Tandem Repeat Analysis (tandem + repeat_analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Identification of the core element responsive to runt-related transcription factor 2 in the promoter of human type x collagen gene

Akiro Higashikawa
Objective Type X collagen and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2) are known to be important for chondrocyte hypertrophy during skeletal growth and repair and development of osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. Aiming at clinical application, this study was undertaken to investigate transcriptional regulation of human type X collagen by RUNX-2 in human cells. Methods Localization of type X collagen and RUNX-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, and their functional interaction was examined in cultured mouse chondrogenic ATDC-5 cells. Promoter activity of the human type X collagen gene (COL10A1) was examined in human HeLa, HuH7, and OUMS27 cells transfected with a luciferase gene containing a 4.5-kb promoter and fragments. Binding to RUNX-2 was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results RUNX-2 and type X collagen were co-localized in mouse limb cartilage and bone fracture callus. Gain and loss of function of RUNX-2 revealed that RUNX-2 is essential for type X collagen expression and terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. Human COL10A1 promoter activity was enhanced by RUNX-2 alone and more potently by RUNX-2 in combination with the coactivator core-binding factor , in all 3 human cell lines examined. Deletion, mutagenesis, and tandem repeat analyses identified the core responsive element as the region between ,89 and ,60 bp (termed the hypertrophy box [HY box]), which showed specific binding to RUNX-2. Other putative RUNX-2 binding motifs in the human COL10A1 promoter did not respond to RUNX-2 in human cells. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the HY box is the core element responsive to RUNX-2 in human COL10A1 promoter. Studies on molecular networks related to RUNX-2 and the HY box will lead to treatments of skeletal growth retardation, bone fracture, and OA. [source]

Frequent occurrence of multidrug-resistant CC17 Enterococcus faecium among clinical isolates in Sweden

H. Billström
Abstract Aims:, To screen for the globally spread cluster of Enterococcus faecium, clonal complex 17 (CC17) and characterize the genetic profile of Swedish clinical Ent. faecium isolates. Methods:, A total of 203 consecutive isolates collected from 2004 to 2007 from patients with bacteraemia in Sweden. All isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and 20 isolates representing different MLVA types (MT) were chosen for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Minimal inhibitory concentrations against clinically relevant antibiotics were determined with agar dilution. Presence of the virulence genes esp and hyl was investigated using PCR. Results:, A total of 65% (n = 109) of all isolates belonged to MT-1, and the second most common MLVA type was MT-159 (13%, n = 21). MLST analysis confirmed the presence of CC17 during the entire study period. The number of isolates resistant to gentamicin and vancomycin, as well as the presence of hyl, increased significantly during the investigation period. Conclusions:, The present study demonstrates that nosocomial infections caused by Ent. faecium CC17 are commonly occurring in Sweden. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first report of CC17 Ent. faecium in Sweden. The increase of antibiotic resistance and virulence indicates that these strains are further adapting to the hospital environment. [source]

A Forensic Laboratory Tests the Berkeley Microfabricated Capillary Array Electrophoresis Device,

Susan A. Greenspoon Ph.D.
Abstract:, Miniaturization of capillary electrophoresis onto a microchip for forensic short tandem repeat analysis is the initial step in the process of producing a fully integrated and automated analysis system. A prototype of the Berkeley microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device was installed at the Virginia Department of Forensic Science for testing. Instrument performance was verified by PowerPlex® 16 System profiling of single source, sensitivity series, mixture, and casework samples. Mock sexual assault samples were successfully analyzed using the PowerPlex® Y System. Resolution was assessed using the TH01, CSF1PO, TPOX, and Amelogenin loci and demonstrated to be comparable with commercial systems along with the instrument precision. Successful replacement of the Hjerten capillary coating method with a dynamic coating polymer was performed. The accurate and rapid typing of forensic samples demonstrates the successful technology transfer of this device into a practitioner laboratory and its potential for advancing high-throughput forensic typing. [source]

Molecular epidemiology of the nasal colonization by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss children

C. Mégevand
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1414,1420 Abstract Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus contributes to an increased risk of developing an infection with the same bacterial strain. Genetic regulatory elements and toxin-expressing genes are virulence factors associated with the pathogenic potential of S. aureus. We undertook an extensive molecular characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) carried by children. MSSA were recovered from the nostrils of children. The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), exfoliatins A and B (exfoA and exfoB), and the toxic-shock staphylococcal toxin (TSST-1) and agr group typing were determined by quantitative PCR. A multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay was also performed for genotyping. Five hundred and seventy-two strains of MSSA were analysed. Overall, 30% were positive for toxin-expressing genes: 29% contained one toxin and 1.6% two toxins. The most commonly detected toxin gene was tst, which was present in 145 (25%) strains. The TSST-1 gene was significantly associated with the agr group 3 (OR 56.8, 95% CI 32.0,100.8). MLVA analysis revealed a large diversity of genetic content and no clonal relationship was demonstrated among the analysed MSSA strains. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed this observation of diversity and identified ST45 as a frequent colonizer. This broad diversity in MSSA carriage strains suggests a limited selection pressure in our geographical area. [source]