Tarim Basin (tarim + basin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tarim Basin

  • northern tarim basin


  • Selected Abstracts


    KINETICS OF HYDROCARBON GAS GENERATION FROM MARINE KEROGEN AND OIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GASES IN THE HETIANHE GASFIELD, TARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Yunpeng Wang
    In this paper we derive kinetic parameters for the generation of gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-5) and methane (C1) from closed-system laboratory pyrolysis of selected samples of marine kerogen and oil from the SW Tarim Basin. The activation energy distributions for the generation of both C1-5 (Ea = 59-72kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1) and C1 (Ea = 61-78kcal, A = 6.061014 s,1) hydrocarbons from the marine oil are narrower than those for the generation of these hydrocarbons from marine kerogen (Ea = 50-74kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1 for C1-5; and Ea = 48-72kcal, A=3.91013 s,1 for C1, respectively). Using these kinetic parameters, both the yields and timings of C1-5 and C1 hydrocarbons generated from Cambrian source rocks and from in-reservoir cracking of oil in Ordovician strata were predicted for selected wells along a north-south profile in the SW of the basin. Thermodynamic conditions for the cracking of oil and kerogen were modelled within the context of the geological framework. It is suggested that marine kerogen began to crack at temperatures of around 120C (or 0.8 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 138C (or 1.05 %Ro); whereas the marine oil began to crack at about 140 C (or 1.1 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 158 C (or 1.6%Ro). The main geological controls identified for gas accumulations in the Bachu Arch (Southwest Depression, SW Tarim Basin) include the remaining gas potential following Caledonian uplift; oil trapping and preservation in basal Ordovician strata; the extent of breaching of Ordovician reservoirs; and whether reservoir burial depths are sufficiently deep for oil cracking to have occurred. In the Maigaiti Slope and Southwest Depression, the timing of gas generation was later than that in the Bachu Arch, with much higher yields and generation rates, and hence better prospects for gas exploration. It appears from the gas generation kinetics that the primary source for the gases in the Hetianhe gasfield was the Southwest Depression. [source]


    POTENTIAL STRUCTURAL TRAPS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER CARBONIFEROUS SALT IN THE NORTHERN TARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Jiangyu Zhou
    In the Aixieke-Santamu area of the northern Tarim Basin (NW China), 45 relatively low amplitude structures related to the plastic flow of Lower Carboniferous salt have been discovered in the Lower Carboniferous Kalashayi Formation and the Middle-Upper Triassic Akekule and Halahatan Formations. Three small hydrocarbon accumulations have so far been located at the margins of a Lower Carboniferous salt body (measuring about 55km x 75km and 115,225m thick, controlled by wells and 2D and 3D seismic sections). In this paper, we consider the development of this salt body and discuss possible reasons why vertical diapirs are absent from the study area. We attempt to develop a model of salt flow and we investigate the relationship between salt flow and the occurrence of oil and gas traps. Using recently-acquired high-resolution 2D and 3D seismic profiles, we show that the Lower Carboniferous salt has undergone three separate phases of plastic flow. At the end of the Early Permian, the salt flowed southwards by 2.0,2.8 km; then, during the Late Triassic,Early Jurassic, it flowed in the same direction by 1.0,1.8 km; and finally at the end of the Tertiary, it flowed northwards by 0.6,1.5 km. These movements resulted in the formation of various types of structural trap in the Kalashayi, Akekule and Halahatan Formations including salt ridge anticlines, domes and marginal troughs. Salt ridge and salt edge low-amplitude anticlines are probably the most important targets for future hydrocarbon exploration. [source]


    KINETICS OF HYDROCARBON GAS GENERATION FROM MARINE KEROGEN AND OIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GASES IN THE HETIANHE GASFIELD, TARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Yunpeng Wang
    In this paper we derive kinetic parameters for the generation of gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-5) and methane (C1) from closed-system laboratory pyrolysis of selected samples of marine kerogen and oil from the SW Tarim Basin. The activation energy distributions for the generation of both C1-5 (Ea = 59-72kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1) and C1 (Ea = 61-78kcal, A = 6.061014 s,1) hydrocarbons from the marine oil are narrower than those for the generation of these hydrocarbons from marine kerogen (Ea = 50-74kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1 for C1-5; and Ea = 48-72kcal, A=3.91013 s,1 for C1, respectively). Using these kinetic parameters, both the yields and timings of C1-5 and C1 hydrocarbons generated from Cambrian source rocks and from in-reservoir cracking of oil in Ordovician strata were predicted for selected wells along a north-south profile in the SW of the basin. Thermodynamic conditions for the cracking of oil and kerogen were modelled within the context of the geological framework. It is suggested that marine kerogen began to crack at temperatures of around 120C (or 0.8 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 138C (or 1.05 %Ro); whereas the marine oil began to crack at about 140 C (or 1.1 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 158 C (or 1.6%Ro). The main geological controls identified for gas accumulations in the Bachu Arch (Southwest Depression, SW Tarim Basin) include the remaining gas potential following Caledonian uplift; oil trapping and preservation in basal Ordovician strata; the extent of breaching of Ordovician reservoirs; and whether reservoir burial depths are sufficiently deep for oil cracking to have occurred. In the Maigaiti Slope and Southwest Depression, the timing of gas generation was later than that in the Bachu Arch, with much higher yields and generation rates, and hence better prospects for gas exploration. It appears from the gas generation kinetics that the primary source for the gases in the Hetianhe gasfield was the Southwest Depression. [source]


    HYDROTHERMALLY FLUORITIZED ORDOVICIAN CARBONATES AS RESERVOIR ROCKS IN THE TAZHONG AREA, CENTRALTARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Zhijun Jin
    Reservoir rocks at the Tazhong 45 oil pool, central Tarim Basin, consist of fluoritized carbonate strata of Middle - Late Ordovician age. Petrological observations indicate that the fluorite replaces calcite. Several other hydrothermal minerals including pyrite, quartz, sphalerite and chlorite accompany the fluorite. Two generations of fluid inclusions are present in the fluorite. Homogenization temperatures (Th) for primary inclusions are mostly between 260C and 310C and represent the temperature of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for fluorite precipitation. Th for secondary inclusions range from 100C to 130C, and represent the hydrocarbon charging temperature as shown by the presence of hydrocarbons trapped in some secondary inclusions. The mineral assemblage and the homogenization temperatures of the primary fluid inclusions indicate that the precipitation of fluorite is related to hydrothermal activity in the Tazhong area. Strontium isotope analyses imply that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for fluorite precipitation are related to late-stage magmatic activity, and felsic magmas were generated by mixing of mafic magma and crustal materials during the Permian. Theoretical calculations show that the molecular volume of a carbonate rock decreases by 33.5% when calcite is replaced by fluorite, and the volume shrinkage can greatly enhance reservoir porosity by the formation of abundant intercrystalline pores. Fluoritization has thus greatly enhanced the reservoir quality of Ordovician carbonates in the Tazhong 45 area, so that the fluorite and limestone host rocks have become an efficient hydrocarbon reservoir. According to the modelled burial and thermal history of the Tazhong 45 well, and the homogenization temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in the fluorite, hydrocarbon charging at the Tazhong 45 reservoir took place in the Tertiary. [source]


    POTENTIAL STRUCTURAL TRAPS ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER CARBONIFEROUS SALT IN THE NORTHERN TARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Jiangyu Zhou
    In the Aixieke-Santamu area of the northern Tarim Basin (NW China), 45 relatively low amplitude structures related to the plastic flow of Lower Carboniferous salt have been discovered in the Lower Carboniferous Kalashayi Formation and the Middle-Upper Triassic Akekule and Halahatan Formations. Three small hydrocarbon accumulations have so far been located at the margins of a Lower Carboniferous salt body (measuring about 55km x 75km and 115,225m thick, controlled by wells and 2D and 3D seismic sections). In this paper, we consider the development of this salt body and discuss possible reasons why vertical diapirs are absent from the study area. We attempt to develop a model of salt flow and we investigate the relationship between salt flow and the occurrence of oil and gas traps. Using recently-acquired high-resolution 2D and 3D seismic profiles, we show that the Lower Carboniferous salt has undergone three separate phases of plastic flow. At the end of the Early Permian, the salt flowed southwards by 2.0,2.8 km; then, during the Late Triassic,Early Jurassic, it flowed in the same direction by 1.0,1.8 km; and finally at the end of the Tertiary, it flowed northwards by 0.6,1.5 km. These movements resulted in the formation of various types of structural trap in the Kalashayi, Akekule and Halahatan Formations including salt ridge anticlines, domes and marginal troughs. Salt ridge and salt edge low-amplitude anticlines are probably the most important targets for future hydrocarbon exploration. [source]


    Climatic change during the last 4000 years in the southern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, northwest China,

    JOURNAL OF QUATERNARY SCIENCE, Issue 7 2007
    Wei Zhong
    Abstract In this study, a ca. 4000,cal. yr ancient lacustrine (or wetland) sediment record at the southern margin of Tarim Basin is used to reconstruct the history of climate change. Six radiocarbon dates on organic matter were obtained. ,18O and ,13C of carbonate, pollen and sediment particle size were analysed for climate proxies. The proxies indicate that a drier climate prevailed in the area before ca. 1010 BC and during period 1010 BC,AD 500 climate then changed rapidly and continuously from dry to moist, but after about AD 500 climate generally shows dry condition. Several centennial-scale climatic events were revealed, with the wettest spell during AD 450,550, and a relatively wetter interval between AD 930,1030. Pollen results show that regional climate may influence human agricultural activities. Spectral analysis of mean grain size (MGS) proxy reveals statistically pronounced cyclic signals, such as ca. 200,yr, ca. 120,yr, ca. 90,yr, ca. 45,yr and ca. 33 or 30,yr, which may be associated with solar activities, implying that solar variability plays an important role in the decadal- and centennial-scale climate variations in the study area. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Yinqiu Cui
    Abstract The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. Am J Phys Anthropol 142:558,564, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia?

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang
    Abstract Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Tklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Detrital zircon geochronology and its provenance implications: responses to Jurassic through Neogene basin-range interactions along northern margin of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
    Zhong Li
    ABSTRACT Previously published research from the Kuqa Subbasin along northern margin of the Tarim Basin shows five tectonic-depositional phases from Triassic to Neogene time. In order to reveal additional detailed information on the nature of provenance terrains and tectonic attributes since late Mesozoic time, five typical sandstone samples from Jurassic,Neogene strata were collected for U,Pb dating of detrital zircons. Geochronological constitution of detrital zircons of the Middle Jurassic sample is essentially unimodal and indicates major contributions from the South Tian Shan even Yili,Central Tian Shan, wherein most 370,450 Ma zircons probably resulted from tectonic accretion events between the Yili,Central Tian Shan block and South Tian Shan Ocean during Silurian and Devonian time, with sandstone provenance tectonic attributes of passive continental margin. The Lower Cretaceous sample shows a complicated provenance detrital zircon signature, with new peak ages of 290,330 Ma as well as 370(or 350),450 Ma showing evident arc orogenic provenance tectonic attribute, probably reflecting a new provenance supply that resulted from denudation process whthin the South Tian Shan and South Tian Shan suture. There are no obvious changes within age probability spectra of detrital zircons between the Cretaceous and early Paleogene samples, which suggests that similar provenance types and basin-range framework continued from Cretaceous to Early Paleogene time. However, unlike the Cretaceous and early Paleogene samples, an age spectra of the Miocene sample is relatively unimodal and similar to that of the Pliocene sample, with peak ages ranging between ,392 and ,458 Ma older than the comparable provenance ages (peak ages about 370,450 Ma) of the Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous samples. Therefore, we conclude that the South Tian Shan was rapidly exhumated and the southern South Tian Shan had become the main source of clastics for the Kuqa Subbasin since the Miocene epoch. [source]


    Multiple-Element Matching Reservoir Formation and Quantitative Prediction of Favorable Areas in Superimposed Basins

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    WANG Huaijie
    Abstract: Superimposed basins in West China have experienced multi-stage tectonic events and multicycle hydrocarbon reservoir formation, and complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been discovered widely in basins of this kind. Most of the complex hydrocarbon reservoirs are characterized by relocation, scale re-construction, component variation and phase state transformation, and their distributions are very difficult to predict. Research shows that regional caprock (C), high-quality sedimentary facies (Deposits, D), paleohighs (Mountain, M) and source rock (S) are four geologic elements contributing to complex hydrocarbon reservoir formation and distribution of western superimposed basins. Longitudinal sequential combinations of the four elements control the strata of hydrocarbon reservoir formation, and planar superimpositions and combinations control the range of hydrocarbon reservoir and their simultaneous joint effects in geohistory determine the time of hydrocarbon reservoir formation. Multiple-element matching reservoir formation presents a basic mode of reservoir formation in superimposed basins, and we recommend it is expressed as T-CDMS. Based on the multiple-element matching reservoir formation mode, a comprehensive reservoir formation index (Tcdms) is developed in this paper to characterize reservoir formation conditions, and a method is presented to predict reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in superimposed basins. Through application of new theory, methods and technology, the favorable reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in the Ordovician target zone in Tarim Basin in four different reservoir formation periods are predicted. Results show that central Tarim, Yinmaili and Lunnan are the three most favorable regions where Ordovician oil and gas fields may have formed. The coincidence of prediction results with currently discovered hydrocarbon reservoirs reaches 97%. This reflects the effectiveness and reliability of the new theory, methods and technology. [source]


    Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    PANG Hong
    Abstract: Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations, reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages. They are characterized currently by trap adjustment, component variation, phase conversion, and scale reformation. This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources. Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs, there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages: tectonic event intensity, frequency, time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution. Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity, the more frequent the tectonic event, the later the last tectonic event, the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas, and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages. Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms, a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established. The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin, where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred. Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184 billion tons, of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed. The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is ,1.9 billion tons. [source]


    Comparison of the Surface and Underground Natural Gas Occurrences in the Tazhong Uplift of the Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    TIAN Jun
    Abstract: The oil, gas and water volumes revealed by the productivity of exploratory wells do not reflect the actual underground situations. Under the geologic conditions, a certain amount of dissolved natural gas is stored in oil or water. Based on the production test data of exploratory wells in the Tazhong uplift of the Tarim basin, this paper discusses in detail the differences in occurrence and distribution featrues between the surface and underground natural gases; presents a restoration of the surface gas occurrence to actual underground geologic conditions according to the dissolubility of natural gas under different temperature, pressure and medium conditions; and classifies the natural gas into three states, i.e. the oversaturated, saturated and undersaturated, according to its relative content underground. Through a comparative analysis of the differences in surface and underground occurrences of natural gas, it discusses the hydrocarbon reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules, thereby providing guidances as new methods and technologies for the prediction of potential natural gas reservoir distribution in the study area. [source]


    Logging Evaluation of the Ordovician Carbonate Reservoir Beds in the Lungudong Region, Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    YANG Wenjing
    Abstract: In recent years, great progress has been made constantly in oil and gas exploration in the Lungudong region of the Tarim Basin. However, progress has been slow in the evaluation of its main oil-producing horizons , the Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds. Based on previous researches and on the various data such as drilling, geology and oil test, in combination with the interpretation of each single-well imaging and conventional logging data, and through analysis and comparison, the identification methods in imaging and conventional logging for four types of carbonate reservoir beds in this region are summarized in this paper. Calculation formulas for four reservoir bed parameters, i. e. shale content, porosity, permeability and oil saturation in this region are proposed; and reservoir beds in this region are divided into three levels (I, II and III) by combining oil test data and logging data, The lower limits of the effective porosity of reservoir beds and the fracture porosity of effective reservoir beds are determined as 1.8% and 0.04%, respectively. The physical property parameters are calculated by conventional logging curves, and the most advantageous areas for reservoir development are predicted comprehensively. On the plane, the high-value zones of reservoir bed parameters are mainly concentrated in the N-S-trending strike-slip fault, the Sangtamu fault horst zone and near the LG38 well area; vertically, the reservoir bed parameters of the Yijianfang Formation are better than those of the Yingshan and Lianglitage formations. [source]


    Origin of Crude Oil in the Lunnan Region, Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    LI Sumei
    Abstract: The oil source of the Tarim Basin has been controversial over a long time. This study characterizes the crude oil and investigates the oil sources in the Lunnan region, Tarim Basin by adopting compound specific isotopes of n -alkanes and biomarkers approaches. Although the crude oil has a good correlation with the Middle-Upper Ordovician (O2+3) source rocks and a poor correlation with the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician (,-O1) based on biomarkers, the ,13C data of n -alkanes of the Lunnan oils show an intermediate value between ,-O1 and O2+3 genetic affinity oils, which suggests that the Lunnan oils are actually of an extensively mixed source. A quantification of oil mixing was performed and the results show that the contribution of the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks ranges from 11% to 70% (averaging 36%), slightly less than that of the Tazhong uplift. It is suggested that the inconsistency between the biomarkers and ,13C in determining the oil sources in the Lunnan Region results from multiple petroleum charge episodes with different chemical components in one or more episode(s) and different sources. The widespread marine mixed-source oil in the basin indicates that significant petroleum potential in deep horizons is possible. To unravel hydrocarbons accumulation mechanisms for the Lunnan oils is crucial to further petroleum exploration and exploitation in the region. [source]


    Ordovician Carbonate Reservoir Bed Characteristics and Reservoir-Forming Conditions in the Lungudong Region of the Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    WANG Weili
    Abstract: Basic characteristics of Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds in the Lungudong region of northeastern part of the Tarim Basin are described in detail and the reservoir-forming conditions of oil and gas are preliminarily discussed in this paper by collecting and sorting out a large amount of data. The carbonate reservoir beds are mainly developed in open-platform and platform marginal facies; the reservoir beds have large changes in and low average values of physical property; the main type is fractured reservoir beds with the fracture-porous type second. The reservoir bed development is chiefly controlled by the distribution of sedimentary facies, tectonic activity and karstification. Whereas the accumulation and distribution of hydrocarbons in the region are controlled by an advantageous structural location, a good reservoir-caprock combination and a favorable transporting system, with the distribution characterized by zones horizontally and belts vertically, the oil and gas are mainly concentrated in areas with structural uplift, densely developed fractures, and surface karst, a vertical vadose zone, and a horizontal undercurrent belt of palaeokarst. [source]


    Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Ordovician Carbonate in Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    LI Qiming
    Abstract: Based on comprehensive analysis of reservoir-forming conditions, the diversity of reservoir and the difference of multistage hydrocarbon charge are the key factors for the carbonate hydrocarbon accumulation of the Ordovician in the Tarim Basin. Undergone four major deposition-tectonic cycles, the Ordovician carbonate formed a stable structural framework with huge uplifts, in which are developed reservoirs of the reef-bank type and unconformity type, and resulted in multistage hydrocarbon charge and accumulation during the Caledonian, Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan. With low matrix porosity and permeability of the Ordovician carbonate, the secondary solution pores and caverns serve as the main reservoir space. The polyphase tectonic movements formed unconformity reservoirs widely distributed around the paleo-uplifts; and the reef-bank reservoir is controlled by two kinds of sedimentary facies belts, namely the steep slope and gentle slope. The unconventional carbonate pool is characterized by extensive distribution, no obvious edge water or bottom water, complicated oil/gas/water relations and severe heterogeneity controlled by reservoirs. The low porosity and low permeability reservoir together with multi-period hydrocarbon accumulation resulted in the difference and complex of the distribution and production of oil/gas/water. The distribution of hydrocarbon is controlled by the temporal-spatial relation between revolution of source rocks and paleo-uplifts. The heterogenetic carbonate reservoir and late-stage gas charge are the main factors making the oil/ gas phase complicated. The slope areas of the paleo-uplifts formed in the Paleozoic are the main carbonate exploration directions based on comprehensive evaluation. The Ordovician of the northern slope of the Tazhong uplift, Lunnan and its periphery areas are practical exploration fields. The Yengimahalla-Hanikatam and Markit slopes are the important replacement targets for carbonate exploration. Gucheng, Tadong, the deep layers of Cambrian dolomite in the Lunnan and Tazhong-Bachu areas are favorable directions for research and risk exploration. [source]


    Tectono-thermal Evolution in the Bachu Uplift, Tarim Basin, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    QIU Nansheng
    Abstract: The thermal evolution of source rocks in the Paleozoic has long been a problem to petroleum exploration in the Bachu uplift, Tarim basin, since the thermal history in the Paleozoic could not be rebuilt objectively due to lack of effective thermal indicators in the Lower Paleozoic successions. The apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry can be used as a new kind of technique to study the thermal history and tectonic uplift of sedimentary basins. Based on the measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track data and equivalence vitrinite reflectance (%EVRo), the tectonothermal histories in 5 wells of the Bachu uplift were modeled. The modeling results show that there was relatively high gradient at the Early Paleozoic in the Bachu uplift and it decreased gradually during the entire Paleozoic: 33,35C/km in the Cambrian-Ordovician, 32,33C/km in the Silurian-Devonian, 30,32C/km at the end of Carboniferous and 27.5,31C/km at the end of Permian. Therefore, the thermal history can be modeled by combining multiple thermal indicators of AFT, (U-Th)/He ages and EVRo data. Especially, this provides a new method to rebuild the thermal history for the Low Paleozoic carbonate successions in the Tarim Basin. [source]


    Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction in the Tazhong District, Tarim Basin, Northeast China: Evidence from Formation Water and Natural Gas Geochemistry

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2010
    Caifu XIANG
    Abstract: Systematic analyses of the formation water and natural gas geochemistry in the Central Uplift of the Tarim Basin (CUTB) show that gas invasion at the late stage is accompanied by an increase of the contents of H2S and CO2 in natural gas, by the forming of the high total dissolved solids formation water, by an increase of the content of HCO,3, relative to Cl,, by an increase of the 2nd family ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) and by a decrease of the content of SO2,4, relative to Cl,. The above phenomena can be explained only by way of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). TSR often occurs in the transition zone of oil and water and is often described in the following reaction formula: ,CH+CaSO4+H- 2O,H2S+CO2+CaCO3. (1) Dissolved SO2,4 in the formation water is consumed in the above reaction, when H2S and CO2 are generated, resulting in a decrease of SO2,4 in the formation water and an increase of both H2S and CO2 in the natural gas. If formation water exists, the generated CO2 will go on reacting with the carbonate to form bicarbonate, which can be dissolved in the formation water, thus resulting in the enrichment of Ca2+ and HCO,3. The above reaction can be described by the following equation: CO2+H2O+CaCO3,Ca2++2HCO,3. The stratigraphic temperatures of the Cambrian and lower Ordovician in CUTB exceeded 120C, which is the minimum for TSR to occur. At the same time, dolomitization, which might be a direct result of TSR, has been found in both the Cambrian and the lower Ordovician. The above evidence indicates that TSR is in an active reaction, providing a novel way to reevaluate the exploration potentials of natural gas in this district. [source]


    Oil and Gas Accumulation in the Foreland Basins, Central and Western China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2010
    Yan SONG
    Abstract: Foreland basin represents one of the most important hydrocarbon habitats in central and western China. To distinguish these foreland basins regionally, and according to the need of petroleum exploration and favorable exploration areas, the foreland basins in central and western China can be divided into three structural types: superimposed, retrogressive and reformative foreland basin (or thrust belt), each with distinctive petroleum system characteristics in their petroleum system components (such as the source rock, reservoir rock, caprock, time of oil and gas accumulation, the remolding of oil/gas reservoir after accumulation, and the favorable exploration area, etc.). The superimposed type foreland basins, as exemplified by the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin, characterized by two stages of early and late foreland basin development, typically contain at least two hydrocarbon source beds, one deposited in the early foreland development and another in the later fault-trough lake stage. Hydrocarbon accumulations in this type of foreland basin often occur in multiple stages of the basin development, though most of the highly productive pools were formed during the late stage of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment (Himalayan period). This is in sharp contrast to the retrogressive foreland basins (only developing foreland basin during the Permian to Triassic) such as the western Sichuan Basin, where prolific hydrocarbon source rocks are associated with sediments deposited during the early stages of the foreland basin development. As a result, hydrocarbon accumulations in retrogressive foreland basins occur mainly in the early stage of basin evolution. The reformative foreland basins (only developing foreland basin during the Himalayan period) such as the northern Qaidam Basin, in contrast, contain organic-rich, lacustrine source rocks deposited only in fault-trough lake basins occurring prior to the reformative foreland development during the late Cenozoic, with hydrocarbon accumulations taking place relatively late (Himalayan period). Therefore, the ultimate hydrocarbon potentials in the three types of foreland basins are largely determined by the extent of spatial and temporal matching among the thrust belts, hydrocarbon source kitchens, and regional and local caprocks. [source]


    Geologic Characteristics of Volcanic Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Exploration Directions in China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2010
    Caineng ZOU
    Abstract: Volcanic rocks are distributed widely in China, which are important exploration targets. By analyzing many discovered volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs all over the world, the authors summarized the geologic characteristics of the formation of volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in China, and gave further exploration directions and advices. (1) There are mainly Carboniferous-Permian, Jurassic-Cretaceous, Paleogene-Neogene volcanic rocks in oil- and gas-bearing basins in China, which are mainly distributed in the Junggar Basin, Songliao Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, etc. There are mainly intermediate rocks and acidic rocks in east China, and intermediate rocks and basic rocks in west China. They primarily develop in intracontinental rift settings and island are environments. (2) Porefissure reservoirs are distributed widely in basins, which are volcanic rocks mainly in explosive and effusive facies. (3) Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are chiefly near-source lithostratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the oil and gas accumulation is predominantly controlled by lithotypes, faults and structural positions. (4) Deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs in the Songliao Basin and Carboniferous volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Junggar Basin are potential giant volcanic gas provinces, the volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Bohai Bay Basin and Santanghu Basin are favorable for oil and gas reserves increase, and volcanic rocks in the Turpan Basin, Sichuan Basin, Tarim Basin have exploration potentiality. (5) The technology series of oil and gas exploration in volcanic rocks have been preliminarily formed. [source]


    High-Resolution Records of the Holocene Paleoenvironmental Variation Reflected by Carbonate and Its Isotopic Compositions in Bosten Lake and Response to Glacial Activities

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 6 2009
    ZHANG Chengjun
    Abstract: The Early Holocene paleoclimate in Bosten Lake on the northern margin of the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang, is reconstructed through an analysis of a 953 cm long core (BSTC2000) taken from Bosten Lake. Multiple proxies of this core, including the mineral components of carbonate, carbonate content, stable isotopic compositions of carbonate, Ca/Sr, TOC and C/N and C/S of organic matter, are used to reconstruct the climatic change since 8500 a B.P. The chronology model is made by nine AMS 14C ages of leaves, seeds and organic matter contained in two parallel cores. The climate was cold and wet during 8500 to 8100 a B.P. Temperature increased from 8100 to 6400 a B.P., the climate was warm and humid, and the lake expanded. The lake level was highest during this stage. Then from 6400 to 5100 a B.P., the climate became cold and the lake level decreased slightly. During the late mid-Holocene, the climate was hot and dry from 5100 to 3100 a B.P., but there was a short cold period during 4400 to 3800 a B.P. At this temporal interval, a mass of ice and snow melting water supplied the lake at the early time and made the lake level rise. The second highest lake level stage occurred during 5200 to 3800 a B.P. The climate was cool and wet during 3100 to 2200 a B.P., when the lake expanded with decreasing evaporation. The lake had the last short-term high level during 3100 to 2800 a B.P. After this short high lake level period, the lake shrank because of the long-term lower temperature and reduced water supply. From 2200 to 1200 a B.P., the climate was hot and dry, and the lake shrank greatly. Although the temperature decreased somewhat from 1200 a B.P. to the present, the climate was warm and dry. The lake level began to rise a little again, but it did not reach the river bed altitude of the Konqi River, an outflow river of the Bosten Lake. [source]


    Origin and Distribution of Hydrogen Sulfide in Oil-Bearing Basins, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 6 2009
    ZHU Guangyou
    Abstract: The concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) varies greatly in the oil-bearing basins of China, from zero to 90%. At present, oil and gas reservoirs with high H2S concentration have been discovered in three basins, viz. the Bohai Bay Basin, Sichuan Basin and the Tarim Basin, whereas natural gas with low H2S concentration has been found in the Ordos Basin, the Songliao Basin and the Junggar Basin. Studies suggest that in China H2S origin types are very complex. In the carbonate reservoir of the Sichuan Basin, the Ordos Basin and the Tarim Basin, as well as the carbonate-dominated reservoir in the Luojia area of the Jiyang depression in the Bohai Bay Basin, Wumaying areas of the Huanghua depression, and Zhaolanzhuang areas of the Jizhong depression, the H2S is of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR) origin. The H2S is of Bacterial Sulphate Reduction (BSR) origin deduced from the waterflooding operation in the Changheng Oilfield (placanticline oil fields) in the Songliao Basin. H2S originates from thermal decomposition of sulfur-bearing crude oil in the heavy oil area in the Junggar Basin and in the Liaohe heavy oil steam pilot area in the western depression of the Bohai Bay Basin. The origin types are most complex, including TSR and thermal decomposition of sulfcompounds among other combinations of causes. Various methods have been tried to identify the origin mechanism and to predict the distribution of H2S. The origin identification methods for H2S mainly comprise sulfur and carbon isotopes, reservoir petrology, particular biomarkers, and petroleum geology integrated technologies; using a combination of these applications can allow the accurate identification of the origins of H2S. The prediction technologies for primary and secondary origin of H2S have been set up separately. [source]


    Structural Evolution of the Eastern Qiulitagh Fold and Thrust Belt, Northern Tarim Basin, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2009
    Minghui YANG
    Abstract: The eastern Qiulitagh fold and thrust belt (EQFTB) is part of the active Kuqa fold and thrust belts of the northern Tarim Basin. Seismic reflection profiles have been integrated with surface geologic and drill data to examine the deformation and structure style of the EQFTB, particularly the deformational history of the Dina 2 gas field. Seismic interpretations suggest that Dongqiu 8 is overall a duplex structure developed beneath a passive roof thrust, which generated from a tipline in the Miocene Jidike Formation, and the sole thrust was initiated from the same Jidike Formation evaporite zone that extends westward beneath the Kuqatawu anticline. Dongqiu 5 is a pop-up structure at the western part of the EQFTB, also developed beneath the Jidike Formation evaporite. Very gentle basement dip and steep dipping topographic slope in the EQFTB suggest that the Jidike Formation salt provides effective decoupling. The strong deformation in the EQFTB appears to have developed further south, in an area where evaporite may be lacking. Since the Pliocene, the EQFTB has moved farther south over the evaporite and reached the Yaken area. Restoring a balanced cross-section suggests that the minimum shortening across the EQFTB is more than 7800 m. Assuming that this shortening occurred during the 5.3 Ma timespan, the shortening rate is approximately 1.47 mm/year. [source]


    Sedimentary Response of Different Fan Types to the Paleogene,Neogene Basin Transformation in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2009
    Zhiyong GAO
    Abstract: A group of alluvial fans formed in the early Paleogene represent marginal sedimentary facies at the foot of the South Tianshan Mountain, Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang province. Two types of fans occurred in the middle,late Paleogene Kumugeliemu and Suweiyi formations: one alluvial, and the other fan delta deposited in a lacustrine setting. Within the early Neogene Jidike Formation, coastal subaqueous fans developed, probably in a deeper water lacustrine setting. The three types of fans are stacked vertically in outcrop with the sequence in ascending order: bottom alluvial, middle fan-delta, and top subaqueous. The subaqueous is a typical coarse-fan deposit occurring in the glutinite member of the Jidike Formation in some wells. Laterally, from the foreland to the lacustrine settings, the distribution pattern of sedimentary facies represents the same three fan types sequentially. The spatial distribution of these fans was controlled by the Paleogene,Neogene Basin transformation, and evolution with different types of fans developed in the Kuqa Depression in response. In the Paleogene, the Kuqa Depression was a rift basin where an alluvial fan was deposited in the foreland setting, which, by early Neogene, became a foreland basin when the lake level changed. With any rise in lake level, fan-deltas migrated from lacustrine to foreland settings, whereas when the lake level fell, fan migration was reversed. In the early Neogene, with increasing slope and rising lake level, fans progressed and covered the previous fan-delta and lacustrine mudstone. Eventually, subaqueous fans developed, forming the present spatial configuration of these three fan types. [source]


    Large-scale Tazhong Ordovician Reef-flat Oil-Gas Field in the Tarim Basin of China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2009
    Xinyuan ZHOU
    Abstract: The Tazhong reef-flat oil-gas field is the first large-scale Ordovician organic reef type oil-gas field found in China. Its organic reefs were developed in the early Late Ordovician Lianglitag Formation, and are the first large reefs of the coral-stromatoporoid hermatypic community found in China. The organic reefs and platform-margin grain banks constitute a reef-flat complex, mainly consisting of biolithites and grainstones. The biolithites can be classified into the framestone, bafflestone, bindstone etc. The main body of the complex lies around the wells from Tazhong-24 to Tazhong-82, trending northwest, with the thickness from 100 to 300 m, length about 220 km and width 5,10 km. It is a reef-flat lithologic hydrocarbon reservoir, with a very complex hydrocarbon distribution: being a gas condensate reservoir as a whole with local oil reservoirs. The hydrocarbon distribution is controlled by the reef complex, generally located in the upper 100,200 m part of the complex, and largely in a banded shape along the complex. On the profile, the reservoir shows a stratified feature, with an altitude difference of almost 2200 m from southeast to northwest. The petroleum accumulation is controlled by karst reservoir beds and the northeast strike-slip fault belt. The total geologic reserves had reached 297.667 Mt by 2007. [source]


    North-south Differentiation of the Hydrocarbon Accumulation Pattern of Carbonate Reservoirs in the Yingmaili Low Uplift, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2008
    L Xiuxiang
    Abstract: By analyzing the characteristics of development, structural evolution and reservoir beds of the residual carbonate strata, this study shows that the residual carbonate strata in the Yingmaili low uplift are favorable oil and gas accumulation series in the Tabei (northern Tarim uplift) uplift. There are different patterns of hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern and southern slopes of the Yingmaili low uplift. The north-south differentiation of oil reservoirs were caused by different lithologies of the residual carbonate strata and the key constraints on the development of the reservoir beds. The Mesozoic terrestrial organic matter in the Kuqa depression and the Palaeozoic marine organic matter in the Manjiaer sag of the Northern depression are the major hydrocarbon source rocks for the northern slope and southern slope respectively. The hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern and southern slopes is controlled by differences in maturity and thermal evolution history of these two kinds of organic matter. On the southern slope, the oil accumulation formed in the early stage was destroyed completely, and the period from the late Hercynian to the Himalayian is the most important time for hydrocarbon accumulation. However, the time of hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern slope began 5 Ma B.P. Carbonate inner buried anticlines reservoirs are present on the southern slope, while weathered crust and paleo-buried hill karst carbonate reservoirs are present on the northern slope. The northern and southern slopes had different controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation respectively. Fracture growth in the reservoir beds is the most important controlling factor on the southern slope; while hydrocarbon accumulation on the northern slope is controlled by weathered crust and cap rock. [source]


    REE Compositions of Lower Ordovician Dolomites in Central and North Tarim Basin, NW China: A Potential REE Proxy for Ancient Seawater

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2008
    ZHANG Xuefeng
    Abstract: Rare earth element compositions of Lower Ordovician dolomites in the Central and Northern Tarim Basin are studied. Most dolomite samples are more or less contaminated by clay minerals. Their rare earth element compositions have been consequently changed, showing both seawater-like and non-seawater-like features. The clay contamination should be disposed before the REE data are used. Through ICP-MS and ICP-AES analyses, the REE features are well documented. The clay contamination is quantitatively determined by microscopic investigation, trace elements and REE contents. The dolomites, at least in the Tarim Basin, are thought to be pure when their total LREE contents are less than 3times10,6. Through comparison, the pure dolomites show similarities in REE patterns but differences in REE contents with co-existing pure limestone, which indicates that dolomitization may slightly change the REE compositions. Nevertheless, whatever the change is, the pure dolomites may act as a potential REE proxy for Ordovician seawater, which would be significant for ancient massive dolomite strata that lack limestone. [source]


    Ore-forming Conditions and Prospecting in the West Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2004
    DONG Yongguan
    Abstract, The West Kunlun ore-forming belt is located between the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwestern Tarim Basin. It situated between the Paleo-Asian Tectonic Domain and Tethyan Tectonic Domain. It is an important component of the giant tectonic belt in central China (the Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling Tectonic Belt or the Central Orogenic Belt). Many known ore-forming belts such as the Kunlun-Qilian Qinling ore-forming zone, Sanjiang (or Three-river) ore-forming zone, Central Asian ore-forming zone, etc. pass through the West Kunlun area. Three ore-forming zones and seven ore-forming subzones were classified, and eighteen mineralization areas were marked. It is indicated that the West Kunlun area is one of the most favorable region for finding out large and superlarge ore deposits. [source]


    Study of Pyrolysis Kinetics of Asphaltenes in Silurian Oilsands in the Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2000
    LIAO Zewen
    Abstract, It is a special petroleum geological phenomenon that Silurian oilsands are extensively distributed in the central and northeast Tarim basin. Some geochemical studies of the oilsands have been carried out, but there is still great controversy over the hydrocarbon-regenerating potential of oilsands and the possibility of Silurian oilsands as hydrocarbon source rocks. In this study, the kinetics of asphaltenes pyrolysis was directly used to simulate the potential of Silurian oilsands for regenerating hydrocarbons. According to the experimental results, combined with other related organic geochemical analysis, it is considered that Silurian oilsands in the Tarim basin have a high hydrocarbon-regenerating potential and are latent hydrocarbon source rocks. [source]


    Comparison of the Surface and Underground Natural Gas Occurrences in the Tazhong Uplift of the Tarim Basin

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    TIAN Jun
    Abstract: The oil, gas and water volumes revealed by the productivity of exploratory wells do not reflect the actual underground situations. Under the geologic conditions, a certain amount of dissolved natural gas is stored in oil or water. Based on the production test data of exploratory wells in the Tazhong uplift of the Tarim basin, this paper discusses in detail the differences in occurrence and distribution featrues between the surface and underground natural gases; presents a restoration of the surface gas occurrence to actual underground geologic conditions according to the dissolubility of natural gas under different temperature, pressure and medium conditions; and classifies the natural gas into three states, i.e. the oversaturated, saturated and undersaturated, according to its relative content underground. Through a comparative analysis of the differences in surface and underground occurrences of natural gas, it discusses the hydrocarbon reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules, thereby providing guidances as new methods and technologies for the prediction of potential natural gas reservoir distribution in the study area. [source]