Tea

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Tea

  • black tea
  • green tea
  • herbal tea

  • Terms modified by Tea

  • tea catechin
  • tea constituent
  • tea consumption
  • tea drinking
  • tea extract
  • tea infusion
  • tea leaf
  • tea polyphenol
  • tea quality
  • tea sample
  • tea tree
  • tea tree oil

  • Selected Abstracts


    Skin sensitizing properties of the ethanolamines mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5 2009
    Data analysis of a multicentre surveillance network (IVDK, review of the literature
    Numerous publications address the skin sensitizing potential of the short chain alkanolamines triethanolamine (TEA), diethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA), which are not skin sensitizing according to animal studies. Regarding TEA, we analysed patch test data of 85 098 patients who had been tested with TEA 2.5% petrolatum by Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) to identify particular exposures possibly associated with an elevated risk of sensitization. Altogether, 323 patients (0.4%) tested positive. The profile of patch test reactions indicates a slightly irritant potential rather than a true allergic response in many cases. Although used widely, no exposure associated with an increased risk of TEA sensitization was identified. Therefore, the risk of sensitization to TEA seems to be very low. MEA and DEA were patch tested in a much more aimed fashion in 9602 and 8791 patients, respectively when prevalence of contact allergy was 3.8% and 1.8%. MEA is the prominent allergen in metalworkers with exposure to water-based metalworking fluids (wbMWFs); DEA is probably used in cutting fluids less frequently nowadays. Chronic damage to the skin barrier resulting from wbMWF, the alkalinity of ethanolamines (increasing from TEA to MEA), and other cofactors may contribute to a notable sensitization risk. [source]


    Purinergic activation of a leak potassium current in freshly dissociated myocytes from mouse thoracic aorta

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    S. Hayoz
    Abstract Aim:, Exogenous ATP elicits a delayed calcium-independent K+ current on freshly isolated mouse thoracic aorta myocytes. We investigated the receptor, the intracellular pathway and the nature of this current. Methods:, The patch-clamp technique was used to record ATP-elicited delayed K+ current in freshly dissociated myocytes. Results:, ATP-elicited delayed K+ current was not inhibited by a ,cocktail' of K+ channel blockers (4-AP, TEA, apamin, charybdotoxin, glibenclamide). The amplitude of the delayed K+ current decreased after the reduction of extracellular pH from 7.4 to 6.5. These two characteristics suggest that this current could be carried by the TASK subfamily of ,twin-pore potassium channels' (K2P). Purinergic agonists including dATP, but not ADP, activated the delayed K+ current, indicating that P2Y11 is the likely receptor involved in its activation. The PKC activator phorbol ester 12,13-didecanoate stimulated this current. In addition, the PKC inhibitor G 6850 partially inhibited it. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the genes encoding TASK-1 and TASK-2 are expressed. Conclusion:, Our results indicate that blocker cocktail-insensitive delayed K+ current in freshly dissociated aortic myocytes is probably carried by the TASK subfamily of twin-pore channels. [source]


    Xanthine-analog, KMUP-2, enhances cyclic GMP and K+ channel activities in rabbit aorta and corpus cavernosum with associated penile erection

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 3 2002
    Rong-Jyh Lin
    Abstract The pharmacological properties of KMUP-2 were examined in isolated rabbit aorta and corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). KMUP-2 caused relaxations that were attenuated by removed endothelium, high K+, and pretreatment with the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitors methylene blue (10 ,M) and ODQ (1 ,M), a NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (100 ,M), a K+ channel blocker TEA (10 mM), a KATP channel blocker glibenclamide (1 ,M), a voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker 4-AP (100 ,M), and the Ca2+ -dependent K+ channel blockers apamin (1 ,M) and charybdotoxin (ChTX, 0.1 ,M). The relaxant responses of KMUP-2 (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 ,M) together with a PDE inhibitor, IBMX (0.5 ,M), had additive effects on rabbit aorta and CCSM. Additionally, KMUP-2 (100 ,M) also affected cGMP metabolism, due to its inhibiting activity on PDE in human platelets. KMUP-2 (0.1,100 ,M) further induced an increase of intracellular cGMP levels in the primary cultured rabbit aortic and CCSM cells. These increases in cGMP content were abolished in the presence of methylene blue (100 ,M) and ODQ (10 ,M). Obviously, the relaxant effects of KMUP-2 on rabbit isolated tissues are more sensitive in CCSM than in aorta. Moreover, KMUP-2 also stimulated NO/sGC/cGMP pathway and subsequent elevation of cGMP by blockade of PDE and enhanced opening of K+ channels in rabbit aorta and CCSM. KMUP-2 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg), similar to KMUP-1 and sildenafil, caused increases of intracavernous pressure (ICP) and duration of tumescene (DT) in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that both the increases of cGMP and the opening activity of K+ channels play prominent roles in KMUP-2-induced aortic smooth muscle and CCSM relaxation and increases of ICP in rabbits. Drug Dev. Res. 55:162,172, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Anomia for people's names, a restricted form of transient epileptic amnesia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    F. Ghika-Schmid
    A 37-year-old man consulted after two episodes of transient anomia for people's names over a period of 6 months. The first episode lasted about 10 min and was restricted to an inability to remember his 2-year-old son's first name. The second, was limited to an inability to recall his daughter's first name for 5 min with clear abnormal experiential quality. Witnessed descriptions of the attacks confirmed the absence of any other cognitive impairment or motor automatisms. The neurological examination was normal except for hyposmia. Inter-ictal cognitive evaluation was normal apart from the anomia for people's names or retrieval of names of familiar people in his childhood on definition and on famous faces naming test. A wake electroencephalograph showed left temporal epileptiform abnormalities, following hyperpnea. On magnetic resonance imaging, quantitative analysis revealed a mildly decreased volume of the left hippocampus. The diagnosis of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) was considered and the patient did not recur for 6 months under lamotriginum. Thus anomia for people's names may be the sole clinical manifestation of TEA. Such a clinical presentation may easily be overlooked. Treatment may prevent further recurrence and the installation of more important and permanent autobiographical memory impairment. Our observation may suggest an isolated system not only for people's knowledge, but for people's naming. It is consistent with the notion of proper name as pure referring expression. [source]


    Electrical and neurotransmitter activity of mature neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells by Sox-1 lineage selection and directed differentiation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 12 2004
    R. J. Lang
    Abstract Sx1TV2/16C is a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line in which one copy of the Sox1 gene, an early neuroectodermal marker, has been targeted with a neomycin (G418) selection cassette. A combination of directed differentiation with retinoic acid and G418 selection results in an enriched neural stem cell population that can be further differentiated into neurons. After 6,7 days post-plating (D6,7PP) most neurons readily fired tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive action potentials due to the expression of TTX-sensitive Na+ and tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ channels. Neurons reached their maximal cell capacitance after D6,7PP; however, ion channel expression continued until at least D21PP. The percentage of cells receiving spontaneous synaptic currents (s.s.c.) increased with days in culture until 100% of cells received a synaptic input by D20PP. Spontaneous synaptic currents were reduced in amplitude and frequency by TTX, or upon exposure to a Ca2+ -free, 2.5 mm Mg2+ saline. S.s.c. of rapid decay time constants were preferentially blocked by the nonNMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists CNQX or NBQX. Ca2+ levels within ES cell-derived neurons increased in response to glutamate receptor agonists l -glutamate, AMPA, N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid and to acetylcholine, ATP and dopamine. ES cell-derived neurons also generated cationic and Cl, -selective currents in response to NMDA and glycine or GABA, respectively. It was concluded that ES-derived neurons fire action potentials, receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input and respond to various neurotransmitters in a manner akin to primary central neurons. [source]


    Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 12 2004
    Ruth E. Brooke
    Abstract Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05,0.5 mm), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25,150 nm) and Penitrem A (100 nm), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-m 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05,1 m. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ. [source]


    PACAP inhibits delayed rectifier potassium current via a cAMP/PKA transduction pathway: evidence for the involvement of IK in the anti-apoptotic action of PACAP

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 6 2004
    Y. A. Mei
    Abstract Activation of potassium (K+) currents plays a critical role in the control of programmed cell death. Because pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to inhibit the apoptotic cascade in the cerebellar cortex during development, we have investigated the effect of PACAP on K+ currents in cultured cerebellar granule cells using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. Two types of outward K+ currents, a transient K+ current (IA) and a delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) were characterized using two different voltage protocols and specific inhibitors of K+ channels. Application of PACAP induced a reversible reduction of the IK amplitude, but did not affect IA, while the PACAP-related peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide had no effect on either types of K+ currents. Repeated applications of PACAP induced gradual attenuation of the electrophysiological response. In the presence of guanosine 5,-[,thio]triphosphate (GTP,S), PACAP provoked a marked and irreversible IK depression, whereas cell dialysis with guanosine 5,-[,thio]diphosphate GDP,S totally abolished the effect of PACAP. Pre-treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin did not modify the effect of PACAP on IK. In contrast, cholera toxin suppressed the PACAP-induced inhibition of IK. Exposure of granule cells to dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) mimicked the inhibitory effect of PACAP on IK. Addition of the specific protein kinase A inhibitor H89 in the patch pipette solution prevented the reduction of IK induced by both PACAP and dbcAMP. PACAP provoked a sustained increase of the resting membrane potential in cerebellar granule cells cultured either in high or low KCl-containing medium, and this long-term depolarizing effect of PACAP was mimicked by the IK specific blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). In addition, pre-incubation of granule cells with TEA suppressed the effect of PACAP on resting membrane potential. TEA mimicked the neuroprotective effect of PACAP against ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death, and the increase of caspase-3 activity observed after exposure of granule cells to ethanol was also significantly inhibited by TEA. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that, in rat cerebellar granule cells, PACAP reduces the delayed outward rectifier K+ current by activating a type 1 PACAP (PAC1) receptor coupled to the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway through a cholera toxin-sensitive Gs protein. Our data also show that PACAP and TEA induce long-term depolarization of the resting membrane potential, promote cell survival and inhibit caspase-3 activity, suggesting that PACAP-evoked inhibition of IK contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of the peptide on cerebellar granule cells. [source]


    Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 7 2000
    Jean-Franois Perrier
    Abstract Explant cultures from the spinal cord of adult turtles were established and used to study the sensitivity of the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons to the changes in connectivity and milieu imposed by isolation in culture. Transverse sections 700 ,m thick were explanted on cover slips and maintained in roller-tube cultures in medium containing serum and the growth factors brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). The gross morphology of acute sections was maintained after 4 weeks in culture. Cell bodies of motoneurons remained stainable in fixed cultures with an antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) throughout the culture period. During culture, motoneurons maintained stable resting membrane potentials and were contacted by functional synapses. The ability to generate action potentials was also preserved as was delayed inward rectification and generation of calcium spikes in the presence of tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA). In response to depolarization, however, motoneurons presented strong outward rectification, and only 41% of the cells recorded from maintained the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels disappeared during the first few days in culture. Our observations show that the phenotypical intrinsic response properties of mature spinal motoneurons are modified in explant cultures. The properties acquired resemble the properties in juvenile motoneurons in several species of terrestrial vertebrates. [source]


    Combination of a hydroxy-functional organophosphorus oligomer and a multifunctional carboxylic acid as a flame retardant finishing system for cotton: Part II.

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 5 2003
    Formation of calcium salt during laundering
    Abstract Multifunctional carboxylic acids, such as 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), were used to bond a hydroxy-functional organophosphorus oligomer (FR) to cotton fabric in the presence of a catalyst, such as sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2). Previously, it was found that the cotton fabric treated with FR and BTCA showed a high level of phosphorus retention after one home laundering cycle. However, the flame retardant properties quickly deteriorated as the number of home laundering cycles was increased. In this research, it was found that the free carboxylic acid groups bound to the cotton fabric form an insoluble calcium salt during home laundering, thus diminishing the flame retardant properties of the treated cotton fabric. It was also found that the free carboxylic acid groups on the treated cotton fabric were esterified by triethanolamine (TEA), and that the formation of calcium salt on the fabric was suppressed by the esterification of the free carboxylic acid groups by TEA. The cotton fabric treated with BTCA and the hydroxy-functional organophosphorus oligomer significantly improved its flame retardance when a new catalyst system consisting of hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2) and TEA was used in the system. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Contribution of T-type VDCC to TEA-induced long-term synaptic modification in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 5 2002
    Dong Song
    Abstract We have previously reported that exposure to the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA), 25 mM, induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1, but not in the dentate gyrus (DG), of the rat hippocampal slice. During TEA application, stimulation of excitatory afferents results in a strong depolarizing potential after the fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in CA1, but not in DG. We hypothesized that the differential effect of TEA on long-term synaptic modification in CA1 and DG results from different levels of TEA-elicited depolarization in the two cell types. Additional pharmacological studies showed that blockade of T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) decreased both the magnitude of LTP and the late, depolarizing potential in CA1. Blockade of L-type VDCCs had no such effect. Using computer models of morphologically reconstructed CA1 pyramidal cells and DG granule cells, we tested our hypothesis by simulating the relative intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and membrane potential changes mediated by T-type and L-type VDCCs. Simulation results using pyramidal cell models showed that, with decreased maximum conductance of TEA-sensitive potassium channels, synaptic inputs elicited strong depolarizing potentials similar to those observed with intracellular recording. During this depolarization, VDCCs were opened and resulted in a large intracellular Ca2+ accumulation that presumably caused LTP. When T-type VDCCs were blocked, the magnitudes of both the Ca2+ accumulation and the late depolarizing potential were decreased substantially. Simulated blockade of L-type VDCCs had only a minor effect. Together, our modeling and experimental studies indicate that T-type VDCCs, rather than L-type VDCCs, are primarily responsible for facilitating the depolarizing potential caused by TEA and for the consequent Ca2+ influx. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that the induction of TEA-LTP in CA1 depends primarily on T-type, rather than L-type, VDCCs. Simulation results using modeled granule cells suggests that the failure of TEA to induce LTP in DG is partly due to a low density of T-type VDCCs in granule cell membranes. Hippocampus 2002;12:689,697. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Electrophysiological characterization of electrolyte and nutrient transport across the small intestine in horses

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 3 2009
    A. Cehak
    Summary The aim of this study was to characterize the transport mechanisms of electrolytes and nutrients across the jejunum of nine healthy horses electrophysiologically. The stripped mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers and tissue conductances (Gt) and short circuit currents (Isc) were continuously monitored. After blocking the sodium and potassium channels with amiloride, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) and barium, chloride secretion was stimulated by carbachol and forskolin. Subsequently, chloride channels were inhibited by 4,4,-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2,-disulfonic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, CFTRinh -172, N -(2-naphtalenyl)-(3.5-dibromo-2.4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101) and glibenclamide and their dose,response effect was investigated. The response to glucose, l -alanine and glycyl- l -glutamine was determined at two different mucosal pH values (pH 7.4 and 5.4 respectively). Mean basal Isc was ,0.47 0.31 ,Eq/cm2h and mean Gt was 22.17 1.78 mS/cm2. Amiloride and TEA did not alter the baseline Isc. Barium, carbachol and forskolin significantly increased Isc. Irrespective of the dose, none of the chloride inhibitors changed Isc. All nutrients induced a significant increase in Isc with the increase being significantly higher at pH 7.4 than at pH 5.4. In conclusion, there is evidence that chloride secretion in horses may be different from respective transport mechanisms in other species. The glucose absorption is suggestive of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1. However, a decrease in luminal pH did not stimulate current response to peptides as shown for other mammals. [source]


    FTIR, 1H-NMR spectra, and thermal characterization of water-based polyurethane/acrylic hybrids

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    O. R. Pardini
    Abstract Polyurethane (PU) polymer was synthesized following a prepolymer mixing process, by polyaddition of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (DMPA). The PU anionomer having 2-ethoxymethacrylate terminal groups was dispersed in water by prior neutralization of carboxylic acid groups of DMPA with triethylamine (TEA), chain extended with hydrazine (HZM) in water and a dispersion polymerization with methyl methacrylate/n -butyl acrylate/acrylic acid mixture was performed. The above polymerization reactions lead to the formation of PU/acrylic hybrids having a chemical bond between PU and acrylic moieties. Acrylic content was varied from 0 to 50 wt % and samples were purified to eliminate oligomers and impurities before characterization. The FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra of these purified hybrid samples were obtained and bands and peaks assignments were discussed. Thermal properties (DSC and TGA) were also discussed. Breaking hydrogen bonds is the main reason for changes in properties with increasing acrylic content. Particle size data of dispersions is also presented and discussed. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    TEA: Kenyan Prices Plummet

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 11 2009
    Article first published online: 23 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Vasomotion dynamics following calcium spiking depend on both cell signalling and limited constriction velocity in rat mesenteric small arteries

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    Ed VanBavel
    Abstract Vascular smooth muscle cell contraction depends on intracellular calcium. However, calcium-contraction coupling involves a complex array of intracellular processes. Quantitating the dynamical relation between calcium perturbations and resulting changes in tone may help identifying these processes. We hypothesized that in small arteries accurate quantitation can be achieved during rhythmic vasomotion, and questioned whether these dynamics depend on intracellular signalling or physical vasoconstriction. We studied calcium-constriction dynamics in cannulated and pressurized rat mesenteric small arteries (,300 ,m in diameter). Combined application of tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA) and BayK8644 induced rhythmicity, consisting of regular and irregular calcium spiking and superposition of spikes. Calcium spikes induced delayed vasomotion cycles. Their dynamic relation could be fitted by a linear second-order model. The dirac impulse response of this model had an amplitude that was strongly reduced with increasing perfusion pressure between 17 and 98 mmHg, while time to peak and relaxation time were the largest at an intermediate pressure (57 mmHg: respectively 0.9 and 2.3 sec). To address to what extent these dynamics reside in intracellular signalling or vasoconstriction, we applied rhythmic increases in pressure counteracting the vasoconstriction. This revealed that calcium-activation coupling became faster when vasoconstriction was counteracted. During such compensation, a calcium impulse response remained that lasted 0.5 sec to peak activation, followed by a 1.0 sec relaxation time, attributable to signalling dynamics. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitating calcium-activation dynamics in vasomoting small arteries. These dynamics relate to both intracellular sig-nalling and actual vasoconstriction. Performing such analyses during pharmacological intervention and in genetic models provides a tool for unravelling calcium-contraction coupling in small arteries. [source]


    OCTN3: A Na+ -independent L -carnitine transporter in enterocytes basolateral membrane

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    J.M. Durn
    L -carnitine transport has been measured in enterocytes and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from chicken intestinal epithelia. In the nominally Na+ -free conditions chicken enterocytes take up L -carnitine until the cell to medium L -carnitine ratio is 1. This uptake was inhibited by L -carnitine, D -carnitine, ,-butyrobetaine, acetylcarnitine, tetraethylammonium (TEA), and betaine. L - 3H-carnitine uptake into BLMV showed no overshoot, and it was (i) Na+ -independent, (ii) trans-stimulated by intravesicular L -carnitine, and (iii) cis-inhibited by TEA and cold L -carnitine. L - 3H-carnitine efflux from L - 3H-carnitine preloaded enterocytes was also Na+ -independent, and trans-stimulated by L -carnitine, D -carnitine, ,-butyrobetaine, acetylcarnitine, TEA, and betaine. Both, uptake and efflux of L -carnitine were inhibited by verapamil and unaffected by either extracellular pH or palmitoyl- L -carnitine. RT-PCR with specific primers for the mouse OCTN3 transporter revealed the existence of OCTN3 mRNA in mouse intestine, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization studies. Immunohystochemical analysis showed that OCTN3 protein was mainly associated with the basolateral membrane of rat and chicken enterocytes, whereas OCTN2 was detected at the apical membrane. In conclusion, the results demonstrate for the first time that (i) mammalian small intestine expresses OCTN3 mRNA along the villus and (ii) that OCTN3 protein is located in the basolateral membrane. They also suggest that OCTN3 could mediate the passive, Na+ and pH-independent L -carnitine transport activity measured in the three experimental conditions. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) assay in plasma and possible detection of patients with impaired dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 4 2004
    J. Ciccolini PharmD PhD
    Summary Background:, Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) gene polymorphism may lead to severe toxicity with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a major anticancer drug extensively used in clinical oncology. Drug monitoring combined with early detection of patients at risk would enable timely dose adaptation so as to maintain drug concentrations within a therapeutic window. However, the best method to identify such patients remains to be determined. Objective:, The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for estimating uracil/dihydrouracil (U/UH2) ratio in plasma, as an index of DPD status, and for assaying 5-FU as part of drug level monitoring. Method:, Assay of 5-FU, and U/UH2 detection were performed on a HPLC system equipped with UV detector. Analytes were separated at room temperature using a 5 ,m particles, 25 cm RP-18 X-Terra column. The mobile-phase consisted of a KH2PO4 salt solution (005 m) + 01% triethylamine (TEA) pumped at 04 mL/min. Detection of 5-FU and 5-bromouracil were performed at 254 nm; U and UH2 elution was monitored at 210 nm. Results:, The method was sensitive and specific for assaying 5-FU within the 5,500 ng/mL concentration range, which covers exposure levels currently met in clinical practice. The method was simple, and relatively cheap, and rapid, with an analytical run time of about 30 min. Data from a patient with 5-FU toxicity suggest that the method was capable of identifying DPD metabolic phenotype in cancer patients, based on measurement of plasma U/UH2 ratio. Conclusion:, The method described should be suitable both for detecting patients at high risk of 5-FU toxicity, and for drug level monitoring during chemotherapy. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM PARCHING GREEN TEA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    SHENG-DUN LIN
    ABSTRACT Cold and hot water extracts (2, 6 and 10%) were prepared from parching green tea and its antioxidant properties studied and potential antioxidant components determined. Yields of hot water extracts (17.53,28.63%) were significantly higher than those of cold water extracts (13.34,16.14%). The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values in antioxidant activity and reducing power were 2.17,2.75 and 0.22,0.30 mg/mL, respectively. Scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were comparable. EC50 values in scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions were 3.31,4.54 and 1.63,3.09 mg/mL, respectively. Contents of total phenols were 220.52,339.83 mg/g whereas those of total catechins in cold and hot water extracts were 130.22,146.28 mg/g and 136.40,191.33 mg/g, respectively. Based on the results obtained, hot water extracts were more effective in antioxidant activity, reducing power and scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals but less effective in chelating ability on ferrous ions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tea is one of popular drinks in the world. The consumption of green tea is especially popular in Asia, mainly for its health benefits. Parched tea is a Chinese style green tea, which is different from the Japanese style steamed tea. Recently, the tea prepared by brewing tea leaves in cold water has become a new choice in Taiwan in addition to traditionally hot water-brewed tea. Results from this research, the cold and hot water extracts of green tea are good antioxidant. Besides, green tea is also reported to reduce serum cholesterol levels and inhibit hypertension, mutagenesis, and tumourigenesis in several experiments in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the extract of green tea has the potential to be developed into new health foods, and the cold brewing would be a new alternative way to make a tea. [source]


    INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF WINE AND TEA AGAINST ,-AMYLASE AND ,-GLUCOSIDASE FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERGLYCEMIA LINKED TO TYPE 2 DIABETES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2008
    YOUNG-IN KWON
    ABSTRACT Natural ,-amylase and ,-glucosidase inhibitors from food-grade plants offer an attractive strategy to manage postprandial hyperglycemia for type 2 diabetes management via control of starch breakdown and intestinal glucose absorption. In this study, four random sources of red and white wines as well as four types of teas were investigated for ,-amylase and ,-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Water extracts of black tea had the highest ,-glucosidase inhibitory activity, followed by white tea and oolong tea. All the randomly selected red wines had significant ,-glucosidase inhibitory activity compared to white wine. The ,-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the tea and wines correlated to the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of the extracts. Further, these extracts had less or no ,-amylase inhibitory activity, indicating potential to overcome the side effects of undigested starch. This research has relevance for managing hyperglycemia and related oxidation-linked dysfunction and concurrently reducing problems of undigested starch. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS In this study anti-diabetic-relevant potential of wines and teas were confirmed in four types of red and white wines as well as four types of commonly available teas using in vitro enzyme assays for alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. In vitro inhibitory activities of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and dietary management strategy for type 2 diabetes through the control of glucose absorption. Further this phenolic antioxidant-enriched dietary strategy using specific beverage combinations can generate a whole food profile that has the potential to reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathogenesis and also associated complications linked to cellular oxidation stress. [source]


    Transungual iontophoretic transport of polar neutral and positively charged model permeants: Effects of electrophoresis and electroosmosis

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 2 2008
    Jinsong Hao
    Abstract Transungual iontophoretic transport of model neutral permeants mannitol (MA), urea (UR), and positively charged permeant tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) across fully hydrated human nail plates at pH 7.4 were investigated in vitro. Four protocols were involved in the transport experiments with each protocol divided into stages including passive and iontophoresis transport of 0.1 and 0.3 mA. Water and permeant uptake experiments of nail clippings were also conducted to characterize the hydration and binding effects of the permeants to the nails. Iontophoresis enhanced the transport of MA and UR from anode to cathode, but this effect (electroosmosis) was marginal. The transport of TEA was significantly enhanced by anodal iontophoresis and the experimental enhancement factors were consistent with the Nernst,Planck theory predictions. Hindered transport was also observed and believed to be critical in transungual delivery. The barrier of the nail plates was stable over the time course of the study, and no significant electric field-induced alteration of the barrier was observed. The present results with hydrated nail plates are consistent with electrophoresis-dominant (the direct field effect) transungual iontophoretic transport of small ionic permeants with small contribution from electroosmosis. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97:893,905, 2008 [source]


    Mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive effect caused by diphenyl diselenide in the formalin test

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 12 2008
    Lucielli Savegnago
    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action induced by diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2) in the formalin test. Mice were pre-treated with (PhSe)2 by the oral route (0.1,100 mg kg,1), 30 min before formalin injection. To address some of the mechanisms by which (PhSe)2 inhibits formalin-induced nociception mice were treated with different drugs. The antinociceptive effect of (PhSe)2 was shown in the first and second phases of the formalin test. The antinociceptive effect caused by (PhSe)2 (10 mg kg,1, p.o.) was prevented by intrathecal injection of K+ channel blockers such as apamin and charybdotoxin (small- and large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel inhibitors, respectively) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, a non-selective voltage-dependent K+ channel inhibitor), but not glib-enclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor). The antinociceptive action caused by (PhSe)2 (10 mg kg,1, p.o.) was also blocked by a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (N, -nitro- l -arginine, L-NOARG) and the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors 1H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and methylene blue. These results suggest the participation of NO/cyclic GMP/Ca2+ and K+ channel pathways in the antinociceptive effect caused by (PhSe)2. [source]


    Incentive Effects of Expanding Federal Mass Transit Formula Grants

    JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2001
    Stephen Schmidt
    Public subsidies to industries firms incentives to alter their behavior. When calculating the effects of such programs, previous assessments of transit subsidies have not included the effects of these incentives on the firms' output. This article reports the responses of mass transit firms to the federal transit subsidy program and changes the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA 21) made to that program, as predicted by a structural model of output choice. TEA 21 increases bus service in medium-sized cities by 6-8 percent, butincreases service in large cities by only 1-2 percent. The formula's incentive tier is weak, and the size of the subsidy depends little on whether that output results in increased ridership. The formula could be redesigned to provide stronger incentives to lower cost and increase ridership, thus encouraging a more efficient response from transit firms. 2001 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]


    Kinetic behavior of ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization in slurry and solution reactors

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 11 2005
    Long Wu
    Abstract The copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene over a spherical polymer/MgCl2 -supported TiCl4 catalyst was studied as a function of the polymerization temperature from 40 to 100 C in a slurry reactor and from 120 to 200 C in a solution reactor with triethylaluminum (TEA) as a cocatalyst (1.0,6.8 mmol). The activities increased from 40 to 80 C and then declined monotonically with increases in the temperature during the slurry and solution polymerizations. The kinetic behavior in the slurry and solution operations was described by the same rate expression. The modeling results indicated that the catalyst had at least two different types of catalytic sites; one site was responsible for the acceleration,decay nature of the activity profiles, whereas the second site resulted in long-term activity. The apparent activation energy for site activation in the slurry operation was 69.9 kJ/mol; no activation energies for site activation could be estimated for the solution operation because the activation process was essentially instantaneous at the higher temperatures. The activation energies for deactivation were 100.3 kJ/mol for the slurry operation and 31.2 kJ/mol for the solution operation. The responses to TEA were similar for the slurry and solution operations; the rates increased with increasing amounts of TEA between 1.0 and 3.4 mmol and then decreased with larger amounts of TEA. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 2248,2257, 2005 [source]


    Novel cyclohexyl-substituted salicylaldiminato,nickel(II) complex as a catalyst for ethylene homopolymerization and copolymerization

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 23 2004
    Junquan Sun
    Abstract The cyclohexyl-substituted salicylaldiminato,Ni(II) complex [O(3-C6H11)(5-CH3)C6H2CHN-2,6-C6H3iPr2]Ni(PPh3)(Ph) (4) has been synthesized and characterized with 1H NMR and X-ray structure analysis. In the presence of phosphine scavengers such as bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) [Ni(COD)2], triisobutylaluminum (TIBA), and triethylaluminum (TEA), 4 is an active catalyst for ethylene polymerization and copolymerization with the polar monomers tert -butyl-10-undecenoate, methyl-10-undecenoate, and 4-penten-1-ol under mild conditions. The polymerization parameters affecting the catalytic activity and viscosity-average molecular weight of polyethylene, such as the temperature, time, ethylene pressure, and catalyst concentration, are discussed. A polymerization activity of 3.62 105 g of PE (mol of Ni h),1 and a weight-average molecular weight of polyethylene of 5.73 104 g.mol,1 have been found for 10 ,mol of 4 and a Ni(COD)2/4 ratio of 3 in a 30-mL toluene solution at 45 C and 12 105 Pa of ethylene for 20 min. The polydispersity index of the resulting polyethylene is about 2.04. After the addition of tetrahydrofuran and Et2O to the reaction system, 4 exhibits still high activity for ethylene polymerization. Methyl-10-undecenoate (0.65 mol %), 0.74 mol % tert -butyl-10-undecenoate, and 0.98 mol % 4-penten-1-ol have been incorporated into the polymer. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 6071,6080, 2004 [source]


    Nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes with ,-dioxime ligands as catalysts for the vinyl polymerization of norbornene in combination with methylaluminoxane, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, or triethylaluminum cocatalyst systems,

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 21 2002
    Bernd Berchtold
    Abstract Nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes with ,-dioxime ligands dimethylglyoxime, diphenylglyoxime, and 1,2-cyclohexanedionedioxime represent six new precatalysts for the polymerization of norbornene that can be activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO), the organo-Lewis acid tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane [B(C6F5)3], and triethylaluminum (TEA) AlEt3. The palladium but not the nickel precatalysts could also be activated by B(C6F5)3 alone, whereas two of the three nickel precatalysts but none of the palladium systems are somewhat active with only TEA as a cocatalyst. It was possible to achieve very high polymerization activities up to 3.2 107 gpolymer/molmetal h. With the system B(C6F5)3/AlEt3, the activation process can be formulated as the following two-step reaction: (1) B(C6F5)3 and TEA lead to an aryl/alkyl group exchange and result in the formation of Al(C6F5)nEt3,n and B(C6F5)3,nEtn; and (2) Al(C6F5)nEt3,n will then react with the precatalysts to form the active species for the polymerization of norbornene. Variation of the B:Al ratio shows that Al(C6F5)Et2 is sufficient for high activation. Gel permeation chromatography indicated that it was possible to control the molar mass of poly(norbornene)s by TEA or 1-dodecene as chain-transfer agents; the molar mass can be varied in the number-average molecular weight range from 2 103 to 9 105 g mol,1. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 3604,3614, 2002 [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLE PREPARATION, PRESENTATION PROCEDURE AND SENSORY DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF GREEN TEA

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
    SOH MIN LEE
    ABSTRACT Although the infusing condition of green tea is critical in determining green tea quality, the green tea industries lack a validated standardized tea preparation procedure. The objectives were (1) to develop an effective sample preparation and presentation procedure to conduct an objective sensory analysis; and (2) to elucidate the effects of green tea types and infusing conditions on the sensory characteristics of green tea. The optimum infusing times for green tea at two temperatures (60 and 80C) were determined using the just-about-right scale evaluated by consumers. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted. The panelists developed 16 descriptors, and determined the reference samples and the tasting procedure. The optimum infusing time,temperature combinations are approximately 3 min at 60C or 1 min at 80C. The intensity of fermented-like flavor increased, but cut grass and floral flavor decreased with the lower-graded tea leaf. Samples infused at 60C,3 min were sweeter but less bitter than samples at 80C,1 min. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The sample preparation method and evaluating conditions developed in this study have been validated using both analytical and consumer studies. The protocols showed to be powerful in discriminating the sensory characteristics between the samples when conducting objective sensory analyses. The sensory lexicons and standards established should be useful to researchers and product developers who are working with flavors of green tea. Additionally, the sample preparation method and evaluation procedure introduced in this study are relatively straightforward, thus, making it possible for the general sensory scientist group to use an effective standardized method when conducting objective sensory analyses of green tea. [source]


    A LEXICON FOR FLAVOR DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF GREEN TEA

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 3 2007
    JEEHYUN LEE
    ABSTRACT A lexicon for describing green tea was developed using descriptive analysis methods. A highly trained, descriptive sensory panel identified, defined and referenced 31 flavor attributes for green tea. One-hundred and thirty-eight green tea samples from nine countries , China, India, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania and Vietnam , were selected to represent a wide range of green teas. Attributes could be categorized as "Green" (asparagus, beany, Brussels sprout, celery, parsley, spinach, green beans, green herb-like); "Brown" (ashy/sooty, brown spice, burnt/scorched, nutty, tobacco); "Fruity/Floral" (fruity, floral/perfumy, citrus, fermented); "Mouthfeel" (astringent, tooth-etching); "Basic Tastes" (overall sweet, bitter); and other attributes (almond, animalic, grain, musty/new leather, mint, seaweed, straw-like). Some attributes, such as green, brown, bitter, astringent and tooth-etching, were found in most samples, but many attributes were found in only a few samples. Green tea processors, food industry, researchers and consumers will benefit from this lexicon with precise definitions and references that reliably differentiate and characterize the sensory attributes of green teas. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Green tea (and white tea) processors, food industrialists, researchers and consumers will benefit from this lexicon with precise definitions and references that reliably differentiate and characterize the sensory attributes of green tea. [source]


    SELECTION OF AN ASTRINGENCY REFERENCE STANDARD FOR THE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BLACK TEA

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 2 2004
    ZUZANA DROBNA
    ABSTRACT Astringent and bitter sensations are characteristic sensory qualities of black tea. Three different classes of potential astringent reference standards (two concentrations each of alum and tannic acid and three fruit juices) were evaluated in this study. The perceived astringency, bitterness and sourness of each were profiled using computerized time-intensity and compared with the astringent intensity of a standardized brew of black tea. The differences in temporal profiles of potential reference standards across taste attributes were evident and intensity ratings were found to be dependent upon the stimulus and its concentration. Both concentrations of tannic acid were evaluated as the highest in perceived bitterness. For the juices, a strong sour taste was perceived in addition to astringency. It was concluded that the best reference standard for the astringency of black tea is a solution of 0.7 g/L alum as it is low in perceived bitterness and sourness. [source]


    Analysis of flunarizine in the presence of some of its degradation products using micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) or microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) , Application to dosage forms

    JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, JSS, Issue 2 2005
    Dina T. El-Sherbiny
    Abstract The separation of flunarizine hydrochloride (FLZ) and five of its degradation products , 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, 4-oxide (A), bis(4-fluorophenyl)methanone (B), bis(4-fluorophenyl)methanol (C), 1-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine (D), and 1-[bis-4-fluorophenyl) methyl] piperazine (E) , could be accomplished by reversed phase liquid chromatography using either micellar or microemulsion mobile phases. Cyanopropyl-bonded stationary phase has been used with UV detection at 254 nm. Microemulsion mobile phase consisting of 0.15 M SDS, 10% n -propanol, 1% n -octanol, and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid of pH 7.0, has been used for the separation of FLZ and its degradation products (B, C, D, and E). Micellar mobile phases consisting of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 10% n -propanol, 0.3% triethylamine (TEA) in 0.02 M phosphoric acid of pH values either 4.0 or 6.8 have been used for the separation of FLZ from its degradation products, i.e. either from (B, C, D, and E) or from (A, B, C, and D), respectively. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) was applied to the determination of FLZ in pure form as well as in dosage forms; the calibration graph was linear over the concentration range of 0.15,50 ,g/mL with detection limit of 0.02 ,g/mL (4.1910,8M). [source]


    Low-Temperature Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Powder Using Triethanolamine

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 10 2003
    Yangqiao Liu
    Nanocrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) was synthesized by pyrolysis of complex compounds of aluminum and yttrium with triethanolamine [(HOCH2CH2)3N, (TEA)]. Loose and porous precursor was obtained on complete dehydration of the metal ion,triethanolamine complexes. Pure YAG powder was obtained by calcination of the precursor at 950C. The precursor was characterized by simultaneous thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and mass spectra analyses (TG,DSC,MS). The heat-treated powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), specific surface area measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average crystallite size as determined from X-ray line broadening and transmission electron microscopy studies was ,40 nm. The effects of the calcination temperature and the ratio of triethanolamine to mixed metal ions were also studied. [source]


    Synthesis of Nanocrystalline ,-Alumina Powder Using Triethanolamine

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 12 2001
    Ranjan K. Pati
    Nanocrystalline ,-Al2O3 powders have been prepared by pyrolysis of a complex compound of aluminum with triethanolamine (TEA). The soluble metal-ion,TEA complex forms the precursor material on complete dehydration of the complex of aluminum-TEA. The single-phase ,-Al2O3 powder has resulted after heat treatment at 1025C. The precursors and the heat-treated final powders have been characterized by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average particle sizes as measured from X-ray line broadening and TEM are ,25 nm. The powder has crystallite sizes of the same order indicates the poor agglomeration of crystallites. [source]