Tandem Mutations (tandem + mutation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


1H-NMR Studies of Duplex DNA Decamer Containing a Uracil Cyclobutane Dimer: Implications Regarding the High UV Mutagenecity of CC Photolesions,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Hyun Mee Lee
ABSTRACT To determine the origin of the UV-specific CC to TT tandem mutation at the CC site, we made a duplex DNA decamer containing a uracil cis,syn cyclobutane dimer (CBD) as the deaminated model of a cytosine dimer. Two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy studies were performed on this sequence where two adenines (Ade) were opposite to the uracil dimer. Two imino protons of the uracil dimer were found to retain Watson,Crick hydrogen bonding with the opposite Ade, although the 5,-U(NH) of the dimer site showed unusual upfield shift like that of the 5,-T(NH) of the TT dimer, which seemed to be associated with deshielding by the flanking base rather than with reduced hydrogen bonding. (McAteer et al. 1998, J. Mol. Biol. 282:1013,1032). Hydrogen bondings at the dimer site were also supported by detecting typical strong nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) between two imino protons and the opposite Ade H2 or NH2. But sequential NOE interactions of base protons with sugar protons were absent at the two flanking nucleotides of the 5, side of the uracil dimer and at the intradimer site, contrasting with its thymine analog where sequential NOE was absent only at the A4,T5 step. In addition, NOE cross peak for U5(NH) , A4(H2) was detected, although the NOE interactions of U6(NH) with A7(H2) and A17(H2) were not observed in contrast to the thymine dimer duplex. This different local structural alteration may be affected by the induced right-hand twisted puckering mode of cis,syn cyclobutane ring of the uracil dimer in the B-DNA duplex, even though the isolated uracil dimer had left-hand twisted puckering rigidly. In parallel, these observations may be correlated with observed differences in mutagenic properties between cis,syn UU dimer and cis,syn TT dimer. [source]


Mutation spectrum in UVB-exposed skin epidermis of Xpa -knockout mice: Frequent recovery of triplet mutations

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 1 2007
Hironobu Ikehata
Abstract Knockout mutations in both alleles of the Xpa gene give rise to a complete deficiency in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. We used transgenic mice harboring the ,-phage-based lacZ mutational reporter gene to study the effect of Xpa null mutation (Xpa,/,) on damage induction, repair, and mutagenesis in mouse skin epidermis after UVB irradiation. UVB induced equal amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (64PPs) in mouse skin epidermis of Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. Neither photolesion was removed in the Xpa,/, epidermis by 12 hr after irradiation whereas removal of 64PPs was observed in the epidermis of wild-type mice. Irradiation with 200 and 300 J/m2 UVB increased the lacZ mutant frequency in the epidermis of Xpa,/, mice, but the induced mutant frequencies were not significantly different from those previously determined for wild-type mice. One-hundred lacZ mutants isolated from the UVB-exposed epidermis of Xpa,/, mice were analyzed and compared with mutant sequences previously determined for irradiated wild-type mice. The distribution of the mutations along the lacZ transgene and the preferred dipyrimidine context of the UV-specific mutations were similar in mutants from the Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. The spectra of the mutations in the two genotypes were both highly UV-specific and similar in a dominance of C , T transitions at dipyrimidine sites; however, Xpa,/, mice had a higher frequency than wild-type mice of two-base tandem substitutions, including CC , TT mutations, three-base tandem mutations and double base substitutions that were separated by one unchanged base in a three-base sequence (alternating mutations). These tandem/alternating mutations included a remarkably large number of triplet mutations, a recently reported, novel type of UV-specific mutation, characterized by multiple base substitutions or frameshifts within a three-nucleotide sequence containing a dipyrimidine. We conclude that the triplet mutation is a UV-specific mutation that preferably occurs in NER-deficient genetic backgrounds. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


A model for targeted substitution mutagenesis during SOS replication of double-stranded DNA containing cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 9 2006
Helen A. Grebneva
Abstract A model for ultraviolet mutagenesis is described that is based on the formation of rare tautomeric bases in pyrimidine dimers. It is shown that during SOS synthesis the modified DNA-polymerase inserts canonical bases opposite the dimers; the inserted bases are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with bases in the template DNA. SOS-replication of double-stranded DNA having thymine dimers, with one or both bases in a rare tautomeric conformation, results in targeted transitions, transversions, or one-nucleotide gaps. Structural analysis indicates that one type of dimer containing a single tautomeric base (TT1*, with the "*" indicating a rare tautomeric base and the subscript referring to the particular conformation) can cause A:T , G:C transition or homologous A:T , T:A transversion, while another dimer (TT2*) can cause a one-nucleotide gap. The dimers containing T4* result in A:T , C:G transversion, while TT5* dimers can cause A:T , C:G transversion or homologous A:T , T:A transversion. If both bases in the dimer are in a rare tautomeric form, then tandem mutations or double-nucleotide gaps can be formed. The dimers containing the rare tautomeric forms T1 *,, T2*,, T3*,, T4*,, and T5*, may not result in mutations. The question of whether dimers containing T4*, and T5*, result in mutations requires further investigation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Mutation spectrum in UVB-exposed skin epidermis of Xpa -knockout mice: Frequent recovery of triplet mutations

ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS, Issue 1 2007
Hironobu Ikehata
Abstract Knockout mutations in both alleles of the Xpa gene give rise to a complete deficiency in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. We used transgenic mice harboring the ,-phage-based lacZ mutational reporter gene to study the effect of Xpa null mutation (Xpa,/,) on damage induction, repair, and mutagenesis in mouse skin epidermis after UVB irradiation. UVB induced equal amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (64PPs) in mouse skin epidermis of Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. Neither photolesion was removed in the Xpa,/, epidermis by 12 hr after irradiation whereas removal of 64PPs was observed in the epidermis of wild-type mice. Irradiation with 200 and 300 J/m2 UVB increased the lacZ mutant frequency in the epidermis of Xpa,/, mice, but the induced mutant frequencies were not significantly different from those previously determined for wild-type mice. One-hundred lacZ mutants isolated from the UVB-exposed epidermis of Xpa,/, mice were analyzed and compared with mutant sequences previously determined for irradiated wild-type mice. The distribution of the mutations along the lacZ transgene and the preferred dipyrimidine context of the UV-specific mutations were similar in mutants from the Xpa,/, and wild-type mice. The spectra of the mutations in the two genotypes were both highly UV-specific and similar in a dominance of C , T transitions at dipyrimidine sites; however, Xpa,/, mice had a higher frequency than wild-type mice of two-base tandem substitutions, including CC , TT mutations, three-base tandem mutations and double base substitutions that were separated by one unchanged base in a three-base sequence (alternating mutations). These tandem/alternating mutations included a remarkably large number of triplet mutations, a recently reported, novel type of UV-specific mutation, characterized by multiple base substitutions or frameshifts within a three-nucleotide sequence containing a dipyrimidine. We conclude that the triplet mutation is a UV-specific mutation that preferably occurs in NER-deficient genetic backgrounds. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]