nBA/GMA)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Yong Peng
    Abstract Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/bisphenol-A polycarbonate/PTW (ethylene, butylacrylate (BA), and glycidylmethacrylate (E/nBA/GMA) terpolymer) were blended in different sequence through low temperature solid state extrusion (LTSSE) was studied. R-PET/PC blends were toughened by PTW, resulting in the improvement of impact strengths. In tensile test, the (PC/PTW)/r-PET blends made by mixing r-PET with the preblend of PC/PTW had noticeable strengthening effect on its tensile properties, which was not impaired by the rubber content due to its strain-hardening occurred following its necking at the constant load. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was in conformity with the mechanical result. For the (PC/PTW)/r-PET blends, the PC particles were well embedded in the PET matrix and the smooth morphology exhibited. The DSC thermographs for heating and cooling run indicated that the crystallinity of PET rich phase was affected by different blending sequence. In the FTIR test, the different absorption intensity of PC aromatic carbonate carbonyl band was clearly illustrated. The results indicated different blending sequence led to different blending effect. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of PE-EPDM based jute fiber composites

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Gautam Sarkhel
    Abstract The present investigation deals with the mechanical, thermal and viscoelastic properties of ternary composites based on low density polyethylene (LDPE)-ethylene,propylene,diene terpolymer (EPDM) blend and high density polyethylene (HDPE)-EPDM blend reinforced with short jute fibers. For all the untreated and compatibilizer treated composites, the variation of mechanical and viscoelastic properties as a function of fiber loading (10, 20 and 30 wt %) and compatibilizer concentration (1, 2, and 3%) were evaluated. The flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, and hardness increased with increasing both the fiber loading and the compatibilizer dose. The storage modulus (E,) and loss modulus (E,) of the HDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites were recorded higher compared to those of the LDPE-EPDM/jute fiber composites at all level of fiber loading and compatibilizer doses. The tan, (damping efficiency) spectra showed a strong influence of the fiber loading and compatibilizer dose on the , relaxation process of polymer matrix in the composite. The thermo-oxidative stability was significantly enhanced for treated composites compared to untreated composites. Scanning electron microscopy investigation confirmed that the higher values of mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the treated composites compared to untreated composites is caused by improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion as result of compatibilizer treatment. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Weld line characteristics of PC/ABS blend.

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008

    Abstract The effects of reactive compatibilizer and processing temperature on the morphology and the mechanical properties at the weld line of 60/40 (wt/wt) poly- carbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer blends were investigated. Amine functionalized styrene/n -phenyl maleimide/maleic anhydride terpolymer (amine-SPMIMA) was used as the in-situ reactive compatibilizer for PC/ABS blend. Weld tensile strength increased as the content of amine-SPMIMA was increased. Weld impact strength showed maximum value for the blend containing about 3% amine-SPMIMA. The variation in the mechanical property at the weld line was correlated with the change in the morphology of the blend. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Ozone cracking and flex cracking of crosslinked polymer blend compounds

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    M. F. Tse
    Abstract Ozone cracking and flex cracking of crosslinked elastomer blends of brominated isobutylene/para -methylstyrene copolymer (BIMSM) and unsaturated elastomers, such as polybutadiene rubber (BR) and natural rubber (NR), are studied. This saturated BIMSM elastomer, which is a terpolymer of isobutylene, para -bromomethylstyrene, and para -methylstyrene, functions as the ozone-inert phase of the blend. Ozone cracking is measured by the failure time of a tapered specimen under a fixed load in a high severity ozone oven, whereas flex cracking is ranked by the De Mattia cut growth. The ozone resistance of BIMSM/BR/NR blends is compared to that of a BR/NR blend (with or without antiozonant) at constant strain energy densities. The effects of the BIMSM content in the blend, the structural variations of BIMSM, and the network chain length between crosslinks on these two failure properties, which are important in crosslinked compounds for applications in tire sidewalls, are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 2183,2196, 2007 [source]


    Titanium-mediated [CpTiCl2(OEt)] ring-opening polymerization of lactides: A novel route to well-defined polylactide-based complex macromolecular architectures

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 5 2010
    Nikolaos Petzetakis
    Abstract Among three cyclopentadienyl titanium complexes studied, CpTiCl2(OEt), containing a 5% excess CpTiCl3, has proven to be a very efficient catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L -lactide (LLA) in toluene at 130 °C. Kinetic studies revealed that the polymerization yield (up to 100%) and the molecular weight increase linearly with time, leading to well-defined PLLA with narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn , 1.1). Based on the above results, PS- b -PLLA, PI- b -PLLA, PEO- b -PLLA block copolymers, and a PS- b -PI- b -PLLA triblock terpolymer were synthesized. The synthetic strategy involved: (a) the preparation of OH-end-functionalized homopolymers or diblock copolymers by anionic polymerization, (b) the reaction of the OH-functionalized polymers with CpTiCl3 to give the corresponding Ti-macrocatalyst, and (c) the ROP of LLA to afford the final block copolymers. PMMA- g -PLLA [PMMA: poly(methyl methacrylate)] was also synthesized by: (a) the reaction of CpTiCl3 with 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, HEMA, to give the Ti-HEMA-catalyst, (b) the ROP of LLA to afford a PLLA methacrylic-macromonomer, and (c) the copolymerization (conventional and ATRP) of the macromonomer with MMA to afford the final graft copolymer. Intermediate and final products were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography, equipped with refractive index and two-angle laser light scattering detectors. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1092,1103, 2010 [source]


    Synthesis of amphiphilic and thermoresponsive ABC miktoarm star terpolymer via a combination of consecutive click reactions and atom transfer radical polymerization

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 16 2009
    Changhua Li
    Abstract Well-defined amphiphilic and thermoresponsive ABC miktoarm star terpolymer consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(tert -butyl methacrylate), and poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) arms, PEG(- b -PtBMA)- b -PNIPAM, was synthesized via a combination of consecutive click reactions and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Click reaction of monoalkynyl-terminated PEG with a trifunctional core molecule bis(2-azidoethyl)amine, (N3)2NH, afforded difunctional PEG possessing an azido and a secondary amine moiety at the chain end, PEG- NHN3. Next, the amidation of PEG- NHN3 with 2-chloropropionyl chloride led to PEG-based ATRP macroinitiator, PEG(N3)Cl. The subsequent ATRP of N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) using PEG(N3)Cl as the macroinitiator led to PEG(N3)- b -PNIPAM bearing an azido moiety at the diblock junction point. Finally, well-defined ABC miktoarm star terpolymer, PEG(- b -PtBMA)- b -PNIPAM, was prepared via the click reaction of PEG(N3)- b -PNIPAM with monoalkynyl-terminated PtBMA. In aqueous solution, the obtained ABC miktoarm star terpolymer self-assembles into micelles consisting of PtBMA cores and hybrid PEG/PNIPAM coronas, which are characterized by dynamic and static laser light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. On heating above the phase transition temperature of PNIPAM in the hybrid corona, micelles initially formed at lower temperatures undergo further structural rearrangement and fuse into much larger aggregates solely stabilized by PEG coronas. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 4001,4013, 2009 [source]


    ROMP-NMP-ATRP combination for the preparation of 3-miktoarm star terpolymer via click chemistry

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 2 2009
    Aziz Gozgen
    Abstract A combination of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and click chemistry approach is first time utilized in the preparation of 3-miktoarm star terpolymer. The bromide end-functionality of monotelechelic poly(N -butyl oxanorbornene imide) (PNBONI-Br) is first transformed to azide and then reacted with polystyrene- b -poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer with alkyne at the junction point (PS- b -PMMA-alkyne) via click chemistry strategy, producing PS-PMMA-PNBONI 3-miktoarm star terpolymer. PNBONI-Br was prepared by ROMP of N -butyl oxanorbornene imide (NBONI) 1 in the presence of (Z)-but-2-ene-1,4-diyl bis(2-bromopropanoate) 2 as terminating agent. PS- b -PMMA-alkyne copolymer was prepared successively via nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP) of St and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of MMA. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 497,504, 2009 [source]


    A new approach for controlling birefringent property of cyclic olefin copolymers

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 22 2008
    Hoang The Ban
    Abstract This article reports an original method to control the birefringent property of the cyclic olefin copolymer, which has been recently commercialized as a new type of optical resins, via introduction of a third monomer that possesses a negative birefringence into the cyclic olefin copolymer that exhibits an inherently positive birefringence. The mutual compensation between these opposite-sign birefringences effectively reduced the birefringent magnitude of the corresponding terpolymer. In fact, terpolymerization of norbornene (N), ethylene (E), and styrene (S), in which S exhibits a negative birefringence regarding to the positive birefringence of the NE copolymer was successfully prepared using fluorenylamidodimethyltitanium-based catalyst, yielding NES terpolymers with controllable birefringent property. Especially, when the S content in the NES terpolymer was controlled at optimum values, it is possible to synthesize a new type of the cyclic olefin copolymer that exhibits an extremely low birefringent magnitude close to zero regardless of high degrees of chain orientation. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 7395,7400, 2008 [source]


    Synthesis of a model cyclic triblock terpolymer of styrene, isoprene, and methyl methacrylate

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 10 2002
    Dimitris Pantazis
    Abstract The synthesis of a model cyclic triblock terpolymer [cyclic(S- b -I- b -MMA] of styrene (S), isoprene (I), and methyl methacrylate (MMA) was achieved by the end-to-end intramolecular amidation reaction of the corresponding linear ,,,-amino acid precursor [S- b -I- b -MMA] under high-dilution conditions. The linear precursor was synthesized by the sequential anionic polymerization of S, I, and MMA with 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-(3-lithiopropyl)-1-aza-2,5-disilacyclopentane as an initiator and amine generator and 4-bromo-1,1,1-trimethoxybutane as a terminator and carboxylic acid generator. The separation of the unreacted linear polymer from the cyclic terpolymer was facilitated by the transformation of the unreacted species into high molecular weight polymers by the evaporation of the reaction solvent and the continuation of the reaction under high-concentration conditions. The intermediate materials and the final cyclic terpolymer, characterized by size exclusion chromatography, vapor pressure osmometry, thin-layer chromatography, IR and NMR spectroscopy, exhibited high molecular weight and compositional homogeneity. Dilute-solution viscosity measurements were used as an additional proof of the cyclic structure. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 1476,1483, 2002 [source]


    Physically and Chemically Cross-Linked Poly{[(maleic anhydride)- alt -styrene]- co -(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)}/Poly(ethylene glycol) Proton-Exchange Membranes

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 2 2007
    lser G. Devrim
    Abstract Novel proton exchange membranes were solvent-cast from DMF solutions of the terpolymers poly[(MA- alt -S)- co -AMPS], containing hydrophobic phenyl and reactive hydrophilic carboxylic and organo-sulfonic acid fragments with different compositions, and PEGs with different molecular weights and amounts. These membranes were formed as a result of physical (via H-bonding) and chemical (via PEG) cross-linking. The structures of membranes were confirmed by FT-IR and 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Mechanical and thermal properties, swellability, and proton conductivity of these membranes were significantly affected both by the chemical composition of the terpolymers (mainly the AMPS content) and also the cross-linker (PEG) molecular weight and content in the final form of the membranes. It was concluded that the membranes prepared by using the terpolymer with an AMPS content of 36.84 mol-% and PEG with a molecular weight of 1,450 and with an initial PEG content of 30 wt.-% are the most suitable ones for fuel cell applications. [source]


    Functionalisation of Polyolefins: Grafting of Phenol Groups on Olefin/5,7-Dimethylocta-1,6-diene Copolymers

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 15 2003
    Marc Dolatkhani
    Abstract The grafting of phenol groups on ethylene/5,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene copolymers and on ethylene/propylene/5,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene terpolymers was performed, using two different modification procedures. An indirect route involving hydrochlorination followed by phenol insertion was found to be very effective for the terpolymers, and lead to a grafting phenol rate higher than 75%. However, if the phenol grafting is performed directly on a non-modified terpolymer, lower rates are obtained. When applied to the copolymers the procedures used were revealed to be less efficient. This fact might be related to the lower solubility of the ethylene/5,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene copolymers (related to a higher crystallinity and a smaller diene content) when compared with the corresponding terpolymers. Although incomplete, the addition of a hindered phenol to the copolymer gave rise to a polymer that, when compared to polyethylene, presents a higher thermal-oxidative stability. Grafting of phenol on a hydrochlorinated ethylene/propylene/5,7-DMO terpolymer. [source]


    Melt Mixing of Ethylene/Butyl Acrylate/Glycidyl Methacrylate Terpolymers with LDPE and PET

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2009
    Aida Benhamida
    Abstract The chemical modification by melt-mixing of an EBAGMA terpolymer with LDPE and PET was investigated with the aim to use these EBAGMA/LDPE and EBAGMA/PET blends (in equal weight quantities) as compatibilizer master batches to improve the compatibility of the LDPE/PET system. It is shown that when the EBAGMA terpolymer is melt blended with LDPE, almost 40% of the initial amount of EBAGMA is linked to the LDPE backbone. In contrast, in the case of EBAGMA/PET, FT-IR spectra indicate the total reactivity between the two components through the reaction of the epoxy group of EBAGMA with the PET terminal groups. SEM analysis shows that both master batches present two well-interconnected phases. [source]


    Waste and Virgin LDPE/PET Blends Compatibilized with an Ethylene-Butyl Acrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate (EBAGMA) Terpolymer, 1

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 10 2005
    Mustapha Kaci
    Abstract Summary: This work is aimed at studying the morphology and the mechanical properties of blends of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (10, 20, and 30 wt.-% of PET), obtained as both virgin polymers and urban plastic waste, and the effect of a terpolymer of ethylene-butyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (EBAGMA) as a compatibilizer. LDPE and PET are blended in a single screw extruder twice; the first extrusion to homogenize the two components, and the second to improve the compatibilization degree when the EBAGMA terpolymer is applied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that the fractured surface of both the virgin polymer and the waste binary blends is characterized by a gross phase segregation morphology that leads to the formation of large PET aggregates (10,50 µm). Furthermore, a sharp decrease in the elongation at break and impact strength is observed, which denotes the brittleness of the binary blends. The addition of the EBAGMA terpolymer to the binary LDPE/PET blends reduces the size of the PET inclusions to 1,5 µm with a finer dispersion, as a result of an improvement of the interfacial adhesion strength between LDPE and PET. Consequently, increases of the tensile properties and impact strength are observed. SEM micrographs of the fracture surface of a waste 70/30 LDPE/PET blend (R30) and of its blend with 15 pph of EBAGMA (R30C). Magnification,×,1,000. [source]


    On Toughness and Stiffness of Poly(butylene terephthalate) with Epoxide-Containing Elastomer by Reactive Extrusion

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2004
    Zhong-Zhen Yu
    Abstract Summary: To obtain a balance between toughness (as measured by notched impact strength) and elastic stiffness of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), a small amount of tetra-functional epoxy monomer was incorporated into PBT/[ethylene/methyl acrylate/glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer (E-MA-GMA)] blends during the reactive extrusion process. The effectiveness of toughening by E-MA-GMA and the effect of the epoxy monomer were investigated. It was found that E-MA-GMA was finely dispersed in PBT matrix, whose toughness was significantly enhanced, but the stiffness decreased linearly, with increasing E-MA-GMA content. Addition of 0.2 phr epoxy monomer was noted to further improve the dispersion of E-MA-GMA particles by increasing the viscosity of the PBT matrix. While use of epoxy monomer had little influence on the notched impact strength of the blends, there was a distinct increase in the elastic stiffness. SEM micrographs of impact-fracture surfaces indicated that extensive matrix shear yielding was the main impact energy dissipation mechanism in both types of blends, with or without epoxy monomer, and containing 20 wt.-% or more elastomer. SEM micrographs of freeze-fractured surfaces of PBT/E-MA-GMA blend illustrating the finer dispersion of E-MA-GMA in the presence of epoxy monomer. [source]


    Novel Amphiphilic Degradable Poly(, -caprolactone)- graft -poly(4-vinyl pyridine), Poly(, -caprolactone)- graft -poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and Water-Soluble Derivatives

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 9 2008
    Benjamin Nottelet
    Abstract New amphiphilic graft copolymers that have a poly(, -caprolactone) (PCL) biodegradable hydrophobic backbone and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) or poly(2-(N,N- dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) hydrophilic side chains have been prepared by anionic polymerization of the corresponding 4VP and DMAEMA monomers using a PCL-based macropolycarbanion as initiator. The water solubility of these amphiphilic copolymers is improved by quaternization, which leads to fully water-soluble cationic copolymers that give micellar aggregates in deionized water with diameters ranging from 65 to 125 nm. In addition, to improve the hydrophilicity of PCL- g -P4VP, grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments has been carried out to give a water-soluble double grafted PCL- g -(P4VP;PEG) terpolymer. [source]


    Effect of EPDM on Morphology, Mechanical Properties, Crystallization Behavior and Viscoelastic Properties of iPP+HDPE Blends

    MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, Issue 1 2007
    Nina Vranjes
    Abstract Summary: Blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) terpolymer as compatibilizer were systematically investigated to determine the influence of the EPDM on blends properties. The morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of investigated systems: tensile strength at break, elongation at break, yield stress and Izod impact strength were determined. Crystallization behavior was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determined the storage modulus (E,), loss modulus (E,), and loss tangent (tan ,). The PP+HDPE blend revealed poor adhesion between PP and HDPE phases. Finer morphology was obtained by EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends and better interfacial adhesion. Addition of HDPE to PP decreased tensile strength at break, elongation and yield stress. Decrease of tensile strength and yield stress is faster with EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends. Elongation at break and impact strength was significantly increased with EPDM addition. The addition of EPDM in PP+HDPE blends did not significantly change melting points of PP phase, while melting points of HDPE phase was slightly decreased in PP+HDPE+EPDM blends. The EPDM addition increased the percentage of crystallization (Xc) of PP in PP+HDPE blends. The increase of Xc of HDPE was found in the blend with HDPE as matrix. Dynamical mechanical analysis showed glass transitions of PP and HDPE phase, as well as the relaxation transitions of their crystalline phase. By addition of EPDM glass transitions (Tg) of HDPE and PP phases in PP+HDPE blends decreased. Storage modulus (E,) vs. temperatures (T) curves are in the region between E,/T curves of neat PP and HDPE. The decrease of E, values at 25,°C with EPDM addition in PP+HDPE blends is more pronounced. [source]


    Impact modified polyamide-6/organoclay nanocomposites: Processing and characterization

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 2 2008
    Isil Isik
    The effects of melt state compounding of ethylene-butyl acrylate-maleic anhydride (E-BA-MAH) terpolymer and/or three types of organoclays (Cloisite® 15A, 25A, and 30B) on thermal and mechanical properties and morphology of polyamide-6 are investigated. E-BA-MAH formed spherical domains in the materials to which it is added, and increased the impact strength, whereas the organoclays decreased the impact strength. In general, the organoclays increased the tensile strength (except for Cloisite 15A), Young's modulus and elongation at break, but the addition of E-BA-MAH had the opposite effect. XRD patterns showed that the interlayer spacing for the organoclays Cloisite 25A and Cloisite 30B increased in both polyamide-6/organoclay binary nanocomposites and in polyamide-6/organoclay/impact modifier ternary systems. TEM analysis showed that exfoliated-intercalated nanocomposites were formed. The crystallinities of polyamide-6/organoclay nanocomposites were in general lower than that of polyamide-6 (except for Cloisite 15A). In ternary nanocomposites, crystallinities generally were lower than those of polyamide-6/organoclay nanocomposites. Cloisite 15A containing ternary nanocomposites had higher tensile and impact strengths and Young's modulus than the ternary nanocomposites prepared with Cloisite 25A and Cloisite 30B, owing to its surface hydrophobicity and compatibility with the impact modifier. POLYM. COMPOS., 2008. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Reactive extrusion of poly(ethylene terephthalate),(ethylene/methyl acrylate/glycidyl methacrylate),organoclay nanocomposites

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 2 2007
    Elif Alyamac
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of component concentrations and addition order of the components on the final properties of ternary nanocomposites composed of poly(ethylene terephthalate), organoclay, and an ethylene,methyl acrylate,glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA) terpolymer acting as an impact modifier for PET. In this context, first, the optimum amount of the impact modifier was determined by melt compounding binary PET-terpolymer blends in a corotating twin-screw extruder. The amount of the impact modifier (5 wt%) resulting in the highest Young's modulus and moderate elongation at break was selected owing to its balanced mechanical properties. Thereafter, by using 5 wt% terpolymer content, the effects of organically modified clay concentration and addition order of the components on the properties of ternary nanocomposites were systematically investigated. Mechanical testing revealed that different addition orders of the materials significantly affected the mechanical properties. Among the investigated addition orders, the best sequence of component addition (PI-C) was the one in which poly(ethylene terephthalate) was first compounded with E-MA-GMA. Later, this mixture was compounded with the organoclay in the subsequent run. In X-ray diffraction analysis, extensive layer separation associated with delamination of the original clay structure occurred in PI-C and CI-P (Clay + Impact Modifier followed by PET) sequences with both 1 and 3 wt% clay contents. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that at these conditions exfoliated structures resulted as indicated by the disappearance of any peaks due to the diffraction within the consecutive clay layers. POLYM. COMPOS., 28:251,258, 2007. © Society of Plastic Engineers [source]


    Compatibilizing effect of ethylene,propylene,diene grafted maleic anhydride terpolymer on the blend of polyamide 66 and thermal liquid crystalline polymer

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 6 2006
    Qunfeng Yue
    Polyamide 66,thermal liquid crystalline polymer (PA66/TLCP) composites containing 10 wt% TLCP was compatibilized by ethylene,propylene,diene-grafted maleic anhydride terpolymer (MAH- g -EPDM). The blending was performed on a twin-screw extrusion, followed by an injection molding. The rheological, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermal, mechanical properties, as well as the morphology and FTIR spectra, of the blends were investigated and discussed. Rheological, DMA, and FTIR spectra results showed that MAH- g -EPDM is an effective compatibilizer for PA66/TLCP blends. The mechanical test indicated that the tensile strength, tensile elongation, and the bending strength of the blends were improved with the increase of the content of MAH- g -EPDM, which implied that the blends probably have a great frictional shear force, resulting from strong adhesion at the interface between the matrix and the dispersion phase; while the bending modulus was weakened with the increase of MAH- g -EPDM content, which is attributed to the development of the crystalline phase of PA66 hampered by adding MAH- g -EPDM. POLYM. COMPOS., 27:608,613, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Effect of maleated polypropylene and impact modifiers on the morphology and mechanical properties of PP/Mica composites

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 6 2006
    H. Yazdani
    Composites of polypropylene (PP) with mica powder and impact modifiers were produced by internal mixer. A major drawback in the use of mica-filled PP is its low impact resistance. In the present study, the effect of the maleated PP (MAPP) and impact modifiers was evaluated on the composite properties separately and together. Thus, two different styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS) and one ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) have been used as impact modifiers in the PP-mica composites. Addition of MAPP had a negative effect on the composite notched impact strength and elongation at break but had a positive effect on tensile strength when used together with impact modifiers. All three elastomers increased the impact strength of the PP-mica composites but the addition of maleated SEBS (SEBS-MA) granted the greatest improvement in impact strength. It was inferred from the scanning electron microscopy that SEBS-MA had a stronger interaction with mica surface than the other impact modifiers. POLYM. COMPOS., 27:614,620, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Valorization of poly(butylene terephthalate) wastes by blending with virgin polypropylene: Effect of the composition and the compatibilization

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 8 2008
    Najoua Barhoumi
    Blends of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) parts obtained from scrapped cars, and virgin polypropylene (PP), were prepared in a twin-screw extruder at different compositions. Selected compositions were also prepared with the presence of ethylene- co -glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) and ethylene/methyl acrylate/glycidyl methacrylate terpolymer (E-MA-GMA) compatibilizers. The effect of the composition and the type of compatibilizer, as well as the mixing conditions, on the morphology phase, thermal, viscoelastic behavior, and mechanical properties of the blends has been investigated. Blends PP/PBT of various composition exhibit a coarse morphology and a poor adherence between both phases, resulting in the decrease of ductility, whereas at weak deformation, PBT reinforced the tensile properties of PP. Addition of E-GMA and E-MA-GMA to the PP/PBT blend exhibited a significant change in morphology and improved ductility because of interfacial reactions between PBT end chains and epoxy groups of GMA that generate EG- g -PBT copolymer. Moreover, thermal and viscoelastic study indicated that the miscibility of PP and PBT has been improved further and the reactions were identified. The E-MA-GMA results in the best improvement of ductility. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2008. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer/ethylene vinyl acetate/layered silicate ternary nanocomposite by solution method

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 7 2006
    H. Acharya
    A new ternary nanocomposite has been developed using ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA-45) copolymer, and organically modified layered silicate (16 Me-MMT) from sodium montmorillonite (Na+ -MMT). Wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed the intercalation of the polymer chains in between the organosilicate layers and the nanoscale distribution of 16 Me-MMT in polymer matrix, respectively. The measurement of mechanical properties for 2,8 wt% of 16 Me-MMT loadings showed a significant increase in tensile strength, elongation at break, and modulus at different elongations. Such an improvement in mechanical properties has been correlated based on the fracture behavior of nanocomposite by SEM analysis. Thermal stability of EPDM/EVA/layered silicate ternary nanocomposites also showed substantial improvements compared with the neat EPDM/EVA blend, confirming thereby the formation of a high performance nanocomposite. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 46:437,843, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Effects of particle size of Al(OH)3 on electrical properties of EPDM compounds

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
    Cheol Ho Lee
    Effects of particle size of Al(OH)3 (ATH) filler on electrical properties of ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM)/ATH compounds were studied. It was found that tracking and erosion resistance of EPDM/ATH compounds decreased while dielectric properties and 90°C water resistance were improved with the increase of particle size. Homocharge accumulates in the compounds, which increases first and then decreases with the increase of particle size. This was explained by the change of particle-to-particle distance due to filler size. [source]