# Tan

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Tan

 lower tan

## Selected Abstracts

### DETERMINATION OF FAULT SLIP COMPONENTS USING SUBSURFACE STRUCTURAL CONTOURS: METHODS AND EXAMPLES

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
S-S. Xu
Problems with measuring fault slip in the subsurface can sometimes be overcome by using subsurface structural contour maps constructed from well logs and seismic information. These maps are useful for estimating fault slip since fault motion commonly causes the dislocation of structural contours. The dislocation of a contour is defined here as the distance in the direction of fault strike between two contours which have the same value on both sides of a fault. This dislocation can be estimated for tilted beds and folded beds as follows: (i),If a dip-slip fault offsets a tilted bed, the dislocation (Sc) of contours can be estimated from the vertical component (Sv) of the fault slip and the dip (,) of the bedding according to the following relationship: Sc= Sv/tan ,. Since Sc and , can be measured from a contour map, the vertical component of fault slip can be obtained from this equation. If a strike-slip fault offsets a tilted bed, the dislocation (Scs) of contours is equal to the strike-slip of the fault (Sc), that is, Scs= Ss. (ii),If a fault offsets a symmetric fold, the strike component (Scs) of fault slip and the dislocation of the contours (Sc) can be calculated, respectively, from the equations Scs= (Smax+ Smin) / 2 and Sc= (Smax - Smin) / 2. Smax is the greater total dislocation (Sc+ Scs) of a contour line between the two limbs of the fold and Smin is the smaller total dislocation (Sc - Scs) for the same contour line. In this case, Sv can be also calculated using the obtained value of Sc and the equation Sv= Sc tan ,. Similarly, for an asymmetric fold, the dislocation of contours due to the vertical slip component is Scb= (Smax - Smin)/(n + 1), and the strike-slip component is Ss= Scs= (nSmin+ Smax/(n + 1), where n is the ratio between the values of interlines of the two limbs, and Scb is the dislocation of contours due to the vertical slip component for either of the two limbs (here it is for limb b). In all cases, three conditions are required for the calculation of contour dislocation: (i),the contour lines must be approximately perpendicular to the fault strike; the intersection angle between the fault strike and the strike of bedding should be greater than 65°; (ii),the bed must not be dip more than 35°; and (iii),folding or flexure of the stratigraphic horizons must have occurred before faulting. These methods for determining fault slip from the dislocation of structural contours are discussed using case studies from the Cantarell oilfield complex, Campeche Sound (southern Gulf of Mexico), the Jordan-Penwell Ellenburger oilfield in Texas, and the Wilmington oilfield in California. [source]

### Optimization of the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic matter from fishery wastewaters

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 3 2005
Estrella Aspé
Abstract Anaerobic treatment of saline and protein-rich effluents reduces the organic concentration but forms ammonium that hinders nitrogen removal in a later aerobic treatment. The goal of this work was to optimize the design of a denitrifying,nitrifying system for the simultaneous removal of organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from fishery effluents to meet the Chilean legal standards and to compare pre- and postdenitrification processes in the biological treatment of high-strength effluents to minimize the total volume of biological reactors required. A predenitrifying system, that included three reactors,acidifying anaerobic filter, denitrifying (anoxic) filter, and aerobic-active sludge (nitrifying reactor) with recycle to the denitrifying reactor,reduced nitrogen to 0.33 g of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) L,1, well above the allowed 0.05 g total nitrogen L,1. The predenitrifying system with a second denitrifying reactor, to which organic matter was added, met the legal organic matter and nitrogen emission concentrations (0.042 g TAN L,1). Conversions were 99.0, 92.5, 90.9, and 99.0% for the anaerobic digestion, first denitrification, nitrification, and second denitrification, respectively. © 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2005 [source]

### Effects of additives on oxidation characteristics of palm oil-based trimethylolpropane ester in hydraulics applications

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Nor Halaliza Alias
Abstract Hydraulic fluids represent one of the most important groups of industrial lubricants. Increasing attention to environmental issues drives the lubricant industry to choose vegetable-based hydraulic fluids which are biodegradable as compared to mineral-based fluids. However, the lubricating properties of vegetable oil, such as poor oxidative stability and high pour point, have hindered their use. In this study, trimethylolpropane ester, which was derived from palm-based methyl ester, was used as the base hydraulic fluid. The purpose of the study was to determine the optimum formulation for palm oil-based synthetic lubricants by using suitable additives that can improve the oxidative stability and viscosity in accordance with the standard regulations for hydraulic fluid applications. The oxidative stability of the oil was evaluated by total acid number (TAN) and viscosity tests. In general, base oil without additive began to degrade after 200,h. The formulated oil, on the other hand, was quite stable even after 800,h of operation. The best formulation was obtained using 1.0% of either additive,A or additive,B. Both TAN and viscosity values were found to increase with increasing heating temperature. Meanwhile, the results have also shown that additive,A performs better than additive,B. After 800,h of exposure, the final TAN value for the formulated oil was only at 0.32 as compared to 4.88,mg KOH/g for the oil without additive. However, the kinematic viscosity of the oil at 40 and 100,°C was almost unchanged as compared to the oil without additive. [source]

### RESPONSE LETTER TO TAN AND LIM

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
Gaëtan Gavazzi MD

### Singlet Oxygen Detection in Skim Milk by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
ABSTRACT: 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD) can react with singlet oxygen to produce the corresponding nitroxide, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (TAN), which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. ESR detected the formation of TAN in 5 ,M riboflavin phosphate buffer, or skim milk containing 20 mM TMPD during illumination. The effects of illumination, riboflavin, and oxygen on the formation of TAN indicated that the presence of each was required for singlet oxygen formation. The photo reduced riboflavin might reduce TAN to the hydroxylamine of TAN, thus decreasing the paramagnetic TAN signal. Maximum concentration of TAN was obtained at an added 10 mM riboflavin in buffer solution or in skim milk after 15 min of illumination in the presence of oxygen. [source]

### Microtopography of metal surfaces influence fibroblast growth by modifying cell shape, cytoskeleton, and adhesion

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 11 2007
David O. Meredith

### Ontogenetic Variation in Ammonia Excretion during the Early Life Stages of the Amazon River Prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2010
Liliam De Arruda Hayd
Dry mass (DM) and total ammonia-N (TAN) excretion were determined in embryos, larvae (ZI,ZIX, Z = zoea ), and postlarvae (PL) at 1, 7, and 14 d after metamorphosis (PL1, PL7, and PL14) of Macrobrachium amazonicum. Animals in postmolt,intermolt (A,C) stages were sorted according to their developmental stages, and placed into incubation chambers (, 30 mL) for 2 h to quantify TAN excretion. After this period, analyses were carried out using Koroleff's method for TAN determination. Individual TAN excretion generally increased throughout ontogenetic development and varied from 0.0090 ± 0.0039 µg TAN/individual/h in embryo to 1.041 ± 0.249 µg TAN/individual/h in PL14. There was no significant difference between embryo,ZIV and ZV,ZIX (P > 0.05), whereas PL1, PL7, and PL14 differed (P < 0.05) from each other. Higher increments in individual ammonia-N excretion were observed between ZIV,ZV, PL1,PL7, and PL7,PL14. Mass-specific excretion rates presented two groups, embryo,ZII (P > 0.05) and ZIII,PL14 (P > 0.05). The lowest value was found in embryo (0.17 ± 0.07 µg TAN/mg DM/h) and the maximum values in ZV and PL1 (0.65 ± 0.25 and 0.64 ± 0.27 µg TAN/mg DM/h, respectively). Results indicate that metabolic rate is proportional to the body mass in M. amazonicum, during early life stages. Variations in ammonia excretion during this phase may be associated mainly with body size. Data obtained in the present study may be useful in developing and optimizing rearing techniques of M. amazonicum, such as the proportions between biofilter and rearing tank size, and stocking density in culture tanks or in transport bags. [source]

### Accumulation of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids in Asparagopsis armata Grown in Tanks with Fishpond Effluents of Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
Félix L. Figueroa
Both the effects of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) fluxes and the algal densities on MAA accumulation were investigated. MAAs increased with the TAN flux, but only until values lower than 100 ,M/h. Above this flux, the MAA content decreased, whereas algal yield increased. The content of individual MAAs was related to nitrogen (N) status, that is, shinorine percentage slightly decreased and palythine increased with increasing N fluxes. The decrease of MAAs at high flux of N (up to 100 ,M/h) is related to the decrease of water residence time and the decrease of the biofiltration efficiency. Under different TAN fluxes and algal densities, MAA content was negatively related to algal yield indicating that MAAs were accumulated only under a high ammonium-N availability. Thus, an energy allocation between growth (primary metabolism) and MAA accumulation (secondary metabolism) is regulated by the absorption capacity of inorganic N. In conclusion, A. armata, in addition to its high biofiltration capacity of nutrients, is a good source of MAAs as potential UV screen photoprotectors. [source]

### Production Characteristics, Water Quality, and Costs of Producing Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus at Different Stocking Densities in Single-batch Production

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2006
Brent E. Southworth
Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus farming is the largest component of aquaculture in the USA. Culture technologies have evolved over time, and little recent work has been conducted on the effects of stocking density on production characteristics and water quality. Twelve 0.1-ha ponds were stocked with 13- to 15-cm fingerlings (16 g) at either 8600, 17,300, 26,000, or 34,600 fish/ha in single-batch culture with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed daily to apparent satiation with a 32% floating commercial catfish feed. Nitrite-N, nitrate-N, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Secchi disk visibility, chlorophyll a, chloride, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored. Ponds were harvested after a 201-d culture period (March 26, 2003 to October 13, 2003). Net yield increased significantly (P < 0.05) as stocking density increased, reaching an average of 9026 kg/ha at the highest density. Growth and marketable yield (>0.57 kg) decreased with increasing stocking density. Survival was not significantly different among densities. Mean and maximum daily feeding rates increased with density, but feed conversion ratios did not differ significantly among treatments (overall average of 1.42), despite the fact that at the higher stocking densities, the feeding rates sometimes exceeded 112 kg/ha per d (100 lb/ac per d). Morning DO concentrations fell below 3 mg/L only once in a 34,600 fish/ha pond. Concentrations of chlorophyll a, COD, nitrite-N, and TAN increased nominally with increasing feed quantities but did not reach levels considered problematic even at the highest stocking densities. Breakeven prices were lowest for the highest stocking density even after accounting for the additional time and growth required for submarketable fish to reach market size. While total costs were higher for the higher density treatments, the relatively higher yields more than compensated for higher costs. [source]

### Effect of Dietary Protein Concentration and Stocking Density on Production Characteristics of Pond-Raised Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2003
Menghe H. Li
Diets containing 28% and 32% crude protein were compared for pond-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus stocked at densities of 14,820, 29,640, or 44,460 fish/ha. Fingerling channel catfish with average initial weight of 48.5 g/fish were stocked into 30 0.04-ha ponds. Five ponds were randomly allotted for each dietary protein ± stocking density combination. Fish were fed once daily to satiation for two growing seasons. There were no interactions between dietary protein concentration and stocking density for any variables. Dietary protein concentrations (28% or 32%) did not affect net production, feed consumption and weight gain per fish, feed conversion ratio, survival, processing yields, fillet moisture, protein and ash concentrations, or pond water ammonia and nitrite concentrations. Fish fed the 32% protein diet had slightly but significantly lower levels of visceral and fillet fat than fish fed the 28% protein diet. As stocking density increased, net production increased, while weight gain of individual fish, feed efficiency, and survival decreased. Stocking densities did not affect processing yield and fillet composition of the fish. Although highly variable among different ponds and weekly measurements, ponds stocked at the highest density exhibited higher average levels of total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 -N) than ponds stocked at lower densities. However, stocking density had no significant effect on un-ionized ammonia-nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentrations, calculated based on water temperature, pH, and TAN. By comparing to the reported critical concentration, a threshold below which is considered not harmful to the fish, these potentially toxic nitrogenous compounds in the pond water were generally in the range acceptable for channel catfish. It appears that a 28% protein diet can provide equivalent net production, feed efficiency, and processing yields as a 32% protein diet for channel catfish raised in ponds from advanced fingerlings to marketable size at densities varying from 14,820 to 44,460 fish/ha under single-batch cropping systems. Optimum dietary protein concentration for pond-raised channel catfish does not appear to be affected by stocking density. [source]

### The impact of detergent chemistry on TBN retention

LUBRICATION SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
W. van Dam
Abstract Historically, the characterisation of fresh and used diesel engine lubricants has been based on a limited number of analytical techniques. One of the most important methods of analysis has been total base number (TBN) measurement. Although TBN measurements are informative, easy, and quick, it can be misleading to base the judgement of an oil's performance solely on one criterion. This paper offers some observations from a field test, showing that some detergent types gave unacceptable performance even though the TBNs were at an acceptable level. It is hypothesised that some detergents do not effectively neutralise all acidic species present in the lubricant, thereby reserving their own base, while in fact the oil may no longer provide sufficient protection against bearing corrosion. This hypothesis is supported by bench and engine test data. It is recommended that, at a minimum, total acid number (TAN) measurements be included in any analysis, and where time and cost permit, wear metals content, oxidation, soot content, and viscosity should also be evaluated. [source]

### Erosion-corrosion of Q235 and 5Cr1/2Mo steels in oil with naphthenic acid and/or sulfur compound at high temperature

MATERIALS AND CORROSION/WERKSTOFFE UND KORROSION, Issue 8 2005
D. R. Qu
Abstract The erosion-corrosion behaviors of Q235 steel and 5Cr1/2Mo steel in oil with naphthenic acid and/or sulfur compound at high temperature were studied in a hot oil loop simulating oil refining environments. The effects of impinging flow rate, incidence angle, and total acid number (TAN), and sulfur content on erosion-corrosion behavior were assessed. The eroded surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS. The results showed that both corrosion resistance and hardness of steels play an important role in combating erosion-corrosion. Sulfide films formed on the surface were significant in understanding the erosion-corrosion behavior when both naphthenic acid and sulfur compound were present. Erosion-corrosion regimes were determined on the basis of mechanism analysis of the damage process. [source]

### The flavonoid tangeretin activates the unfolded protein response and synergizes with imatinib in the erythroleukemia cell line K562

MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 6 2010
Sofie Lust
Abstract We explored the mechanism of cell death of the polymethoxyflavone tangeretin (TAN) in K562 breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukemia (Bcr-Abl+) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that TAN arrested the cells in the G2/M phase and stimulated an accumulation of the cells in the sub-G0 phase. TAN-induced cell death was evidenced by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase cleavage, DNA laddering fragmentation, activation of the caspase cascade and downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Pretreatment with the pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK_blocked caspase activation and cell cycle arrest but did not inhibit apoptosis which suggest that other cell killing mechanisms like endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated cell death pathways could be involved. We demonstrated that TAN-induced apoptosis was preceded by a rapid activation of the proapoptotic arm of the unfolded protein response, namely PKR-like ER kinase. This was accompanied by enhanced levels of glucose-regulated protein of 78,kDa and of spliced X-box binding protein 1. Furthermore, TAN sensitized K562 cells to the cell killing effects of imatinib via an apoptotic mechanism. In conclusion, our results suggest that TAN is able to induce apoptosis in Bcr-Abl+ cells via cell cycle arrest and the induction of the unfolded protein response, and has synergistic cytotoxicity with imatinib. [source]

### Ammonia reduction in seawater by Yucca schidigera extract: efficacy analysis and empirical modelling

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 8 2010
Roberto A Santacruz-Reyes
Abstract Yucca schidigera is a plant native to southwestern USA and Mexico. Its extract has been used in the livestock industry to control ammonia accumulation in animal holding facilities, and to reduce ammonia concentration in animal excreta. This study investigated the potential and effectiveness of Y. schidigera extract (YUPE) for ammonia reduction in seawater. A dose,response experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of YUPE at 0, 18, 36, 72 and 108 mg L,1 on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) at 1, 3 and 9 mg L,1. At a higher YUPE dosage rate, higher TAN reduction was observed, and TAN reduction was highest during the first 12 h, and decreased thereafter. A stepwise multiple linear regression that included the initial TAN, YUPE concentration and time was developed, which accurately predicted empirical TAN concentrations. Applications of this model for ammonia management strategies were formulated for hypothetical tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) rearing conditions. YUPE's efficacy for ammonia reduction, natural origin and safety make YUPE a potentially suitable compound for water quality management in mariculture. [source]

### Size-related oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) reared in a recirculating system

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
Vlastimil Stejskal
Abstract Oxygen consumption (OC) and ammonia excretion rates (AE) of perch were measured under commercial-like conditions (temperature 23.3 °C) in both fed (F) and feed-deprived groups (D). Measurements were taken in triplicate in six sized batches of perch ranging from 44.8 to 336.2 g. The mean daily OC was 288.3,180.6 mg O2 kg,1 h,1 for group F fish ranging in size from 44.8 to 279.4 g body weight. The mean daily AE expressed as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was 13.8,5.2 mg TAN kg,1 h,1 in the same groups. Daily peaks of OC in group F perch were observed 6 h after the onset of feeding for each size group with relatively stable values up to the end of feeding. Peaks of daily AE in group F perch were observed 10 h after the onset of feeding in each size group, with a rapid decrease up to 16 h after onset. In group D, OC was 181.1,110.5 mg O2 kg,1 h,1 in the weight range 57.9,336.2 g. The daily mean AE was 1.7,0.5 TAN kg,1 h,1 in this group. No dramatic peaks of OC and AE were observed in group D perch. [source]

### Settling velocity and total ammonia nitrogen leaching from commercial feed and faecal pellets of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758)

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 15 2009
María Asunción Piedecausa
Abstract The physico-chemical characteristics of particulate wastes of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated. Changes in the dimensions, settling velocity and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) leached from commercial feed pellets were investigated after soaking. Also, the settling velocity and TAN leached from faecal pellets of these fish were assessed at 15 and 25 °C. The settling velocity of feed pellets was influenced positively by pellet weight and negatively by immersion length as a result of changes in pellet dimensions after soaking. The settling velocity of faecal pellets was determined by pellet weight. The experimental design did not allow identification of any consistent effect of water temperature on settling velocity. Total ammonia nitrogen leaching over time from feed and faecal pellets was successfully explained by means of a first-order kinetic equation. For feed pellets, water temperature significantly affected the speed of the process and the time at which the maximum TAN leached was reached, but did not influence the maximum TAN leached. Leaching was related to feed pellet size, and so the smaller the pellet, the higher the leaching. Total ammonia nitrogen leaching from faecal pellets was greater per unit weight than in feed pellets. However, neither water temperature nor fish species influenced TAN leaching from faeces. [source]

### Effect of settled sludge on dissolved ammonia concentration in tanks used to grow abalone (Haliotis midae L.) fed a formulated diet

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
Rowan D Yearsley
Abstract The relative contribution that solid waste or ,sludge', which accumulates at the bottom of abalone (Haliotis midae L.) tanks, makes to dissolved ammonia has not been established. Sludge was allowed to accumulate in 10 fully stocked abalone tanks, fed a formulated feed (Abfeed®; Marifeed, South Africa), for 24 days. Sludge was subsequently siphoned from five of these tanks. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production and toxic, free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) were recorded in the tanks from which sludge was removed and compared with those from which sludge was not removed over the subsequent 50 h. Tanks with neither abalone nor sludge present were used as a control. The mean production of TAN (±standard deviation) was an average of 44% higher in tanks from which sludge was not removed compared with those from which it was, indicating that the sludge was a significant contributor to dissolved ammonia in the tanks. The toxic FAN concentrations were correspondingly higher in tanks with sludge present (2.3±0.3 ,L,1) compared with cleaned tanks (1.9±0.1 ,L,1). Our results indicate that regular removal of sludge from abalone tanks should significantly reduce the dissolved ammonia levels, thereby improving water quality in the culture environment. [source]

### Ontogenetic Variation in Ammonia Excretion during the Early Life Stages of the Amazon River Prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2010
Liliam De Arruda Hayd
Dry mass (DM) and total ammonia-N (TAN) excretion were determined in embryos, larvae (ZI,ZIX, Z = zoea ), and postlarvae (PL) at 1, 7, and 14 d after metamorphosis (PL1, PL7, and PL14) of Macrobrachium amazonicum. Animals in postmolt,intermolt (A,C) stages were sorted according to their developmental stages, and placed into incubation chambers (, 30 mL) for 2 h to quantify TAN excretion. After this period, analyses were carried out using Koroleff's method for TAN determination. Individual TAN excretion generally increased throughout ontogenetic development and varied from 0.0090 ± 0.0039 µg TAN/individual/h in embryo to 1.041 ± 0.249 µg TAN/individual/h in PL14. There was no significant difference between embryo,ZIV and ZV,ZIX (P > 0.05), whereas PL1, PL7, and PL14 differed (P < 0.05) from each other. Higher increments in individual ammonia-N excretion were observed between ZIV,ZV, PL1,PL7, and PL7,PL14. Mass-specific excretion rates presented two groups, embryo,ZII (P > 0.05) and ZIII,PL14 (P > 0.05). The lowest value was found in embryo (0.17 ± 0.07 µg TAN/mg DM/h) and the maximum values in ZV and PL1 (0.65 ± 0.25 and 0.64 ± 0.27 µg TAN/mg DM/h, respectively). Results indicate that metabolic rate is proportional to the body mass in M. amazonicum, during early life stages. Variations in ammonia excretion during this phase may be associated mainly with body size. Data obtained in the present study may be useful in developing and optimizing rearing techniques of M. amazonicum, such as the proportions between biofilter and rearing tank size, and stocking density in culture tanks or in transport bags. [source]

### Tonically active neurons in the striatum differentiate between delivery and omission of expected reward in a probabilistic task context

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
Paul Apicella
Abstract Tonically active neurons (TANs) in the primate striatum are responsive to rewarding stimuli and they are thought to be involved in the storage of stimulus,reward associations or habits. However, it is unclear whether these neurons may signal the difference between the prediction of reward and its actual outcome as a possible neuronal correlate of reward prediction errors at the striatal level. To address this question, we studied the activity of TANs from three monkeys trained in a classical conditioning task in which a liquid reward was preceded by a visual stimulus and reward probability was systematically varied between blocks of trials. The monkeys' ability to discriminate the conditions according to probability was assessed by monitoring their mouth movements during the stimulus,reward interval. We found that the typical TAN pause responses to the delivery of reward were markedly enhanced as the probability of reward decreased, whereas responses to the predictive stimulus were somewhat stronger for high reward probability. In addition, TAN responses to the omission of reward consisted of either decreases or increases in activity that became stronger with increasing reward probability. It therefore appears that one group of neurons differentially responded to reward delivery and reward omission with changes in activity into opposite directions, while another group responded in the same direction. These data indicate that only a subset of TANs could detect the extent to which reward occurs differently than predicted, thus contributing to the encoding of positive and negative reward prediction errors that is relevant to reinforcement learning. [source]

### Tonically active neurons in the primate striatum and their role in the processing of information about motivationally relevant events

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 11 2002
Paul ApicellaArticle first published online: 11 DEC 200
Abstract Analysis of recordings of single neuronal activity in the striatum of monkeys engaged in behavioural tasks has shown that tonically active neurons (TANs) can be distinguished by their distinct spontaneous firing and functional properties. As TANs are assumed to be cholinergic interneurons, the study of their physiological characteristics allows us to gain an insight into the role of a particular type of local-circuit neuron in the processing of information at the striatal level. In monkeys performing various behavioural tasks, the change in the activity of TANs, unlike the diversity of task-related activations exhibited by the phasically active population of striatal neurons, involves a transient depression of the tonic firing related to environmental events of motivational significance. Such events include primary rewards and stimuli that have acquired a reward value during associative learning. These neurons also respond to an aversive air puff, indicating that their responsiveness is not restricted to appetitive conditions. Another striking feature of the TANs is that their responses can be modulated by predictions about stimulus timing. Temporal variations in event occurrence have been found to favour the responses of TANs, whereas the responses are diminished or abolished in the presence of external cues that predict the time at which events will occur. These data suggest that the TANs respond as do detectors of motivationally relevant events, but they also demonstrate that these neurons are influenced by predictive information based on past experience with a given temporal context. TANs represent a unique subset of striatal neurons that might serve a modulatory function, monitoring for temporal relationships between environmental events. [source]

### Bottom-Up Engineering of Subnanometer Copper Diffusion Barriers Using NH2 -Derived Self-Assembled Monolayers

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 7 2010
Arantxa Maestre Caro
Abstract A 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-derived self-assembled monolayer (NH2SAM) is investigated as a barrier against copper diffusion for application in back-end-of-line (BEOL) technology. The essential characteristics studied include thermal stability to BEOL processing, inhibition of copper diffusion, and adhesion to both the underlying SiO2 dielectric substrate and the Cu over-layer. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveal that the copper over-layer closes at 1,2-nm thickness, comparable with the 1.3-nm closure of state-of-the-art Ta/TaN Cu diffusion barriers. That the NH2SAM remains intact upon Cu deposition and subsequent annealing is unambiguously revealed by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy supported by XPS. The SAM forms a well-defined carbon-rich interface with the Cu over-layer and electron energy loss spectroscopy shows no evidence of Cu penetration into the SAM. Interestingly, the adhesion of the Cu/NH2SAM/SiO2 system increases with annealing temperature up to 7.2,J m,2 at 400,°C, comparable to Ta/TaN (7.5,J m,2 at room temperature). The corresponding fracture analysis shows that when failure does occur it is located at the Cu/SAM interface. Overall, these results demonstrate that NH2SAM is a suitable candidate for subnanometer-scale diffusion barrier application in a selective coating for copper advanced interconnects. [source]

### Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of thin diffusion barriers of TaN and Ta for Cu interconnects in integrated circuits

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
S. Rudra
Abstract The objective of this work is to study the optical and electrical properties of tantalum nitride and tantalum barrier thin films used against copper diffusion in Si in integrated circuits using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the VUV and UV,visible range. Single layers of tantalum nitride and bilayer films of Ta/TaN were produced by reactive magnetron sputtering on Si(100) substrates covered with a native oxide layer. Ellipsometric measurements were performed in the energy range from 0.73,8.7 eV and the dielectric functions were simulated using Drude,Lorentz model and effective medium approximation (EMA) in order to obtain information regarding film thickness, film composition, free carrier plasma energy, mean relaxation time and electrical resistivity. The film thickness clearly affects the electrical resistivity and the electron mean free path. It was observed that for films of Ta on TaN even after maintaining the deposition condition suitable for the ,-phase of Ta, it turned out to be a mixture of ,- and ,-phases with higher contribution of the ,-phase. It is shown that even a very small intermixture of two different phases of Ta can be determined accurately using ellipsometry. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

### First-principles study of the structural stability and electronic structures of TaN

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 8 2008
C. L. Cao
Abstract Using the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation, we have studied the structural stability and electronic structures for several TaN phases. Our results show CoSn is the calculated ground-state structure of TaN among the five crystallographic structures that have been studied. The order of energetic stability of phase structures of TaN from low to high is: CsCl < ZnS-B3 < NaCl < WC < CoSn. The higher stability of TaN in the CoSn and WC structures is due to the formation of pseudogap around the Fermi level and the stronger hybridization between N-2p states and Ta-5d states. TaN in all structures studied has a metallic nature. The calculated bulk modulus indicates that TaN in the WC structure may be a less compressible material. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

### First-Principles Simulations of Conditions of Enhanced Adhesion Between Copper and TaN(111) Surfaces Using a Variety of Metallic Glue Materials,

ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 1 2010
Bo Han
Metall als Leim: Drei Voraussetzungen für stärkere Wechselwirkungen an Grenzflächen in Feststoffen helfen bei der Entwicklung stabiler Komposite mit starker Grenzflächenhaftung. Die Anlagerung von Kupfer an TaN(111)-Oberflächen wurde in Ab-initio-MD-Simulationen untersucht, wobei adhäsionsverstärkende Zwischenschichten aus einer Reihe von Metallen einbezogen wurden (siehe Bild). Die Ergebnisse stimmen gut mit experimentellen Beobachtungen überein. [source]

### Void formation in the Cu layer during thermal treatment of SiNx/Cu/Ta73Si27/SiO2/Si systems

CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1-2 2005
R. Hübner
Abstract The thermal stability of a SiNx passivation layer and its influence on the annealing behavior of an amorphous Ta73Si27 diffusion barrier deposited between copper and SiO2 were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. During heat treatment at a temperature Tan = 500 °C, diffusion of Cu atoms out of the Cu metallization into the SiNx passivation occurs. The Cu diffusion intensifies with increasing annealing temperature and annealing time and seems to be a necessary precondition for a defect formation process observed within the Cu metallization. Depending on the chemical composition of the SiNx/Cu interface, voids in the ,m-range can be formed within the Cu film. Compared to an unpassivated sample, heat treatment leads to a reduced diffusion of Ta atoms from the barrier through the copper into the SiNx/Cu interface. The barrier crystallization process into Ta5Si3 occurring during annealing at Tan = 600 °C is principally not affected by the presence of a SiNx passivation. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

### Introducing Asian American Theologies,by Jonathan Y. Tan

DIALOG, Issue 3 2009
Paul S. Chung

### MICROSTRUCTURAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW-FAT STIRRED YOGHURTS MADE WITH SKIM MILK AND MULTIPLE EMULSIONS

JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 6 2009
C. LOBATO-CALLEROS
ABSTRACT This article focuses on the study of the dynamic rheological and structural properties developed in low-fat stirred yoghurts made with skim milk and multiple emulsions stabilized with carboxymethylcellulose (SYCMC) or amidated low methoxy pectin (SYALMP), in comparison with a full milk-fat stirred yoghurt control (SYMF). The SYALMP yoghurt exhibited greatest Tan,after 14 days of storage than the SYMF and SYCMC yoghurts. The SYALMP yoghurt presented the highest lacunarity value and was characterized by a structure composed of highly clusterized casein aggregates. In contrast, the SYCMC and SYMF yoghurts displayed lower lacunarity values and structures characterized by smaller casein clusters. Lower Tan,values were associated with lower lacunarity values. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Limited work has been done on stirred and set-style yoghurts, cheeses and, in general, dairy products, where milk-fat globules are substituted by skim milk combined with multiple emulsions containing polyunsaturated vegetable oils. As a result of this, multicomponent gels formation occurs (made up by milk proteins, polyunsaturated vegetable oils, emulsifiers, hydrocolloids and many possible other ingredients), which give rise to completely different structural arrangements that may display comparable mechanical-sensory properties with those exhibited by their full milk-fat counterparts, paving the way for the development of new healthier foods sensory and texturally acceptable to consumers. [source]

### Discussion on the paper by Kong, McCullagh, Meng, Nicolae and Tan

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES B (STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY), Issue 3 2003
Article first published online: 8 JUL 200
First page of article [source]

### Traditional Chinese medicine on four patients with Huntington's disease,

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 3 2009
Takashi Satoh MD
Abstract Four Huntington's disease (HD) patients were treated with traditional Chinese medicines Yi-Gan San (YGS) and Chaihu-Jia-Longgu-Muli Tan (CLMT) in a cross-over manner. Two patients took YGS for 8 weeks first, and after 4 weeks of washing out, they took CLMT for 8 weeks. Two other patients took these medicines in reverse order. All patients showed a decrease in the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale,motor assessment (from 106.3 ± 4.7 to 89.6 ± 5.8 as mean ± SD, P = 0.0004) by YGS treatment with no extrapiramidal symptoms or changes of cognition or ADL. Our study suggests a possibility of a new treatment for involuntary movements. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

### Blends of bitumen with polymers having a styrene component

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 7 2001
A. H. Fawcett
The properties of a 100 penetration grade bitumen are modified considerably, and in a number of ways by the addition of 10 to 40 parts per hundred (pph) of a homopolystyrene and graft, block and random copolymers of styrene with butadiene and acrylonitrile. At low temperatures some blends have a similar stiffness to or even lower stiffness than the bitumen, but generally the blends are more than one order of magnitude stiffer, even when a rubber is added. The contrasting behavior is displayed by a polystyrene and a high impact polystyrene, ,3% to 4% of grafted rubber on the latter being sufficient to cause the enhancement, even at the 10 pph level, by two different random styrene-butadiene copolymers, and also by blends consisting of different amounts of SBS block copolymer. Some polymers apparently trigger a Hartley inversion of the micellar structure of the asphaltene micelles. High low temperature stiffness correlates roughly with a lower Tg' as measured by the peak maximum in the E, plots of the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and by the steps in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves at temperatures below O°C. Tan , maxima and DSC traces detected the glass transition in the continuous phase and in the dispersed phases, but none of these amorphous polymers formed a crystalline phase, though the DSC traces of the polystyrene and the SBS blends suggested that the polymer-rich phases underwent an aging/ordering process on cooling. Our SBS blends differ in phase inversion behavior and the pattern of loss processes from others that had a smaller asphaltene component. [source]